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CHAPTER-1
1.INTRODUCTION:
MICROPROCESSORS 8086
8086 is the first 16-bit microprocessor from INTEL, rel...
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add ,subtract, perform operations like logical AND,OR,XOR, increment, decrement,
complement ,and shift...
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CHAPTER-2
2.1 REGISTER ORGANISATION :
The 14 registers of 8086 microprocessor are categorized into fou...
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Fig 3.2 Register Organisation
The BP & SP registers holds the offsets within the data and stack segmen...
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2.Stack segment register(SS)
3.Data segment register(DS)
4. Extra segment register(ES).
The code segme...
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IF- Interrupt Flag: If this flag is set, the maskable interrupt INTR of 8086 is enabled and
if it is z...
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CHAPTER-3
3.1 8086 PIN DIAGRAM – PIN DESCRIPTION
Intel 8086 is a 16-bit HMOS microprocessor. It is ava...
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A16/S3, A17/S4, A18/S5, A19/S6 : The specified address lines are multiplexed with
corresponding status...
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CLK- Clock Input : The clock input provides the basic timing for processor operation
and bus control a...
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stack segments of up to 64K bytes each . Physically, the memory is organized as a high
bank (D15 - D8...
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CHAPTER-4
4.1 INTERRUPTS
An interrupt to the microprocessor is defined as that which disturbs the nor...
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The 256 interrupt pointers have been numbered from 0 to 255.The
number given to an interrupt pointer ...
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S.No CALL Instruction INTn instruction
1 Upon the execution ,the
control will jump to any one
of the ...
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CHAPTER-5
5.1 ADDRESSING MODES
The different ways in which a source operand is denoted in an instruct...
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4.Register indirect addressing mode: Register indirect addressing allows data to be
addressed at any ...
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CHAPTER-6
6.1 INSTRUCTION SET OF 8086:
The 8086 microprocessor supports 6 types of Instructions. They...
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PUSHA : Push all registers to the stack
POPA : Pop the words from stack to all registers
XCHG : Excha...
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Eg.
LES reg, mem
3.Flag transfer registers
LAHF : Load AH with the low byte of the flag register
[AH]...
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4.AAA : ASCII adjust after addition. The AAA instruction is executed after an ADD
instruction that ad...
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AL= 00110101 35H Replace number in AL with its 2's complement
AL = 1100 1011 = CBH
CMP : Compare two ...
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Eg:
AX 05 08
AAD result in AL 00 3A; 58D= 3A h in AL
4.CBW : Fill upper byte of word with copies of s...
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© Rotate instructions
1.ROL : Rotate bits of byte or word left, MSB to LSB and to Carry Flag [CF].
2....
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Conditional transfer instructions
JA/JNBE : Jump if above / jump if not below or equal
JAE/JNB : Jump...
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LOOPNE/LOOPNZ : Loop through a sequence of instructions while ZF=0 and CX =0.
JCXZ : jump to specifie...
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LOCK : An instruction prefix. Prevents another processor from taking the bus while the
adjacent instr...
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CHAPTER-7
7.1 ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES :
Assembler directives are the directions to the assembler which i...
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11. ENDP- End procedure: It indicates the end of the procedure (subroutine) to the
assembler.
12.ENDS...
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PULSE
AND
DIGITAL
CIRCUITS
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Chapter -1
1.1 LINEAR WAVE SHAPING
Timing circuits networks composed of resistors, capacitors and ind...
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A step function shown in Fig. 1(a), makes an instantaneous jump from one steady value
to another stea...
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Fig: exponential function
1.2 Different Types of Waveforms
Let us now discus the pulse square, symmet...
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Fig:squarewave.
Triangular waveform
A waveform which increase linearly with time to a voltage level V...
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Fig:Saw tooth waveform
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Chapter-2
2.1 Clipping circuits
A clipper is a device which limits, remove or prevents some portion o...
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Clippers prevent either or both polarities of a wave form exceeding a specific amplitude
level. Howev...
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It may be observed that the clipping takes place during the positive cycle only when the
input voltag...
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is no voltage drop across the resistor during the negative half cycle as shown in the output
waveform...
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2.1.3 SHUNT OR PARALLEL POSITIVE CLIPPER:
A parallel clipper circuit uses the same diode
theory and c...
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(a) SHUNT OR PARALLEL POSITIVE CLIPPER WITH BIAS:
As is in Fig 6 (a), positive terminal of the batter...
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2.1.4 SHUNT OR PARALLEL NEGATIVE CLIPPER:
The negative clipper has allowed to pass the positive half ...
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2.1.5 DUAL (COMBINATION) DIODE CLIPPER
The type of clipper combines a parallel negative clipper with ...
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Similarly during the negative input half cycle the diode D2 acts as a short circuit while the
diode D...
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Chapter-3
CLAMPING CIRCUITS
Certain applications in electronics require that the upper or lower extre...
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3.1 Diode clampers
3.1.1 POSITIVE CLAMPER
Fig 2 shows the circuit of a positive clamper It consists o...
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Fig 3(a) shows the circuit of positive clamper with positive biased Here a battery of
10 V is added i...
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3.1.2 NEGATIVE CLAMPER
Fig 4 shows the circuit of a negative clamper during the positive half cycle o...
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Similarly it is possible to clamp the input waveform negatively at by reversing the
battery connectio...
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(b). The cause defect in the waveform is that the two displacements will start for different
point A ...
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It is needed that the switch S be open throughout the time interval T1, but it is not
necessary that ...
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On the other hand, it a large amplitude signal is employed. Clamping will take place at
the positive ...
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During the negative half-cycle of the input voltage diode D2 gets forward biased and
conducts chargin...
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CHAPTER-4
4.1 COMPARATOR
A comparator is a device which is used to sense when an arbitrary varying si...
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In a circuit a clipper was important that the portion of the wave form passed by the diode
was not di...
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4.2 TRANSISTOR COMPARATOR
The basic differential amplifier circuit using bipolar transistor shown in ...
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Voltage comparators following the differential amplifier approach can be easily designed
to posses CM...
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The output of the amplifier can be made to change states quickly (snap action) if positive
feedback i...
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DIGITAL
COMMUNICATIONS
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CHAPTER-1
1.1 INTRODCUCTION
Digital communication:
Communication has been one of the deepest needs of...
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Fig. 1.1: Block diagram of Communication System
The three basic elements of every communication syste...
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Hybrid Systems that use digital modulation schemes for transmitting sampled and
quantized values of a...
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The Source encoder ( or Source coder) converts the input i.e. symbol sequence into a
binary sequence ...
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CHANNEL:
The Channel provides the electrical connection between the
source and destination. The diffe...
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System Synchronization:- Digital detection requires system synchronization
whereas the analog signals...
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atmospheric conditions, a microwave radio channel is very reliable and provides path for
high-speed d...
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While electrical signals, derived from physical processes are mostly energy
signals,several mathemati...
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A message signal may originate from a digital or analog source. If the message
signal is analog in na...
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1. Uniform Quantizer
2. Non- Uniform Quantizer
Uniform Quantizer:
In Uniform type, the quantization l...
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Mid – tread type: Quantization levels – odd number.
Mid – Rise type: Quantization levels – even numbe...
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Quantization noise is produced in the transmitter end of a PCM system by
rounding off sample values o...
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takes a bit stream of 1‟ s and 0‟ s and converts it into voltages appropriate for
transmission on a p...
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CHAPTER-3
3.1 Pulse Code Modulation:
Pulse code Modulation: The pulse code modulator technique
sample...
