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  1. 1. Running Head COURSE PROJECT 1EDUC 8846 Course Project OutlineMichelle MartensDragalinStudent ID: A00113550Michelle.martens-dragalin@waldenu.eduThe Evolution of the Overhead Projector
  2. 2. Running Head COURSE PROJECT 2The Evolution of the Overhead ProjectorThis paper will explore the following technology from the supply cabinet, an overheadprojector. This particular form of technology is not obsolete, but document cameras and Epsomprojectors are replacing it. Throughout this paper, these statements will be explored, discussed,and visually represented in a PowerPoint presentation that isattached in the appendixes, as wellas, interviews and transcripts, which is a part of PowerPoint presentation. The answers arerepresented by visual material, the individuals did not want to film for the project.learnerdictionary.comToA Brief HistoryIn the last five years, the schools have been replacing their technology with the newesttype of technology that they can afford. Many schools have received technology grants in orderto purchase new computer, laptops, and overhead projectors. The devices are more efficient to
  3. 3. Running Head COURSE PROJECT 3use and take up less storage room. The overhead projector is a device that has been evolvingthroughout the years. The first document invention of the overhead projector technology was inthe 1420. Several people credited for developing this technology are:(Marples, 9/11/2008)As the business and corporate world grew during the Industrial Revolution, peopleneeded a way to promote their items and train their people in an efficient manner. The periodbetween World War 2 and the advent of personal computers in 1982 is regarded as theaudiovisual instruction period. Immediately after world war two, educational technology practicerevolved around the media formats that had widely become available to teachers by 1946; i.e. 16mm films, 35 mm slide/filmstrip projector, radio receivers, and record players. These formatswere owned by schools at a rate of one per 100 teachers. Television receivers reached this statusby 1958 and overhead projectors in 1960 (Finn et al., 1962) (Spector, Merrill, Van Merrienboer& Driscoll, 2008 p. 9). An overhead projector used to be considered a necessary piece oftechnology for every classroom. This is called “old technologies (p. 12) “along with textbooks,blackboard, overhead projectors, television and videocassettes, (p. 12). A teacher would usethese items, and it would be demonstrate an innovative in its use of technology. Now with theinclusion of document camera and Epson cameras are replacing the use of overhead projector.The use of this technology promotes what is referred to as teacher center instruction. From 1980s
  4. 4. Running Head COURSE PROJECT 4through 1990s the pendulum was swinging from analog media to digital media as the primarysource of instructional materials in schools, colleges and corporate training centers; howevertraditional formats such as textbooks, the overhead projector, and videocassettes have containedto be used heavily by teachers at all levels right up to present. (Cuban, 2001)(Cuban, 2001)More and more schools are teaching student the necessary skills in order to prepare themfor the 21st century. The idea presented by our district technology department (DPS website,2009), is that students will pay more attention to their teachers if the students use “cool”technology in the classroom. The technology will also provide teachers with an efficient methodto present curriculum, as well as, interact with the students in the classroom. Finally, the teacherwill be able to diversify their lesson in order to appeal to the multi different learning styles oftheir students. The overhead projectors were replaced by the below items LCD projector andEpson cameras as noted in the picture below:
  5. 5. Running Head COURSE PROJECT 5Google ImagesCurrent TechnologyThe overhead projector I found in the supply closet was the one I used last year in myclassroom. According to the technology integration specialist at our school, she recycled 50overhead projectors back to the district’s warehouse this year. (Recycled means that a piece oftechnology was returned to the district, and the school is credited with the cost of that item.) Therare only two teachers that use the overhead projector at our school the early childhood teacherand the music teacher. The technology grant that was allocated to the school covered the cost ofthe Epson camera and document cameras for the general education teachers. The specialeducation department wrote a series of grants and we purchased our own devices and material tobe used with students who have individual education plans. Technology in today’s world ischanging on a regular basis, emerging technology is based on what state of the environment ofthe technology. The following individuals define emerging technology as follows:“Dr. Soloway (n.d) described an emerging technology as technology that has yet to crossthe chasm from early adopter to early majority. That phase is the period where the cost of thetechnology is high, and users do not yet consider the technology essential to their everyday life.Using an example of a prototype he developed. Dr. Thornburg (2009) described an emergingtechnology as something that has just been developed. By the time, a piece of technology hitsthe mainstream it is no long emerging. Rogers (2003) defined emerging technology as aninnovation that is considered new to a person or a group of people. The perceived newnessdescribes an innovation (Roger, 2003, Soloway, n.d, Thornburg. 2009)”.As I stated in the above section, the definition of emerging technology depends on thefinancial state and environment of the technology.
