Video Games: The Virtual Skinner Box

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Video Games: The Virtual Skinner Box

  1. 1. Video games- The Virtual Skinner Box<br />
  2. 2. A Rat in a Skinner Box works for food by pressing a lever repeatedly until a reinforcer is presented<br />
  3. 3. A human playing a video game hits a controller repeatedly until a reinforcer is presented<br />
  4. 4. What does this all mean?<br />Despite all my rage I’m just a rat in my cage?<br />
  5. 5. What does this all mean?<br />Let me explain!<br />
  6. 6. Before:<br />No Shock <br />Behavior:<br />Rat Presses Lever<br />After<br />Shock<br />Escape Contingency<br />Remember Operant Conditioning: <br />“Reinforcing consequences following the response increase its future frequency; and aversive consequences following the response decrease its future frequency”<br />
  7. 7. Skinner Box <br />A rat will press the lever for food<br />And… <br />A rat will press the lever 10 times for food<br />
  8. 8. The Virtual Skinner Box <br />A human will press a button to start a video game<br />And…<br />A human will press a button 10 times to kill an opponent in a video game<br />
  9. 9. As we go through life we encounter two types of reinforcers and aversive conditions:<br />Unlearned reinforcers and aversive conditions have not been previously paired with other reinforcers or aversive conditions. <br />
  10. 10. As we go through life we encounter two types of reinforcers and aversive conditions:<br />Unlearned reinforcers and aversive conditions have not been previously paired with other reinforcers or aversive conditions. <br />Learned reinforcers and aversive conditions have been previously paired with other reinforcers or aversive conditions<br />
  11. 11. The unlearned reinforcers are food and water. <br />And…<br />The Skinner Box<br />
  12. 12. The unlearned reinforcers are food and water. <br />And…<br />The learned reinforcers are anything paired with food and water. For instance when the rats hear a click upon presentation of water<br />The Skinner Box<br />
  13. 13. There are not any true unlearned reinforcers however the video game player will feel satisfaction when they save their character from death<br />And…<br />The Virtual Skinner Box<br />
  14. 14. Before:<br />No<br />Extra<br />Points<br />Behavior:<br />Solve <br />Puzzle<br />In<br />Less than <br />60 seconds<br />After<br />Extra Points<br />Reinforcement Contingency<br />There are not any true unlearned reinforcers however the video game player will feel satisfaction when they save their character from death<br />And…<br />The learned reinforcers are social reinforcers, achieving high scores and status, solving puzzles<br />The Virtual Skinner Box<br />
  15. 15. Dual-functioning chained stimuli<br />…a stimulus in a behavioral chain reinforces the response that precedes it and is an Sd or operandum for the following response<br />
  16. 16. The Skinner Box<br />When a rat pulls a chain, then presses a lever<br />Then….<br />The rats is presented with food!<br />
  17. 17. The Virtual Skinner Box<br />When a human presses a button in several correction combinations<br />Then….<br />The human acquires a new skill, money or tokens for use in another part of the game<br />
  18. 18. Schedules of reinforcement <br />This is the way that reinforcement occurs including the number of responses, the time between responses and the stimulus conditions<br />
  19. 19. Schedules of reinforcement <br />There are two types of reinforcement schedules: Continuous and Intermittent<br />
  20. 20. Schedules of reinforcement <br />Intermittent reinforcement is more resistant to extinction than continuous reinforcement<br />and more relevant to the skinner box and virtual skinner box<br />
  21. 21. Schedules of reinforcement <br />Intermittent reinforcement has two types of reinforcement: ratio and interval that occur after a fixed or variable number of responses<br />
  22. 22. Schedules of reinforcement <br />Intermittent reinforcement has two types of reinforcement: ratio and interval that occur after a fixed or variable number of responses<br />Ratio schedules are when a reinforcer follows a number of responses<br />
  23. 23. Schedules of reinforcement <br />Intermittent reinforcement has two types of reinforcement: ratio and interval<br />Ratio schedules are when a reinforcer follows a number of responses<br />Interval schedules are when a reinforcer follows the first response after a time interval<br />
  24. 24. Schedules of reinforcement <br />Intermittent reinforcement has two types of reinforcement: ratio and interval<br />When should I tell them that these can be based on a fixed or variable number of responses?<br />Ratio schedules are when a reinforcer follows a number of responses<br />Interval schedules are when a reinforcer follows the first response after a time interval<br />