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It is impossible to reconstruct the original signal x(t)
because of the permanent quantization error ...
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Total amplitude = xmax-(- xmax)
=2 xmax
If the amplitude range is divided into 'q' levels of quantize...
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The noise power is given by:
Noise power =Vnoise
2
/ R (8)
Vnoise
2
: is the mean square value of noi...
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Fig:3.1DPCM Transmitter and Receiver
The transmitter and receiver of the DPCM scheme is shown above.
...
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The receiver consists of a decoder to reconstruct the quantized error signal. The quantized
version o...
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3.3 Delta Modulation (DM)
Delta Modulation is a special case of DPCM. In DPCM scheme if the base band...
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manner similar to that used in the transmitter. The out-of –band quantization
noise in the high frequ...
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Block Diagram of ADM Transmitter.
Block Diagram of ADM Receiver
Adaptive Sub-band Coding:
PCM and ADP...
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kb/s PCM. To accomplish this performance, it exploits the quasi-periodic nature
of voiced speech and ...
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CHAPTER-4
4.1 Memory less modulation techniques:
Modulation is defined as the process by which some charac...
digital communication,micro processor,pulse and digital circuits
digital communication,micro processor,pulse and digital circuits
digital communication,micro processor,pulse and digital circuits
digital communication,micro processor,pulse and digital circuits
digital communication,micro processor,pulse and digital circuits
digital communication,micro processor,pulse and digital circuits
digital communication,micro processor,pulse and digital circuits
digital communication,micro processor,pulse and digital circuits
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digital communication,micro processor,pulse and digital circuits

  1. 1. Dept. of ECE Page 1 CHAPTER-1 1.INTRODUCTION: MICROPROCESSORS 8086 8086 is the first 16-bit microprocessor from INTEL, released in the year 1978 . It is a 40 pin DIP chip based on N-channel, depletion load silicon gate technology(HMOS). The term 16 bit means that its ALU,its internal registers and most of the instructions are designed to work with 16 bit binary words.8086 is available at different clock speeds Viz, 5 M.Hz(8086);8M.Hz(8086-2) and 10(8086-1) M.Hz .8086 microprocessor has a 16-bit data bus and 20-bit address bus. So, it can address any one of 220 =1048576=1 mega byte memory locations. INTEL 8088 has the same ALU ,same registers and same instruction set as the 8086.But the only difference is 8088 has only 8-bit data bus and 20-bit address bus. Hence the 8088 can only read/write/ports of only 8-bit data at a time .The 8088 was used as the CPU in the original IBM personal computers [ IBMPC/XT] .The 8086 microprocessor can work in two modes of operations .They are Minimum mode and Maximum mode. In the minimum mode of operation the microprocessor do not associate with any co-processors and can not be used for multiprocessor systems. But in the maximum mode the 8086 can work in multi-processor or co-processor configuration. This minimum or maximum operations are decided by the pin MN/ MX(Active low). When this pin is high 8086 operates in minimum mode otherwise it operates in Maximium mode. . `1. 2 ARCHTECTURE OF 8086 To improve the performance by implementing the parallel processing concept the CPU of the 8086 is divided into two independent sections .They are 1. Bus Interface Unit (BIU) 2. Execution Unit.(EI). The BIU sendsout addresses ,fetches instructions ,read data from ports and memory and writes data to ports and memory.i.e the BIU handles all transfers data and addresses on the buses required by the execution Unit . Whereas the Execution Unit decodes the instructions and executes the instructions 1.The Execution Unit : The Execution Unit consists of a control system , a 16-bit ALU, 16-bit Flag register and four general purpose registers(AX,BX,CX,DX), pointer registers (SP,BP) and Index registers(SI,DI) of each 16-bits . The control circuitry controls the internal operations .The decoder in the execution unit decodes the instructions fetched from the memory into a series of actions. The ALU can
  2. 2. Dept. of ECE Page 2 add ,subtract, perform operations like logical AND,OR,XOR, increment, decrement, complement ,and shifting the binary numbers. 2.Bus Interface Unit : The BIU consists of a 6-byte long instruction register called Queue.And four stack segment registers (ES,CS,SS,DS) , one Instruction Pointer(IP) and an adder circuit to calculate the 20bit physical address of a location. This bus interface unit will perform all the external bus operations. They are fetching the instructions from the memory, read/write data from/into memory or port and also supporting the instruction Queue etc. The BIU fetches up to six instruction bytes from the memory and stores these pre-fetched bytes in a first –in first out register set called Queue. When the execution unit is ready for the execution of the instruction ,instead of fetching the byte from the memory ,it reads the byte from the Queue .This will increase the overall speed of microprocessor .Fetching the next instruction while the current instruction executes is called pipelining or parallel processing. Fig.2.1.Architecture of 8086 Microprocessor
  3. 3. Dept. of ECE Page 3 CHAPTER-2 2.1 REGISTER ORGANISATION : The 14 registers of 8086 microprocessor are categorized into four groups. They are general purpose data registers , Pointer & Index registers , Segment registers and Flag register as shown in the table below Fig:3.1 8086 Microprocessor Registers. General purpose registers: There are four 16-bit 4 general purpose registers namely (AH, AL);(BH,BL); (CH,CL); (and DH,DL) which are part of Execution unit. These registers can be used individually for storing 16-bit data temporarily .The AL register is also called the accumulator. The pairs of registers can be used together to store 16-bit data words. It is always advantageous to store the data in these registers because the data can be accessed much more easily as these registers are already in the execution unit. Here L indicates the lower byte and H indicates the higher byte. X indicates the extended register. The general purpose data registers are used for data manipulations. The use of these registers is more dependent on the mode of addressing also.The other four registers of EU are referred to as index / pointer registers. They are Stack Pointer register , Base Pointer register, Source Index register and Destination Index registers. The pointer registers contain the offset within a particular segment. S.No Type Register width Name of the Registers 1 General purpose Registers(4) 16-bit AX,BX,CX,DX 8-bit AL,AH,BL,BH,CL,CH,DL,DH 2 Pointer Registers 16-bit Stack Pointer(SP) Base Pointer(BP) 3 Index Registers 16-bit Source Index(SI) Destination Index(DI) 4 Segment Registers 16-bit Code Segment(CS) Data Segment(DS) Stack Segment(SS) Extra Segment(ES) 5 Instruction 16-bit Instruction Pointer (IP) 6 Flag (PSW) 16-bit Flag Register
  4. 4. Dept. of ECE Page 4 Fig 3.2 Register Organisation The BP & SP registers holds the offsets within the data and stack segments respectively. The Index registers are used as general purpose registers as well as for holding the offset in case of indexed based and relative indexed addressing modes.The source Index register is generally used to store the offset of source data in data segment while the Destination Index register used to store the offset of destination in data or extra segment. These index registers are specifically used in string manipulations. Segment Registers : There are four 16-bit segment registers namely 1.code segment register(CS)
  5. 5. Dept. of ECE Page 5 2.Stack segment register(SS) 3.Data segment register(DS) 4. Extra segment register(ES). The code segment register is used for addressing the 64kB memory location in the code segment of the memory ,where the code of the executable program is stored. Similarly the DS register points to the data segment of the 64kB memory where the data is stored. The Extra segment register also refers to essentially another data segment of the memory space. The SS register is useful for addressing stack segment of memory. So, the CS,DS,SS and ES segment registers respectively contains the segment addresses for the code, data, stack and extra segments of the memory. Instruction Pointer Register: It is a 16-bit register which always points to the next instruction to be executed within the currently executing code segment. So, this register contains the 16-bit offset address pointing to the next instruction code within the 64kB of the code segment area. Its content is automatically incremented as the execution of the next instruction takes place. Flag Register: This register is also called status register. It is a 16 bit register which contains six status flags and three control flags. So, only nine bits of the 16 bit register are defined and the remaining seven bits are undefined. Normally this status flag bits indicate the status of the ALU after the arithmetic or logical operations. Each bit of the status register is a flip/flop. The Flag register contains Carry flag, Parity flag, Auxiliary flag Zero flag, Sign flag ,Trap flag, Interrupt flag, Direction flag and overflow flag as shown in the diagram. The CF,PF,AF,ZF,SF,OF are the status flags and the TF,IF and CF are the control flags. X X X X OF DF IF TF SF ZF X AF X PF X CF Fig:3.3 Flag Register . CF- Carry Flag: This flag is set, when there is a carry out of MSB in case of addition or a borrow in case of subtraction. PF - Parity Flag : This flag is set to 1, if the lower byte of the result contains even number of 1‘s else (for odd number of 1s ) set to zero. AF- Auxilary Carry Flag: This is set, if there is a carry from the lowest nibble, i.e, bit three during addition, or borrow for the lowest nibble, i.e, bit three, during subtraction. ZF- Zero Flag: This flag is set, if the result of the computation or comparison performed by the previous instruction is zero SF- Sign Flag : This flag is set, when the result of any computation is negative TF - Tarp Flag: If this flag is set, the processor enters the single step execution mode.
