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Collaboration & Co-Teaching for ELLs

This presentation explores how teacher collaboration can become an effective schoolwide practice to accommodate the needs of diverse English Language learners (ELLs) and to help all students meet national and state learning standards. In addition, a co-teaching approach to instruction is showcased in conjunction with
various co-teaching models for ELLs.

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Collaboration & Co-Teaching for ELLs

  1. 1. Collaboration and Co-Teaching: Strategies for English Learners TESOL Convention PCI Maria G. Dove, Ed.D. Andrea Honigsfeld, Ed.D. Molloy College Rockville Center, NY
  2. 2. George Bernard Shaw <ul><li>‘ If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples then you and I will still each have one apple. </li></ul>
  3. 3. George Bernard Shaw <ul><li>‘ If you have an apple and I have an apple and we exchange these apples then you and I will still each have one apple. </li></ul><ul><li>But if you have an idea and I have an idea and we exchange these ideas, then each of us will have two ideas.’ </li></ul>
  4. 4. Our Collaborations <ul><li>Andrea: Co-taught in New York City </li></ul><ul><li>Maria: Co-taught in Valley Stream, NY </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborated through Molloy College </li></ul><ul><li>TESOL program </li></ul><ul><li>Co-authored several articles </li></ul><ul><li>Co-authored a book </li></ul><ul><li>Co-editing a new book on collaborative practices </li></ul><ul><li>Co-presented at national conferences numerous times </li></ul><ul><li>Co-facilitated workshops on Long Island, New York State, and beyond </li></ul>
  5. 5. PS 68, Queens, 1996 
  6. 6. Maria and one of her co-teachers in Valley Stream
  8. 8. Choose a Quote for Day <ul><li>Everything that is new or uncommon raises a pleasure in the imagination, because it fills the soul with an agreeable surprise, gratifies its curiosity, and gives it an idea of which it was not before possessed. </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Addison </li></ul><ul><li>The greatest obstacle to those who hope to reform American education is complacency. - Diane Ravitch </li></ul><ul><li>Creative collaboration flourishes when everyone understands that great ideas generally emerge from a democratic process of throwing all ideas (good and goofy) into a pot. - Joyce Wycoff & Lynne Snead </li></ul><ul><li>So many dreams at first seem impossible. And then they seem improbable. And then, when we summon the will, they soon become inevitable. </li></ul><ul><li>- Christopher Reeve </li></ul><ul><li>People are always looking for the single magic bullet that will totally change everything. There is no single magic bullet. - Temple Grandin </li></ul>
  9. 9. Agenda <ul><li>Explore how collaboration practices can accommodate the needs of diverse English Language learners and help all students meet the National and State Learning Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Determine ways to be more effective in collaboration and co-teaching efforts to support English learners </li></ul>
  10. 10. Essential Questions <ul><li>What types of collaboration among ESL and Mainstream teachers yield effective instruction to meet the diverse academic and language development needs of ELLs? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you implement collaborative teaching practices to support instruction for ELLs? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Participants will: <ul><li>identify different collaborative practices and co-teaching arrangements; </li></ul><ul><li>compare the advantages and challenges of collaborative and co-teaching practices </li></ul><ul><li>plan ways to integrate collaborative practices and co-teaching into their instructional repertoire in order to improve student access and outcomes. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Personal Goals:
  13. 13. Teacher Collaboration <ul><li>One possible definition: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Working together in a supportive and mutually beneficial relationship; a style for direct interaction between at least two coequal partners voluntarily engaged in shared decision making as they work toward a common goal” (Friend & Cook, 1992). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Richard DuFour
  15. 17. Collaborative Practices for Equity <ul><li>MY KIDS YOUR KIDS </li></ul><ul><li>OUR KIDS </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>I keep six honest serving men </li></ul><ul><li>(they taught me all I knew), </li></ul><ul><li>Their names are What and Why and When </li></ul><ul><li>And How and Where and Who. </li></ul><ul><li>Rudyard Kipling </li></ul>
  17. 19. COLLABORATION QUESTIONS <ul><li>Who </li></ul><ul><li>What </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>Why </li></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul>?
  18. 20. “I SEE” Strategy <ul><li>I= Illustrate: What does teacher collaboration look like? What image(s) come to mind? </li></ul><ul><li>S= State in one simple sentence what it is. Use your own words. </li></ul><ul><li>E= Elaborate on what you have just stated. </li></ul><ul><li>E= Examples. Add examples from your own practice. </li></ul>
  19. 21. A Game <ul><li>PLAYED TWICE </li></ul>
  20. 23. Top Down or Bottom Up? Administrators Teachers Collaborative Practices
  21. 24. The Importance of School Culture
  22. 25. LEP <ul><li>Limited English Proficient </li></ul><ul><li>Language Enriched Pupil </li></ul><ul><li>Which one is it? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will truly belong? </li></ul>
  23. 26. How do you begin? <ul><li>iPads Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>I nitiate a pilot program </li></ul><ul><li>P lan collaboratively </li></ul><ul><li>A ctivate your collaborative model </li></ul><ul><li>D ocument successes and challenges </li></ul><ul><li>S howcase your program model </li></ul>
  24. 27. A Puzzling Activity
  25. 28. What Does Your ESL Program Look Like?