  25. 25. What’s this?<br />
  26. 26. This is a graph of the schedules of reinforcement, notice that the Variable ratio schedule of reinforcement has the largest slope and the greatest success at lever pressing<br />
  27. 27. You are indeed like a rat in cage aka skinner box when you hit a controller 50 times to kill an opponent, you hit the lever in variable amount of time to achieve a reinforcer!<br />
  28. 28. But rats only like cheese and sniffing around their cage, I’m more intelligent than that, I’m saving the virtual world from terrorism through Call of Duty!!!<br />
  29. 29. Before:<br />Aversive stimulus of Game<br />Behavior: Turn<br />Game Off<br />After:<br />No Aversive Stimulus of Game<br />Escape Contingency<br />But rats only like cheese and sniffing around their cage, I’m more intelligent than that, I’m saving the virtual world from terrorism through Call of Duty!!!<br />Please do this!!!!<br />
  30. 30. Well I hope you are more intelligent than a rat but there is a difference. For instance when you play in groups and achieve higher scores than your friends or defeat your friends in a game…<br />
  31. 31. You receive social reinforcement through praise and a boost in pride, self-esteem, etc<br />
  32. 32. SD:<br />Friends <br />Present<br />After:<br />Social<br />Reinforcers<br />Behavior:<br />Hit Video <br />Controller<br />100 times in 60 seconds<br />(high score)<br />Before:<br />No <br />Social<br />Reinforcers<br />After:<br />No<br />Social<br />Reinforcers<br />SΔ:<br /> No<br />Friends <br />Present<br />This is Reinforcement-Based<br />Discrimination<br />
  33. 33. Also the Premack Principle states that when one activity is more frequent than another activity. The opportunity to do the more frequent activity, will reinforce the less frequent activity<br />
  34. 34. Beat Tough Opponent <br />Easy Opponent Follows<br />No Tough Opponent<br />No Easy Opponent<br />Also the Premack Principle states that when one activity is more frequent than another activity. The opportunity to do the more frequent activity, will reinforce the less frequent activity<br />For example, you fight and defeat a difficult opponent because you know the next opponent is easy. <br />Pair Matching-Premack Principle<br />
  35. 35. Jeez Super Ratman go save the world with behavior analysis or something, I want to talk too! Generalized Reinforcers are learned reinforcers that are paired with a variety of other reinforcers<br />
  36. 36. Jeez Super Ratman go save the world with behavior analysis or something, I want to talk too! Generalized Reinforcers are learned reinforcers that are paired with a variety of other reinforcers<br />When you play a video game, you are awarded tokens, moneys and skills for other levels of the game<br />
  37. 37. Win Money<br />Fast Car<br />Don’t Win Money<br />No fast Car<br />Jeez Super Ratman go save the world with behavior analysis or something, I want to talk too! Generalized Reinforcers are learned reinforcers that are paired with a variety of other reinforcers<br />When you play a video game, you are awarded tokens, moneys and skills for other levels of the game<br />When you are playing a racing game, you earn money for winning races and eventually you can buy a better car. This reinforces playing the game because you have faster race times (of course this all occurs within 60 seconds)<br />Pairing Procedure<br />
  38. 38. Also you can avoid certain levels with generalized reinforcers<br />
  39. 39. Also you can avoid certain levels with generalized reinforcers<br />For example, if you press the controller 25 times in 30 seconds in a level you receive 10 tokens. <br />You can can use these 10 tokens to skip the next level<br />
  40. 40. Before:<br />Won’t have tokens soon<br />Behavior: press button 25 times<br />After: Will have tokens soon<br />Also you can avoid certain levels with generalized reinforcers<br />For example, if you press the controller 25 times in 30 seconds in a level you receive 10 tokens. <br />You can can use these 10 tokens to skip the next level<br />Avoidance Contingency<br />
  41. 41. So therefore I conclude that video games are just a Skinner box experiment <br />
  42. 42. So therefore I conclude that video games are just a Skinner box experiment <br />I concur Dr. Dicky<br />
  43. 43. So therefore I conclude that video games are just a Skinner box experiment <br />I concur Dr. Dicky<br />Argh I’m indeed just a rat in a cage!<br />
  44. 44. THE END! QUESTIONS, COMMENTS?<br />

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