  6. 6. Dept. of ECE Page 6 IF- Interrupt Flag: If this flag is set, the maskable interrupt INTR of 8086 is enabled and if it is zero ,the interrupt is disabled.It can be set by using the STI instruction and can be cleared by executing CLI instruction. DF- Direction Flag: This is used by string manipulation instructions. If this flag bit is ‗0‘, the string is processed beginning from the lowest address to the highest address, i.e., auto incrementing mode. Otherwise, the string is processed from the highest address towards the lowest address, i.e., auto incrementing mode. OF- Over flow Flag: This flag is set, if an overflow occurs, i.e, if the result of a signed operation is large enough to accommodate in a destination register. The result is of more than 7-bits in size in case of 8-bit signed operation and more than 15-bits in size in case of 16-bit sign operations, then the overflow will be set.
  7. 7. Dept. of ECE Page 7 CHAPTER-3 3.1 8086 PIN DIAGRAM – PIN DESCRIPTION Intel 8086 is a 16-bit HMOS microprocessor. It is available in 40 pin DIP chip. It uses a 5V d.c. supply for its operation. The 8086 uses 20-line address bus. It uses a 16-line data bus. The 20 lines of the address bus operate in multiplexed mode. The 16-low order address bus lines are multiplexed with data and 4 high-order address bus lines are multiplexed with status signals. The pin diagram of Intel 8086 is shown in Fig.4. AD0-AD15 (Bidirectional) : Address/Data bus. These are low order address bus. They are multiplexed with data. When AD lines are used to transmit memory address the symbol A is used instead of AD, for example A0-A15. When data are transmitted over AD lines the symbol D is used in place of AD, for example D0-D7, D8-D15 or D0-D15. A16-A19 (Output) : High order address bus. These are multiplexed with status signals. Fig.4.1: Pin Diagram of 8086 Processor
  8. 8. Dept. of ECE Page 8 A16/S3, A17/S4, A18/S5, A19/S6 : The specified address lines are multiplexed with corresponding status signals. BHE (Active Low)/S7 (Output) : Bus High Enable/Status. During T1 it is low. It is used to enable data onto the most significant half of data bus, D8-D15. 8-bit device connected to upper half of the data bus use BHE (Active Low) signal. It is multiplexed with status signal S7. S7 signal is available during T2, T3 and T4. RD (Read) (Active Low) : The signal is used for read operation. It is an output signal. It is active when low. READY : This is the acknowledgement from the slow device or memory that they have completed the data transfer. The signal made available by the devices is synchronized by the 8284A clock generator to provide ready input to the 8086. the signal is active high. INTR-Interrupt Request : This is a triggered input. This is sampled during the last clock cycles of each instruction to determine the availability of the request. If any interrupt request is pending, the processor enters the interrupt acknowledge cycle. This can be internally masked by resulting the interrupt enable flag. This signal is active high and internally synchronized. NMI (Input) –NON-MASKABLE INTERRUPT : It is an edge triggered input which causes a type 2 interrupt. A subroutine is vectored to via an interrupt vector lookup table located in system memory. NMI is not maskable internally by software. A transition from LOW to HIGH initiates the interrupt at the end of the current instruction. This input is internally synchronized. INTA: INTA: Interrupt acknowledge. It is active LOW during T 2 ,T 3 and T w of each interrupt acknowledge cycle. MN/ MX MINIMUM / MAXIMUM :This pin signal indicates what mode the processor is to operate in. RQ/GT RQ/GT0 : REQUEST/GRANT: These pins are used by other local bus masters to force the processor to release the local bus at the end of the processor's current bus cycle. Each pin is bidirectional with RQ/GT having higher priority than RQ /GT1. LOCK: Its an active low pin. It indicates that other system bus masters are not to allowed to gain control of the system bus while LOCK is active LOW. The LOCK signal remains active until the completion of the next instruction. TEST : This input is examined by a ‗WAIT‘ instruction. If the TEST pin goes low, execution will continue, else the processor remains in an idle state. The input is synchronized internally during each clock cycle on leading edge of clock.
  9. 9. Dept. of ECE Page 9 CLK- Clock Input : The clock input provides the basic timing for processor operation and bus control activity. Its an asymmetric square wave with 33% duty cycle. RESET (Input) : RESET: causes the processor to immediately terminate its present activity. The signal must be active HIGH for at least four clock cycles. Vcc – Power Supply ( +5V D.C.) GND – Ground QS1,QS0 (Queue Status): These signals indicate the status of the internal 8086 instruction queue according to the table shown below QSI QS0 Status 0 (LOW) 0 1 (HIGH) 1 0 1 0 1 No Operation First Byte of Op Code from Queue Empty the Queue Subsequent Byte from Queue DT/R : DATA TRANSMIT/RECEIVE: This pin is needed in minimum system that desires to use an 8286/8287 data bus transceiver. It is used to control the direction of data flow through the transceiver. DEN: DATA ENABLE .This pin is provided as an output enable for the 8286/8287 in a minimum system which uses the transceiver. DEN is active LOW during each memory and I/O access and for INTA cycles. HOLD/HOLDA : HOLD indicates that another master is requesting a local bus .This is an active HIGH. The processor receiving the ``hold'' request will issue HLDA (HIGH) as an acknowledgement in the middle of a T 4 or T 1 clock cycle. 3.2 MEMORY ORGANIZATION The 8086 processor provides a 20-bit address toaccess any location of the 1 MB memory space. The memory is organized as a linear array of 1 million bytes, addressed as 00000(H) to FFFFF(H). The memory is logically divided into code, data, extra data, and
  10. 10. Dept. of ECE Page 10 stack segments of up to 64K bytes each . Physically, the memory is organized as a high bank (D15 - D8) and a low bank (D7 –D0) of 512 K 8-bitbytes addressed in parallel by the processor's address lines A19 -A1. Byte data with even addresses is transferred on the D7 – D0 bus lines while odd addressed byte data (A0 HIGH) is transferred on the D15- D8 bus lines. The processor provides two enable signals, BHE and A0 , to selectively allow reading from or writing into either an odd byte location, even byte location, or both. The instruction stream is fetched from memory as words and is addressed internally by the processor to the byte level as necessary.