  26. 29. What is Co-Teaching? <ul><li>Co-teaching is an instructional delivery approach in which a mainstream teacher and a special service provider share responsibility for planning, delivering, and evaluating instruction for a group of students, some of whom have exceptional needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction occurs within the context of a single classroom and the co-teachers create a classroom community in which all students are valued members. </li></ul><ul><li>(Based on Friend, Reising, & Cook, 1993). </li></ul>
  27. 30. Co-Teaching by any other name . . . Team Teaching Collaborative Consultation Teacher Assistance Teams Mainstream Assistance Teams Push in Inclusion
  28. 31. ELL Model: Before (Theoharis, 2007) Full time Pullout Half- time Pullout
  29. 32. ELL Model: After (Theoharis, 2007) Halftime Inclusive/teaming Fulltime Inclusive/teaming
  30. 33. Student Clustering CONS PROS
  31. 34. COLLABORATION Instructional NON-Instructional
  32. 35. Collaborative Activities <ul><li>Instructional: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) joint planning, </li></ul><ul><li>(2) curriculum mapping and alignment, </li></ul><ul><li>(3) parallel teaching, </li></ul><ul><li>(4) co-developing instructional materials, </li></ul><ul><li>(5) collaborative assessment of student work, and </li></ul><ul><li>(6) co-teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-instructional: </li></ul><ul><li>( 1) joint professional development, </li></ul><ul><li>(2) teacher research, </li></ul><ul><li>(3) preparing for joint parent-teacher conferences and writing report cards, </li></ul><ul><li>(4) planning, facilitating, or participating in other extracurricular activities. </li></ul>
  33. 36. Collaborative Planning: What to Do and How to Do it? <ul><li>Recognize the BIG picture </li></ul><ul><li>Start small </li></ul><ul><li>Begin simple dialogue among teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Choose one teacher with whom you could collaborate and co-teach </li></ul><ul><li>Think outside the box </li></ul>
  34. 37. Collaborating With Other Educators <ul><li>Excerpts from TESOL P-12 Standards document: </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Between ESL and Content Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Between ESL and Bilingual Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Between ESL and Resource Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Between ESL Teachers and Classroom/Mainstream Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Between ESL and Special Education Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Among ESL Program, School, and District Administrators </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Between ESL Program and Curriculum Coordinators </li></ul>
  36. 39. Bird’s Eye View of the Curriculum September Key Ideas (Content Goals) Most Challenging Concepts (Language Goals) Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
  38. 41. Protocol for Sampling Work by English Language Learners <ul><li>Linguistic Development </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Experiences and Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Social-Emotional Aspects of Learning </li></ul>
  39. 42. Which of These Activities Would be Most Beneficial to Improve Collaboration between the Mainstream and the ESL Teachers? <ul><li>1. ESL and mainstream teachers will jointly organize and sequence the ESL curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>2. ESL and mainstream teachers will jointly review texts and learning materials and coordinate the purchase of these materials. </li></ul><ul><li>3. ESL and mainstream teachers will observe each other. </li></ul><ul><li>4. ESL and mainstream teachers will hold joint parent conferences. </li></ul><ul><li>5. ESL and mainstream teachers will hold regular meetings to assess individual students' progress and plan academic intervention or enrichment activities. </li></ul><ul><li>6. ESL and mainstream teachers will plan units of instruction together. </li></ul><ul><li>7. ESL and mainstream classrooms will participate jointly in field trips. </li></ul><ul><li>8. ESL and mainstream peer tutoring projects will pair ELLs with mainstream students. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Cultural information will be shared at regular meetings for the purpose of clarifying students' behavior and sensitizing teachers to cultural differences. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Multicultural concepts will be infused into the mainstream curriculum by teams of bilingual/ESL and mainstream teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>11. The school's physical environment will reflect the diverse community by including signs in other languages, and bulletin boards with culturally diverse content and arts and crafts. </li></ul><ul><li>12. (Other) ____________________________________________________ </li></ul>
  40. 43. MODELS (Vaugh, Schumm, & Arguelles, 1997; Honigsfeld & Dove, 2008). <ul><li>MODEL 1: One Group of Students One Lead Teacher and One Teacher &quot;Teaching on Purpose&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>MODEL 2: One Group of Students Two Teachers Teach Same Content </li></ul><ul><li>MODEL 3: One Group of Students </li></ul><ul><li>One Teaches, One Assesses </li></ul><ul><li>MODEL 4: Two Groups of Students Two Teachers Teach Same Content </li></ul><ul><li>MODEL 5: Two Groups of Students One Teacher Pre-teaches, One Teacher Teaches Alternative Information </li></ul><ul><li>MODEL 6: Two Groups of Students One Teacher Re-teaches, One Teacher Teaches Alternative Information </li></ul><ul><li>MODEL 7: Multiple Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Two Teachers Monitor/Teach </li></ul>
