Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Video Games And Operant Conditioning


Published on

Video Games And Operant Conditioning

  1. 1. Video Games and Operant Conditioning<br />The Virtual Skinner Box<br />
  2. 2. What is a Skinner Box<br />a box used in experiments in animal learning, esp. in operant conditioning, equipped with a mechanism that automatically gives the animal food or other reward or permits escape, as by opening a door<br />B.F. Skinner—20th Century Behavioral Psychologist<br />Radical behaviorism<br />Operant conditioning<br />Positive reinforcement<br />Reward schedules <br />
  3. 3. The Classical Skinner Box<br />
  4. 4. Quick Psychology Lesson<br />Radical Behaviorists (like Skinner) believe that ALL animal functions are attributable to external/internal physical stimuli. <br />Psychoanalysis is a fraud because you can explain actions without having to “guess” at the deep inner workings of the subconscious mind<br />Basically operant conditioning (OC) says that the frequency of a behavior will increase if it is rewarded, and that it will decrease if it is punished<br />
  5. 5. Schedule of Reward<br />Continuous – behavior is rewarded every time it is displayed <br />Every time Sniffy presses the bar he gets a treat<br />Extinction – behavior is never rewarded<br />Intermittent – only some instances of behavior are rewarded<br />Ratio schedule (such as 3:1 behavior: reward) is most common<br />
  6. 6. Timing is Everything in Behavioral Conditioning<br />Reward needs to be linked closely in time/association to the behavior being trained<br />Reward strain – if reward schedule changes to rapidly, performance begins to go extinct<br />Learned apathy/learned helplessness<br />Resistance to extinction – some intermittent and variable reward schedules allow greater increases in variables and make behavior more resistant to extinction<br />
  7. 7. Does Operant Conditioning Work on Humans?<br /> aka “can I put my boyfriend in a Skinner box?”<br />
  8. 8. Operant Conditioning and Human Learning<br />FIVE MAIN OBSTACLES TO LEARNING<br />People have a fear of failure. <br />The task is not broken down into small enough steps. <br />There is a lack of directions. <br />There is also a lack of clarity in the directions. <br />Positive reinforcement is lacking. <br />
  9. 9. Operant Conditioning and Human Learning<br />Any age-appropriate skill can be taught using five principles to remedy the problems:<br />Give the learner immediate feedback. <br />Break down the task into small steps. <br />Repeat the directions as many times as possible. <br />Work from the most simple to the most complex tasks. <br />Give positive reinforcement. <br />
  10. 10. The Modern Skinner Box?<br />
  11. 11. Video Games and Operant Conditioning<br />Most MMORPGs use variable/intermittent schedules of reward/reinforcement <br />More work, less pay-out<br />Most casual immersive environments use a fixed interval reinforcement <br />The truly addictive games (think EVER-CRACK and WoW) use a random interval reinforcement schedule<br />You have to keep playing because you never know when that extra skill point is coming or how many points you’ll get for that battle<br />
  12. 12. Why are games so addictive?<br />Ever wondered HOW that “guy you know” manages to log 30+ hours a week in WoW?<br />Daily quests<br />Training and complex quests<br />Side games/hobbies/etc<br />Everything about the game is designed to keep you coming back<br />No pause button; you log-out, you get left behind<br />
  13. 13. What’s Next?<br />Researchers at USC’s Institute for Creative Technology are developing virtual reality diagnostic tools for assessing and treating a variety of DSM-IV disorders, including Alzheimer’s and PTSD<br />There are also VR tools to help patients learn to manage pain and to teach doctors how to talk to patients (really, can bedside manner be taught?)<br />
  14. 14. VR Diagnostics<br />These VR diagnostics vary—virtual patients for training purposes, VR environments for aversion therapy in phobia treatment, 3D puzzles for depth perception and visuospacial memory<br />Immersing a patient in a controlled VR environment and training certain social response is really the ultimate Skinner box<br /><br /><br />
  15. 15. Some really neat resources<br /><br />This article actually analyzes EverQuest in terms of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and how that overlaps on the operant conditioning to create interconnected community Skinner Box networks<br /><br />Unrelated article that talks about fail/continue games<br />