  11. 11. Dept. of ECE Page 11 CHAPTER-4 4.1 INTERRUPTS An interrupt to the microprocessor is defined as that which disturbs the normal execution of a program . Broadly the interrupts are divided into two types. They are 1.external hardware Interrupts 2. internal (Software) Interrupts . The hardware interrupts are classified in to two types.they are 1. non-maskable interrupts. 2. maskable interrupts The hardware interrupt is caused by any peripheral device by sending a signal through a specified pin to the microprocessor. Whereas internal interrupts are initiated by the state of the CPU (e.g. divide by zero error) or by an instruction. So, the software interrupt is one which interrupts the normal execution of a program of the microprocessor. The 8086 has two hardware interrupt pins namely NMI and INTR.In the two ,the NMI is a non-maskable interrupt and the INTR interrupt request is a maskable interrupt which has lower proirity .The third pin associated with the hardware interrupts are the INTA called interrupt acknowledge. NMI : The processor provides a single non-maskable interrupt pin (NMI) which has higher priority than the maskable interrupt request pin (INTR). A typical use would be to activate a power failure routine. The NMI is edge-triggered on a LOW-to-HIGH transition. The activation of this pin causes a type 2 interrupt. INTR: The 8086 provides a single interrupt request input (INTR) which can be masked internally by software with the resetting of the interrupt enable FLAG status bit. The interrupt request signal is level triggered. It is internally synchronized during each clock cycle on the high-going edge of CLK. To be responded to, INTR must be present (HIGH) during the clock period preceding the end of the current instruction or the end of a whole move for a block type instruction. Software Interrupts: Coming to the software interrupts , 8086 can generate 256 interrupt types through the instruction INT n .Any of the 256 interrupt types can be generated by specifying the interrupt type after INT instruction . For example INT 33 will cause type 33 interrupt. I k Bytes of memory from 00000H to 003FF H is set aside to store the starting address of the Interrupt service sub-routine(ISS) programs in an 8086 based systems. To store the starting address of the each ISS , four bytes of memory space is required.Two bytes are for storing CS value and two bytes for IP value. The starting address of an ISS stored in 1kB of memory space is called Interrupt pointer or Interrupt vector.The 1kB memory space acts as a table and it is called Interrupt Vector Table(IVT).
  12. 12. Dept. of ECE Page 12 The 256 interrupt pointers have been numbered from 0 to 255.The number given to an interrupt pointer denotes the type of the interrupt. For example Type0,Type1,Type2 etc…The starting address of the ISS for type0 interrupt is 000000H.For type1 interrupt is 00004H similarly for type2 is 00008H ……In the IVT the first five pointers are dedicated interrupt pointers. They are : TYPE 0 :Interrupt corresponds to divide by zero situation. TYPE 1: Interrupt corresponds to Single step execution during the debugging of a program. TYPE 2: Interrupts to non-maskable NMI interrupt. TYPE 3 :Interrupt corresponds to break point interrupt. TYPE 4 :Interrupt corresponds to Overflow interrupt. The Interrupts from Type 5 to Type 31 are reserved for other advanced microprocessors,and from 32 to Type 255 are available for hardware and software interrupts. Differences between CALL and INT : In fact both the instructions CALL and INT n will interrupt the execution of the main program. But there are certain differences between their functioning. They are given below in the table.
  13. 13. Dept. of ECE Page 13 S.No CALL Instruction INTn instruction 1 Upon the execution ,the control will jump to any one of the 1 MB of memory locations . Upon execution the control will jump to a fixed location in the vector table. 2 The user can insert in the sequence of instructions of a program Can occur at any time activated by hardware 3 Once initiated it cannot be masked Can be masked 4 When initiated ,it stores the CS:IP of the next instruction on the stack When initiated ,it stores the CS:IP of the next instruction and also the flag register on the stack. 5 The last instruction of the subroutine will be RET The last instruction of the ISS will be IRET
  14. 14. Dept. of ECE Page 14 CHAPTER-5 5.1 ADDRESSING MODES The different ways in which a source operand is denoted in an instruction are known as the addressing modes. There are 8 different addressing modes in 8086 programming. They are : 1. Immediate addressing mode 2. Register addressing mode 3. Direct addressing mode 4. Register indirect addressing mode 5. Based addressing mode 6. Indexed addressing mode. 7. Based indexed addressing mode 8. Based, Indexed with displacement. 1.Immediate addressing mode: The addressing mode in which the data operand is a part of the instruction itself is called Immediate addressing mode. For Ex: MOV CX, 4847 H ADD AX, 2456 H MOV AL, FFH 2.Register addressing mode : Register addressing mode means, a register is the source of an operand for an instruction. For Ex : MOV AX, BX copies the contents of the 16-bit BX register into the 16-bit AX register. EX : ADD CX,DX 3.Direct addressing mode: The addressing mode in which the effective address of the memory location at which the data operand is stored is given in the instruction.i.e the effective address is just a 16-bit number is written directly in the instruction. For Ex: MOV BX, [1354H] MOV BL,[0400H] . The square brackets around the 1354 H denotes the contents of the memory location. When executed, this instruction will copy the contents of the memory location into BX register. This addressing mode is called direct because the displacement of the operand from the segment base is specified directly in the instruction.