  41. 44. Model 1 One Group: One Lead Teacher and One Teacher &quot;Teaching on Purpose&quot;
  42. 45. Model 2 One Group: Two Teachers Teach Same Content
  43. 46. Model 3 One Group: One Teaches, One Assesses
  44. 47. Model 4 Two Groups: Two Teachers Teach Same Content A,B,C A,B,C =
  45. 48. Model 5 Two Groups: One Teacher Preteaches, One Teacher Teaches Alternative Information A,B,C D,E,F ≠
  46. 49. Model 6 Two Groups: One Teacher Re-teaches, One Teacher Teaches Alternative Information A,B,C D,E,F A,B,C ≠
  47. 50. Model 7 Multiple Groups: Two Teachers Monitor/Teach
  48. 51. Video Viewing Guide Model and Its Strengths Connection to ESL Models Personal Reactions, Concerns & Questions
  49. 52. Collaborative Relationships <ul><li>Think about the successful collaborative relationships you have had in your life -- both personal and professional. What has made these relationships successful? </li></ul><ul><li>Jot down key words </li></ul><ul><li>Walk about: Give one, get one </li></ul><ul><li>What makes collaborative partnerships work? </li></ul>
  50. 53. Roles and Responsibilities of Collaborative Teachers <ul><li>The leader </li></ul><ul><li>The supporter </li></ul><ul><li>The techie </li></ul><ul><li>The scribe </li></ul><ul><li>The illustrator </li></ul><ul><li>The evaluator </li></ul><ul><li>Other roles </li></ul>
  51. 54. Compare and Contrast: Collaborative Teaching Roles and Responsibilities Consider each teacher’s role: What is the SAME? What is DIFFERENT?
  52. 55. Cooperative Teaching Evaluation Survey Try it out…
  53. 56. Cooperative Teaching Best Practices Checklist <ul><li>Directions: For each statement, place a + in the blank if the statement describes your program, or place a – in the blank if the statement does not describe your program. </li></ul>
  54. 57. Steps in Developing Reflective Frameworks
  55. 58. Protocol for Collaborative Professional Conversations on Co-teaching <ul><li>Co-teachers set aside 20 minutes for this activity. They agree to a set of accepted parameters for this professional conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>One co-teacher offers his or her account of successful aspects of the shared co-teaching experience. The other co-teacher is silent and takes notes. (3 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>The same step is repeated with the second co-teacher. (3 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Each teacher takes a turn to clarify one key element in the other’s presentation. (3 minutes total) </li></ul><ul><li>Co-teachers start an open discussion to analyze the reasons for their successes and/or identify any other contributing factors that hindered the success. (8 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>The session is concluded with each co-teacher reflecting on the conversation and identifying one specific goal or step for the future. (3 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted from Easton, L. B. (February/March 2009). Protocols: A facilitator’s best friend. Tools for Schools, 12 (3). p. 6. </li></ul>
  56. 59. Categories for Collaborative Conversations
  57. 60. Aspects of Collaboration between Mainstream and ESL Teachers Planning Instruction Assessment
  58. 61. <ul><li>It is Not Your Limbo Stick </li></ul>Team Building
  59. 62. Stages of Co-Teacher Development
  60. 63. Progress Through The Stages Example: Instructional Presentation <ul><li>Beginning Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>teachers often present separate lessons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one teacher is “boss,” one is “helper” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compromising Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both teachers direct some of the activities in the classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialist offers mini-lessons or clarifies strategies that students may use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gately & Gately (2001) </li></ul></ul>
  61. 64. Progress Through The Stages Example: Instructional Presentation <ul><li>Collaborative Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both teachers participate in the presentation of the lesson, provide instruction and structure the learning activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the “chalk” passes freely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students address questions and discuss concerns with both teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gately & Gately (2001) </li></ul></ul>
  62. 65. Powerful Questions to Try <ul><li>What do you want from your co-teaching partnership? </li></ul><ul><li>Try to envision success. Can you describe it? </li></ul><ul><li>What will you have to do to achieve this? </li></ul><ul><li>What stops you? </li></ul><ul><li>What options do you have? </li></ul><ul><li>What other options are there? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you or others know when it’s worked? </li></ul><ul><li>What would it look like to your students? </li></ul><ul><li>What would your students be doing differently? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s next? </li></ul>
  63. 66. Group Reflections
  64. 67. <ul><li>Q&A </li></ul>
  65. 68. <ul><li>Thank You! </li></ul><ul><li>Join us on facebook. </li></ul>