  6. 6. Running Head COURSE PROJECT 6Tetrads, Interviews, and Mulitimedia PresentationThis section will review the tetrads of the overhead projector, interviews from thedecision makers, technology users and an outline of the multimedia presentation for this course.The information is summarized from the interviews and presented in paragraph form andnarration. The interviewees did not want to be filmed, so I am providing a transcript of ourconversations. In addition, the link to visual presentation will be posted on my blog: Michelle’sNotesInterviews: The Decision MakersThe section provides a summary of the decision makers in our district. This list is different frommy original list because I was told that they approved or disapprove it would be best to discuss itwith individuals on this list. The original list has changed since I discovered that the ITS wasalso a decision maker. I reviewed the original list of interview and made some changes. Theinformation provided in this section is a summary of the information that obtained from thefollowing: (Interview questions are in the Appendix)• Robbie Makely (Integration Technology Specialist at our school)• Ligia Gibson (our principal)• Sharyn Guhman (Chief Information Officer)• Tim Summers (web tech)Denver Public Schools has a department that handles the distribution, training, acquiringand inventory of all of the technology in the district..
  7. 7. Running Head COURSE PROJECT 7The following screenshots illustrate the mission and responsbilities of the technologydepartmens.
  8. 8. Running Head COURSE PROJECT 8https://dots.dpsk12.orgAccording to Ms. Guham, the district has been awared several million dollars in grantmoney which is used to provide training, hardware, software and adminsteration of technology tothe schools in the Denver Public schools.
  9. 9. Running Head COURSE PROJECT 9. In addition, the school received money from severalbonds that have been passed since 2007.BudgetsThe schools are given an amount of money that is determined on their school population.The students are counted based on the following breakdown; 0 for students in the earlychildhood education class, .5 for students in kinder; 1.0 for students in grades 1-5 and finallystudents in middle and high school are counted as 1.5. The numbers are tallied up, and a brokendown for each school by the budget department in the technology department and presented tothe board of education and passed onto the schools. Each school determines their owneducational technology needs, based on a needs assessments completed by the integrationspecialist. The requests are presented to the assistant superintendent of curriculum andinstruction and technology. It is approved or disapproved based on those requests. In addition,each school is allocated for an Integrated Technology Specialists (ITS), some schools dig into
  10. 10. Running Head COURSE PROJECT10their building fund for a para professional to assist their ITS, so the ITS can teach and developprofessional development course for their teachers. In addition, the school determines whichclassroom will receive different technology for their school. Also, the Technology departmentalso receives grants and money from the federal government for different age, race, language anddisability needs. This money is generally put into the schools building fund for theadministration to use the money as they determined. board of education and passed onto theschools.In addition, the school determines which classroom will receive different technology fortheir school. Also, the Technology department also receives grants and money from the federalgovernment for different age, race, language and disability needs. This money is generally putinto the schools building fund for the adminsteration to use the money as they determined.