  15. 15. Dept. of ECE Page 15 4.Register indirect addressing mode: Register indirect addressing allows data to be addressed at any memory location through an offset address held in any of the following registers: BP, BX, DI and SI. Ex: MOV AX, [BX]. Suppose the register BX contains 4675H ,the contents of the 4675 H are moved to AX. ADD CX,{BX} 5.Based addressing mode: The offset address of the operand is given by the sum of contents of the BX or BP registers and an 8-bit or 16-bit displacement. Ex: MOV DX, [BX+04] ADD CL,[BX+08] 6.Indexed Addressing mode: The operands offset address is found by adding the contents of SI or DI register and 8-bit or 16-bit displacements. Ex: MOV BX,[SI+06] ADD AL,[DI+08] 7.Based -index addressing mode: The offset address of the operand is computed by summing the base register to the contents of an Index register. Ex: ADD CX,[BX+SI] MOV AX,[BX+DI] 8.Based Iindexd with displacement mode: The operands offset is computed by adding the base register contents, an Index registers contents and 8 or 16-bit displacement. Ex : MOV AX,[BX+DI+08] ADD CX,[BX+SI+16]
  16. 16. Dept. of ECE Page 16 CHAPTER-6 6.1 INSTRUCTION SET OF 8086: The 8086 microprocessor supports 6 types of Instructions. They are 1. Data transfer instructions 2. Arithmetic instructions 3. Bit manipulation instructions 4. String instructions 5. Program Execution Transfer instructions (Branch & loop Instructions) 6. Processor control instructions 1. Data Transfer instructions : These instructions are used to transfer the data from source operand to destination operand. All the store, move, load, exchange ,input and output instructions belong to to this group. General purpose byte or word transfer instructions: MOV : This instruction copies a word or a byte of data from some source to a destination. This destination can be a register or a memory location. The source can be a register, a memory location or an immediate number. Example MOV AX,BX MOV AX,500H MOV AX,[SI] MOV AX,[2000H] MOV AX,50H[BX] Direct loading of the segment registers with immediate data is not permitted PUSH : Push to stack This instruction pushes the contents of the specified register/memory location on to the stack. The stack pointer is decremented by 2, after each execution of this instruction Example PUSH AX PUSH DX PUSH [5000H] POP : Pop from stack. This instruction when executed, loads the specified register/memory location with the contents of the memory location of which the address is formed using the current stack segment and stack pointer. The stack pointer is incremented by 2. Example POP AX POP DS POP [5000H]
  17. 17. Dept. of ECE Page 17 PUSHA : Push all registers to the stack POPA : Pop the words from stack to all registers XCHG : Exchange byte or word This instruction exchange the contentrs of a specified source and destination operands. Example XCHG [5000H], AX XCHG BX,AX XLAT : Translate a byte in AL using a table in memory. Example LEA BX, TABLE1 MOV AL, 04H XLAT Simple input and output port transfer instructions IN : Reads a byte or word from specified port to the accumulator. Example IN AL, 03H IN AX, DX OUT : Sends out a byte or word from accumulator to a specified port. Example OUT 03H, AL OUT DX, AX Special address transfer instructions LEA : Load effective address of operand into specified register Eg. LEA reg, offset LDS : Load DS register and other specified register from memory. [reg] [mem] [DS] [mem +2] Eg. LDS reg, mem LES : Load ES register and other specified register from memory. [reg] [mem] [reg] [mem +2]
  18. 18. Dept. of ECE Page 18 Eg. LES reg, mem 3.Flag transfer registers LAHF : Load AH with the low byte of the flag register [AH] <---- [Flags low byte] Eg LAHF SAHF : Store AH register to low byte of flag register. [Flagslowbyte] <---- [AH] Eg. SAHF PUSHF : Copy flag register to top of the stack . [SP]<----[SP]-2 [[SP]]<---[Flags] Eg. PUSHF POPF : Copy word at top of the stack to flag register. Flags]<----[[SP]] [SP] <--- [SP+2] 2. Arithmetic instructions : These instructions are used to perform various mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division etc…. Addition instructions 1.ADD : Add specified byte to byte or word to word . The add instruction adds the contents of the source operand to the destination operand Eg. ADDAX,0100H ADDAX,BX ADDAX,[SI] ADDAX,[5000H] ADD[5000H],0100H ADD 0100H 2.ADC : Add with carry. This instruction performs the same operation as the add instruction, but adds the carry flag to the result. Eg. ADC0100H ADCAX,BX ADCAX,[SI] ADCAX,[5000] ADC [5000],0100H 3.INC : Increment specified byte or specified word by 1.
  19. 19. Dept. of ECE Page 19 4.AAA : ASCII adjust after addition. The AAA instruction is executed after an ADD instruction that adds two ASCII coded operand to give a byte of result in AL . The AA Eg. ADD CL,DL ; [CL] = 32H = ASCII for 2 , [DL] = 35H = ASCII for 5, Result [CL] = 67H MOV AL, CL ; move ASCII result into AL since AAA adjust only [ AL] AAA ; [AL] = 07, unpacked BCD for 7 A instruction converts the resulting contents of AI to a unpacked decimal digit. 5.DAA : Decimal (BCD) adjust after addition. Subtraction instructions SUB : Subtract byte from byte or word from word. Subtract The subtract instructiion subtracts the source operand from the destination operand and the result is left in the destination operand. Eg. SUBAX,0100H SUBAX,BX SUBAX,[SI] SUB AX,[5000H] SUB [5000H], 0100H SBB : Subtract with borrow. The subtract with borrow instruction subtracts the source operand and the borrow flag (CF) which may reflect the result of the previous calculations, from the destination operand. Eg: SBBAX,0100H SBBAX,BX SBBAX,[SI] SBBAX,[5000H] SBB [5000H], 0100H DEC : Decrement specified byte or word by 1. The decrement instruction subtract 1 from the contents of the specified register or memory location. Eg. DEC AX DEC [5000h] NEG : Negate or invert each bit of a specified byte or word and add 1(2‘s complement). The negate instruction forms 2's complement of the specified destination in the instruction. The destinatiopn can be a register or a memory location . This instruction can be implemented by inverting each bit and adding 1 to it. Eg NEGAL
  20. 20. Dept. of ECE Page 20 AL= 00110101 35H Replace number in AL with its 2's complement AL = 1100 1011 = CBH CMP : Compare two specified byte or two specified words. This instruction compares the source operand, which may be a register or a memory location, with a destination operand that may be a memory location. Eg. CMPBX,0100H CMPAX,0100H CMP[5000H],0100H CMPBX,[SI] CMP BX, CX AAS : ASCII adjust after subtraction. DAS : Decimal adjust after subtraction Multiplication instructions MUL : Multiply unsigned byte by byte or unsigned word or word. Eg. MULBH;(AX) (AL)*(AX) MULCH;(DX)(AX) (AX)*(CX) MULWORDPTR[SI];(DX)(AX) (AX)*([SI[) IMUL : Multiply signed bye by byte or signed word by word. Eg. IMULBH IMULCX IMUL [SI] AAM : ASCII adjust after multiplication. Division instructions 1.DIV : Divide unsigned word by byte or unsigned double word by word. Eg DIV CL ; word in AX / byte in CL ,quotient im AL , remainder in AH. DIV CX ; Double word in DX and AX / word in CX and Quotient in AX , remainder in DX 2.IDIV : Divide signed word by byte or signed double word by word. 3.AAD : ASCII adjust after division. This instruction converts two unpacked BCD digits in AH and AL to the equivalent binary number in AL. This adjustment must be done before dividing the two unpacked BCD digits in AX by an unpacked BCD byte. IN the instruction sequence , this instruction appears before DIV instruction.
  21. 21. Dept. of ECE Page 21 Eg: AX 05 08 AAD result in AL 00 3A; 58D= 3A h in AL 4.CBW : Fill upper byte of word with copies of sign bit of lower byte. This instruction copies the sign of a byte in AL to all the bits in AH. AH is Eg. CBW AX = 0000 0000 1001 1000 Convert signed byte in AL signed word in AX Result in AX = 1111 1111 1001 1000then said to be sign extension of AL. 5.CWD : Fill upper word of double word with sign bit of lower word. This instruction copies the sign of a byte in AL to all the bits in AH. AH is then said to be a signed extension of AL Eg, CWD Convert signed word in AX to signed double word in DX : AX DX = 1111 1111 1111 1111 Result in AX = 1111 0000 1100 0001 3. Bit Manipulation instructions : These instructions include logical , shift and rotate instructions in which a bit of the data is involved. (a) Logical instructions 1.NOT :Invert each bit of a byte or word. 2AND : ANDing each bit in a byte or word with the corresponding bit in another byte or word. 3. OR : ORing each bit in a byte or word with the corresponding bit in another byte or word. 4.XOR : Exclusive OR each bit in a byte or word with the corresponding bit in another byte or word. 5.TEST :AND operands to update flags, but don‘t change operands. (b) Shift instructions 1.SHL/SAL : Shift bits of a word or byte left, put zero(S) in LSBs. 2.SHR : Shift bits of a word or byte right, put zero(S) in MSBs. 3.SAR : Shift bits of a word or byte right, copy old MSB into new MSB.
  22. 22. Dept. of ECE Page 22 © Rotate instructions 1.ROL : Rotate bits of byte or word left, MSB to LSB and to Carry Flag [CF]. 2.ROR : Rotate bits of byte or word right, LSB to MSB and to Carry Flag [CF]. 3.RCR :Rotate bits of byte or word right, LSB TO CF and CF to MSB. 4.RCL :Rotate bits of byte or word left, MSB TO CF and CF to LSB 4. String instructions A string is a series of bytes or a series of words in sequential memory locations. A string often consists of ASCII character codes. 1.REP : An instruction prefix. Repeat following instruction until CX=0 2.REPE/REPZ : Repeat following instruction until CX=0 or zero flag ZF=1. 3.REPNE/REPNZ : Repeat following instruction until CX=0 or zero flag ZF=1. 4.MOVS/MOVSB/MOVSW: Move byte or word from one string to another. 5.COMS/COMPSB/COMPSW: Compare two string bytes or two string words. 6.INS/INSB/INSW: Input string byte or word from port. 7.OUTS/OUTSB/OUTSW : Output string byte or word to port. 8.SCAS/SCASB/SCASW: Scan a string. Compare a string byte with a byte in AL or a string word with a word in AX. 9.LODS/LODSB/LODSW: Load string byte in to AL or string word into AX. 5.Program Execution Transfer instructions These instructions are similar to branching or looping instructions. These instructions include conditional & unconditional jump or loop instructions. Unconditional transfer instructions: CALL : Call a procedure, save return address on stack. RET : Return from procedure to the main program. JMP : Goto specified address to get next instruction.
  23. 23. Dept. of ECE Page 23 Conditional transfer instructions JA/JNBE : Jump if above / jump if not below or equal JAE/JNB : Jump if above /jump if not below. JBE/JNA : Jump if below or equal/ Jump if not above. JC : jump if carry flag CF=1. JE/JZ : jump if equal/jump if zero flag ZF=1. JG/JNLE : Jump if greater/ jump if not less than or equal. JGE/JNL : jump if greater than or equal/ jump if not less than. JL/JNGE : jump if less than/ jump if not greater than or equal. JLE/JNG : jump if less than or equal/ jump if not greater than. JNC : jump if no carry (CF=0). JNE/JNZ : jump if not equal/ jump if not zero(ZF=0). JNO : jump if no overflow(OF=0). JNP/JPO : jump if not parity/ jump if parity odd(PF=0). JNS : jump if not sign(SF=0). JO : jump if overflow flag(OF=1). JP/JPE : jump if parity/jump if parity even(PF=1). JS : jump if sign(SF=1). 6.Iteration control instructions These instructions are used to execute a series of instructions for certain number of times. LOOP :Loop through a sequence of instructions until CX=0. LOOPE/LOOPZ : Loop through a sequence of instructions while ZF=1 and CX = 0.
  24. 24. Dept. of ECE Page 24 LOOPNE/LOOPNZ : Loop through a sequence of instructions while ZF=0 and CX =0. JCXZ : jump to specified address if CX=0. 7. Interrupt instructions INT : Interrupt program execution, call service procedure. INTO : Interrupt program execution if OF=1. IRET : Return from interrupt service procedure to main program. 8.High level language interface instructions ENTER : enter procedure LEAVE :Leave procedure. BOUND : Check if effective address within specified array bounds 9.Processor control instructions Flag set/clear instructions STC : Set carry flag CF to 1 CLC : Clear carry flag CF to 0 CMC : Complement the state of the carry flag CF STD : Set direction flag DF to 1 (decrement string pointers) CLD : Clear direction flag DF to 0 STI : Set interrupt enable flag to 1(enable INTR input) CLI : Clear interrupt enable Flag to 0 (disable INTR input) 10. External Hardware synchronization instructions HLT : Halt (do nothing) until interrupt or reset WAIT : Wait (Do nothing) until signal on the test pin is low ESC : Escape to external coprocessor such as 8087 or 8089
  25. 25. Dept. of ECE Page 25 LOCK : An instruction prefix. Prevents another processor from taking the bus while the adjacent instruction executes. 11. No operation instruction NOP : No action except fetch and decode
  26. 26. Dept. of ECE Page 26 CHAPTER-7 7.1 ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES : Assembler directives are the directions to the assembler which indicate how an operand or section of the program is to be processed. These are also called pseudo operations which are not executable by the microprocessor. The various directives are explained below. 1. ASSUME : The ASSUME directive is used to inform the assembler the name of the logical segment it should use for a specified segment. Ex: ASSUME DS: DATA tells the assembler that for any program instruction which refers to the data segment ,it should use the logical segment called DATA. 2.DB -Define byte. It is used to declare a byte variable or set aside one or more storage locations of type byte in memory. For example, CURRENT_VALUE DB 36H tells the assembler to reserve 1 byte of memory for a variable named CURRENT_ VALUE and to put the value 36 H in that memory location when the program is loaded into RAM . 3. DW -Define word. It tells the assembler to define a variable of type word or to reserve storage locations of type word in memory. 4. DD(define double word) :This directive is used to declare a variable of type double word or restore memory locations which can be accessed as type double word. 5.DQ (define quadword) :This directive is used to tell the assembler to declare a variable 4 words in length or to reserve 4 words of storage in memory . 6.DT (define ten bytes):It is used to inform the assembler to define a variable which is 10 bytes in length or to reserve 10 bytes of storage in memory. 7. EQU –Equate It is used to give a name to some value or symbol. Every time the assembler finds the given name in the program, it will replace the name with the value or symbol we have equated with that name 8.ORG -Originate : The ORG statement changes the starting offset address of the data. It allows to set the location counter to a desired value at any point in the program.For example the statement ORG 3000H tells the assembler to set the location counter to 3000H. 9 .PROC- Procedure: It is used to identify the start of a procedure. Or subroutine. 10. END- End program .This directive indicates the assembler that this is the end of the program module.The assembler ignores any statements after an END directive.
  27. 27. Dept. of ECE Page 27 11. ENDP- End procedure: It indicates the end of the procedure (subroutine) to the assembler. 12.ENDS-End Segment: This directive is used with the name of the segment to indicate the end of that logical segment. Ex: CODE SEGMENT : Start of logical segment containing code CODE ENDS : End of the segment named CODE.
  28. 28. Dept. of ECE Page 28 PULSE AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS
  29. 29. Dept. of ECE Page 29 Chapter -1 1.1 LINEAR WAVE SHAPING Timing circuits networks composed of resistors, capacitors and inductors are called linear network and they do not change the waveform of a sine wave when it is transmitted through them. On the other hand when non-sinusoidal waveforms, (e.g. step, ramp, exponential) are applied to the input of such networks the output signal may have very little resembles with the input waveform. The action of a linear network in producing a waveform at its output different from its input is called linear wave shaping. The wave shaping is used to perform any one of the following functions. 1. To hold the waveform to a particular d.c. level. 2. To generate one wave form the other 3. To limit the voltage level of the waveform of some presenting value and suppressing all other voltage levels in excess of the present level. 4. To cut-off the positive and negative portions of the input waveform. Shaping circuits may be either series RC or series RL circuits. The series RC and RL circuits electrically perform the mathematical operation of integration and differentiation. Therefore, the circuits used to perform these operations are called integrators and differentiator. The differentiator circuits are used to generate sharp narrow pulses either from distorted pulse waveform or from rectangular wave forms. The integrator circuits are required to generate a voltage, which are required to generate a voltage, which increases or decreases linearly with time. Non-sinusoidal Waveforms Any waveform whose shape is different from that of sinusoidal wave is called a non- sinusoidal waveform. For example pulse square, symmetrical square triangular and saw- tooth are non-sinusoidal waves. When one quantity is dependent upon some other variable quantity varies with respect to others. In case of electronic circuits function usually means that current or voltage varies with respect to time. All these waveform are the function voltage or current with respect to time such as step, ramp and exponential are explained as under: Step Function:
  30. 30. Dept. of ECE Page 30 A step function shown in Fig. 1(a), makes an instantaneous jump from one steady value to another steady value. A step means an instantaneous change in level. Fig: step function In such a case, voltage maintains zero value for all times t < 0 and maintains the value V for all times t > 0 is called a step voltage. Ramp Function: A ramp function shown in Figure 1(b) isone that voltage increases or decreases linearly with time. Slope of the function is constant. In such a case, voltage is zero for t < 0 and increases linearly with time for t > 0.it is linear change in function with respect to time called a ramp. Fig:ramp function Exponential Function: An exponential function is a function of voltage that increases or decreases exponentially with time. In such a case, voltage is zero for t < 0 and increases nonlinearly with time t called an exponential voltage. The terms used for exponential are ex and e-x . Exponential quantity gap is known as an exponential curve
  31. 31. Dept. of ECE Page 31 Fig: exponential function 1.2 Different Types of Waveforms Let us now discus the pulse square, symmetrical square, Triangular and saw-tooth waveforms. Pulse waveform Figure 2(a) shows the waveform of an ideal pulse. The pulse amplitude is V and the pulse duration is tp. It is evident from Fig. 2(b) and (c) that the pulse may be considered as the sum of the step voltage +V, whose discontinuity occur at t = 0 and a step voltage —V, whose discontinuity occurs at t = tp. The pulse waveform find extensive use is almost every field of electronics such as communication, computer, defense equipment, etc. Square waveform A waveform which maintains itself at one constant voltage level V1 for a time T1 and at another constant level V2 for time T2 and is repetitive with a period T = T1 + T2 as shown in Fig. 2 (a) is called a square waveform. The square waveform is used in digital electronic circuits, radars and as synchronizing pulses in television.