  11. 11. Running Head COURSE PROJECT11Interview: Technology Users or NotThe following people use the overhead projector, the Epson camera and as littletechnology as possible in our building.• special educator• special educators• ECE teacherCenter based Teacher does not use technology, unless she has to in the classroom. She does notownany type of technology (cell phone, iPad, computer and she has no internet at home). One of herstudents has a Go Talk that has taken her all year to use because no provided training for her orthe family. The type of computer she prefers are laptops since they are portable. However, herfavorite educational technology are the white board and bulletin board in the classroom. MildModerate Teacher is a resource special educator who used an Epson camera for everything;lessons, center work and Individual Education Plans meetings. All of the information is postedon the wall so that everyone can see the information. The technology lets her provide a visual foreverything that she completes in her work. ECE teacher is an ECE teacher who uses theoverhead projector to teacher her students the letters. She posts them on the wall and the childrentrace the letter and post pictures that represent the letters. It is really quite interesting. All of theteachers agreed that the overhead projector is bulky and takes up a lot of room. The Epsoncamera will replace the overhead, because of its portability. They did think that it will eventuallybecome wireless, a fact that some businesses may use, however, at this point schools won’t
  12. 12. Running Head COURSE PROJECT12receive that technology for a few years. All of the teachers agreed that small and compatible isbest. We all such small room.TetradThis section will illustrate the obsolete technology and the technology that is replaced bynew materials. Tetrad One is used to analyze the obsolete technology in the school’s supplycloset:Tetrad One is used to analyze the obosolete technology in the school’s supply closet:
  13. 13. Running Head COURSE PROJECT13Multimedia PresentationThe following will be used to cmplete this project:• Dell laptopo sharepoint makero Audiocityo Microsoft Word• Dell netbook
  14. 14. Running Head COURSE PROJECT14o Microsoft Word• Apple iPado Videoo Camerao APA citation formatConclusion: the futureThis course project was very interesting for me because when I went over the history ofthe overhead it reminded me of the time when I was in high school. I was part of the audio visualteam at our school. I used to splice the film and filmstrips for the teachers when they tore thefilm or broke it. In addition, I set up the videos for the teachers, laminated their materials and dida lot of other work with the various technology. The educational technology had changedbetween the time when I graduated from high school and went back to full time teaching. TheVCRs and 16 mm were still in existence, but on their way out, by the mid 90s, most of the
  15. 15. Running Head COURSE PROJECT15technology I was familiar with was becoming obsolete. Also, the hardware used to laminatehad .• The iPad can connect to the Epson camera and document camera with a VGAcord.
  16. 16. Running Head COURSE PROJECT16• The whiteborad turn into SmartBoard.
  17. 17. Running Head COURSE PROJECT17The classroom teacher goes from this setting:---except for the people who are sticking with “old technologies”.
  18. 18. Running Head COURSE PROJECT18ReferencesCuban, L (2001). Oversold & undersused: computers in the classroom. Cambridge,Massachusetts Lond, England: Harvard University Press.Denver Public Schools website.Jennifer, J. (2012) Who invented the overhead projector? eHow. Retrieved from, M.S.Ed; O. (2013) Everything a new teacher really needs to know (but didn’t learn incollege). Free Spirit Publishing, Retrieved from Google Images.Marples, G. (9/11/2008). The History of Projectors-The Battle for Brightness. Retrieved fromhttp://www.thehistory, H. (2012) History of the overhead projector. eHow. Retrieved from
  19. 19. Running Head COURSE PROJECT19Oppenheimer, T., (1983). The flickering mind: the false promise of technology in the classroomand how learning can be saved. New York: Random House.Rogers, E.M. (2003). Diffusion of innovation (5thed.) New York. NY: Free PressSoloway, E. (n.d.) Emerging vs. emerged technologies [Audio Podcast]. Retrieved from, J.M., Merrill, M.D., Van Merrienboer, J., & Driscoll, M. (editors) (2008). Handbook ofresearch on educational communications and technology. New York, London: LawrenceErlbaum Associates Taylor & Fancis Group.Thornburg. D.D. (2009). When is a technology emergent? Lake Barrington, IL. ThornburgCenter for Space Exploration.Zafra, A.; Goss, T. (6/23/2009). Brief histroy of overhead projector. Retrieved from
  20. 20. Running Head COURSE PROJECT20Appendix AInterview Consent FormAll of the individuals signed a form similar to this form.I, the undersigned agree to answer questions about the technology, use of technologyandapplication and distribuion of technology that is used in the classroom. I do not want mylikeness used as part of this project since it will appear on the internet blog.Signed.
  21. 21. Running Head COURSE PROJECT21Appendix BInterview QuestionsTeacher questions:1. What type of technology do you use in the classroom?2. Do you use the overhead projector in the classroom? If so, how do you use it?3. Do you use an expson camera? Document camera?4. Which type of technology do you use most often and why?5. General feeling of technology?Decision Makers Questions1. How is technology used in the classrom?2. How are educational technology needs determined in the classroom?3. How is thebudget determined for educational technology?These were the outlined questions I used to get my information, for the most part I used it asjumping off form with the questions.