  32. 32. Dept. of ECE Page 32 Fig:squarewave. Triangular waveform A waveform which increase linearly with time to a voltage level V for a time T/2 and then decreases linearly to its original level for a time T/2 and is repetitive with a period T as shown in Fig. 4(a) is called triangular waveform. It may be noted from this figure, that a triangular wave may be considered as the sum of ramp voltage, which incre.ases at a rate of 2V/T for a time T/2 and the ramp voltage which decreases at a rate of —2V/T for the remaining time T/2. The triangular waveform is used in scanning circuits, where a uniform left-to-right scan is required as in computer displays. These are also used in timing circuit for electronics applications Fig:Triangular waveform Sawtooth waveform A waveform increases linearly with time to a voltage level V for a time T and then changes abruptly to its original level and is repetitive as shown in Fig. 4(b) is called sawtooth waveform. It is also called sweep waveform or time-base waveform. The sawtooth waveform is used in the scanning circuit of cathode ray oscilloscopes and televisions.
  33. 33. Dept. of ECE Page 33 Fig:Saw tooth waveform
  34. 34. Dept. of ECE Page 34 Chapter-2 2.1 Clipping circuits A clipper is a device which limits, remove or prevents some portion of the wave form (input signal voltage) above or below a certain level In other words the circuit which limits positive or negative amplitude ,or both is called chipping circuit. The clipper circuits are of the following types. 1. Series positive clipper 2. Series negative clipper 3. Shunt or parallel clipper 4. Shunt or parallel positive negative 5. Clipper Dual (combination)Diode clipper 2.1.1 SERIES POSITIVE CLIPPER: In a series positive clipper, a diode is connected in series with the output, as shown in Fig 1(a). During the positive half of the input voltage, the terminal A is positive with respect to B. This reverse biases the diode and it acts as an open switch Therefore all the applied voltage drops across the diode and none across the resistor As a result of this there is no output voltage during the positive half cycle of the input voltage During the negative half cycle of the input voltage the terminal B is positive with respect to A. Therefore it forward biases the diode and it acts as a closed switch. Thus there is on voltage drop across diode during the negative half cycle of the input voltage. All the input voltage is dropped across the resistor as shown in the output wave form
  35. 35. Dept. of ECE Page 35 Clippers prevent either or both polarities of a wave form exceeding a specific amplitude level. However a positive Clipper is that which removes or clips the positive half completely. Hence the circuit of the Fig 2.1 is called a positive Clipper Here it may he noted the diode acts a series switch between the source and load. Due to this reason the circuit is called series positive clipper. (a) SERIES-POSITIVE CLIPPER WITH BIAS: Sometimes it is desired to remove a Small portion of positive or apposite halt cycle of the signal voltage (input signal). For this purpose a biased clipper is used Fig 2 shows the circuit of a biased series positive clipper
  36. 36. Dept. of ECE Page 36 It may be observed that the clipping takes place during the positive cycle only when the input voltage is greater thence battery voltage (i.e. Vi > VB). The chipping level can be shifted up or down by varying the bias voltage (VB) 2.1.2 SERIES NEGATIVE CLIPPER: In a series negative clipper a diode is connected in a direction appositive to that of a positive clipper Fig 3 shows the circuit of a negative clipper During the positive half cycle pf the voltage, the terminal A is positive with respect to the terminal B There for the diode is forward biased and it acts it as a closed switch As a result ,all the input voltage appears across the resistor as shown in Fig 3(b). During the negative half cycle of the input voltage, the terminal B is positive with respect to the terminal A. Therefore the diode is reverse biased and it acts as an open switch, Thus there
  37. 37. Dept. of ECE Page 37 is no voltage drop across the resistor during the negative half cycle as shown in the output waveform. It may be observed that if it is desired to remove or clip the negative half -cycle of the input , the only thing is to be done is to reverse the polarities of the diode in the circuit shown in Fig 1 such a clipper is then called a series negative clipper (a) SERIES-NEGATIVE CLIPPER WITH BIAS: Fig 4 shows the circuit of a biased series negative diver. In this circuit clipping take place during the negative half cycle only when the input voltage Vi > VB she clipping level can be shifted up or down by varying the bias voltage ( -VB)
  38. 38. Dept. of ECE Page 38 2.1.3 SHUNT OR PARALLEL POSITIVE CLIPPER: A parallel clipper circuit uses the same diode theory and circuit operation a resistor and diode are connected in series with the input signal and the output signal is developed across the diode. The output is in parallel with the diode hence the circuit name parallel clipper the parallel clipper can limit either the positive or negative alternation of the input signal Fig 5 shows the circuit of a shunt positive clipper In this circuit. The diode acts as a closed switch when the input voltage is positive (i.e. Vi > 0 and as an open switch when the input voltage is negative (i.e. Vi< 0) the output waveform is the same as that of a series positive clipper in the parallel clippers the alp will develop when the diode is cut off
  39. 39. Dept. of ECE Page 39 (a) SHUNT OR PARALLEL POSITIVE CLIPPER WITH BIAS: As is in Fig 6 (a), positive terminal of the battery is connected to the cathode of the diode. This causes the diode to be reversed biased at all times except when the input signal is more positive the bias voltage(i e Vi > VB). it will be interesting to know that if the polarity of the bias voltage is reversed , the resulting circuits will be as shown in Fig 6(b) Here the input signal lying above the voltage —VB is clipped the waveforms of the of the output voltage are also shown with figures
  40. 40. Dept. of ECE Page 40 2.1.4 SHUNT OR PARALLEL NEGATIVE CLIPPER: The negative clipper has allowed to pass the positive half cycle of the input voltage and clipped the negative half cycle completely Fig 7 shows the shunt (parallel) negative clipper In such a circuit the diode acts as a closed switch for a negative input voltage (i.e. Vi < O) and as an open switch for a positive input voltage (i.e. Vi O) the output waveform of the Circuit is the same as that of series negative clipper. (a) SHUNT OR PARALLEL NEGATIVE CLIPPER WITH BIAS In such a circuit clipping take place during the negative half cycle only when the input voltage (Vi < VB) the clipping level can be shifted up or down by varying the bias voltage (—VB). It will be interesting to know that if the polarity of the bias voltage is reversed, then the resulting circuits will be as shown in Fig 8 (b) Here the entire signal below the voltage level VII has been clipped off
  41. 41. Dept. of ECE Page 41 2.1.5 DUAL (COMBINATION) DIODE CLIPPER The type of clipper combines a parallel negative clipper with negative bias (D1 and B2) and a parallel positive bias (D1 and B1). Hence the combination of a biased positive clipper and a biased negative clipper is called combination or dual diode clipper. Such a clipper circuit can clip at both two in dependent levels depending upon the bias voltages. Fig 9(a) show the circuit of a dual (combination) clipper Let us suppose a sinusoidal ac voltage is applied at the input terminals of the circuit. Then during the positive half cycle, the diode D1 is forward biased, while diode D2 is reverse. biased. Therefore the diode D1 will conduct and will acts as a short circuit. On the other hand, diode D2will acts as an open circuit. However, the value of output voltage cannot exceed the voltage level of VB1 as Shown in Fig 9.
  42. 42. Dept. of ECE Page 42 Similarly during the negative input half cycle the diode D2 acts as a short circuit while the diode D1 as an open circuit However the value of output voltage cannot exceed the voltage level of VB2 It may be noted that the clipping levels of the circuit be varied by changing the values of VB1 and VB2 If the values of VB1 and VB2 are equal, the circuit will clip both the positive and negative half cycles at the same voltage level. Such a circuit is known as a symmetrical clipper.
  43. 43. Dept. of ECE Page 43 Chapter-3 CLAMPING CIRCUITS Certain applications in electronics require that the upper or lower extremity of a wave be fixed at a specific value In such applications ,a clamping/clamper circuits are used. A circuit that places either the positive or negative peak of a signal at a desired D.C level is known as a clamping circuit. A clamping circuit introduces (or restores) a D.C level to an A.C signal. Thus a clamping circuit is also known as D.C restorer, or D.C reinserted or a baseline stabilizer. The following are two general types of clamping. 1. Positive clamping occurs when negative peaks raised or clamped to ground or on the zero level In other words, it pushes the signal upwards so that negative peaks fall on the zero level. 2. Negative clamping occurs when positive peaks raised or clamped to ground or on the zero level In other words, it pushes the signal downwards so that the positive peaks fall on the zero level. In both cases the shape of the original signal has not changed, only there is vertical shift in the signal Fig. 1 shows the clamping wave form.
  44. 44. Dept. of ECE Page 44 3.1 Diode clampers 3.1.1 POSITIVE CLAMPER Fig 2 shows the circuit of a positive clamper It consists of a diode and a capacitor the clamper output is taken across the load resistance R. During the negative half cycle of the input voltage, the diode conducts heavily and behaves as a closed switch At the negative peak, the capacitor is charged to maximum voltage V slightly beyond the negative peak, the diode is shunt off and the capacitor charged to Vm behaves as a battery during the positive half cycle of the input signal. The diode is reversed biased and the output voltage will be equal to Vm + V this gives positive clamped voltage and is called positive clamper circuit. Positive clamper with bias Biased clamper circuit operates in exactly the same manner as unbiased clampers. The different is only that a dc bias voltage is add in series with the diode and resistor. A biased clamper means that the clamping can be done at any voltage level other than zero
  45. 45. Dept. of ECE Page 45 Fig 3(a) shows the circuit of positive clamper with positive biased Here a battery of 10 V is added in such a way that the clamping take place positively at 10V. Similarly, it is possible to clamp the input wave form positively at -10V by reversing the battery connections as shown in Fig 3(b).
  46. 46. Dept. of ECE Page 46 3.1.2 NEGATIVE CLAMPER Fig 4 shows the circuit of a negative clamper during the positive half cycle of the input signal, the capacitor is charged to Vm, with the polarity shown in Fig 4. Observe that voltage across the capacitor is opposing the input voltage V. This gives negative clamped voltage and is called negative clamper circuit. Negative Clamper With bias Fig 5 (a) shows the circuit of negative clamper with positive bias. With no input signal the capacitor charges to the battery voltage and the output is positive because the negative side of the batter is grounded. The output waveform is clamped to +10V, the value of the battery. Since this is a negative clamper (cathode to ground), the top of the output wave touch the +10V reference line
  47. 47. Dept. of ECE Page 47 Similarly it is possible to clamp the input waveform negatively at by reversing the battery connections as shown in Fig 5(b) 3.2 ASYNCHRONOUS AND SYNCHRONOUS CLAMPING Clamping circuit discussed above are example of clamping circuit in which the time during which the clamping is effective is controlled by the signal itself is called non synchronous or Asynchronous On the other hand, When the time of clamping is not determined directly by the signal but is determined rather by an auxiliary voltage. Such circuits are called synchronous clamping circuit. For example, suppose the wave form of Fig 6(a) is to be used to displace the beam of a cathode-ray tube linearly with time, first in one direction and then in other direction from some fixed initial point. If the signal is transmitted through - an ac coupling network whose. low -frequency time constant is not very large in comparison with the time interval T1, signal will distort as shown in Fig, 6
  48. 48. Dept. of ECE Page 48 (b). The cause defect in the waveform is that the two displacements will start for different point A and B Also the d c level VR is lost if however, the signal is passed through the circuit of Fig 7 and if switch S is closed during time interval T2 and is open during time T1, the wave form will receive as in Fig 6(c) The pips which appear when the voltage returns to the level R will be reduced to' infinitesimally narrow spikes as the resistance of the switch Rf approaches zero.
  49. 49. Dept. of ECE Page 49 It is needed that the switch S be open throughout the time interval T1, but it is not necessary that thy switch be closed of the entire interval T2. It is only needed that the switch be closed for a period long enough to allow the capacitor C to acquire or lose enough charge to bring the output terminal to the reference level VR 3.3 TRANSISTOR CLAMPING Let us consider an amplifier circuit in which fixed current bias is obtained by connecting a resistor RB from the base to the supply voltage as shown in Fig 8. If the signal swing is small then base to emitter junction always conduct. The emitter base junction voltage remains forward -biased and the transistor behaves just like a small signal class-A amplifier.
  50. 50. Dept. of ECE Page 50 On the other hand, it a large amplitude signal is employed. Clamping will take place at the positive extremities of the wave form and transistor will operate below the cut-off during a portion of each cycle If the transistor goes in to saturation in the absence of a signal, by the combination of Vcc and RB it means that transistor is driven between cut- off and saturation by an external signal the input and output waveform arc also shown with the circuit. 3.4 USES OF CLAMPING CIRCUITS Clamping circuit are used to shift any part of the input signal waveform and can be maintained at a specified voltage level Such circuit are used in television receivers to restore the original d.c reference signal (corresponding to the brightness level of the picture) to the video Signal The clamping of peak (i.e. 2Vm, 3Vm, 4Vm etc.,) Such to circuit are known as voltage multipliers These circuit are used to supply power to thigh voltage/low current devices like cathode ray tubes used in Television receivers, oscilloscopes and computer displays.They used in analogue video processing to define portions of the luminance waveform (black level, sync pulses etc.) to pre-determined voltage levels. Also previously used as a method of modulating vacuum tube AM transmitters, e.g. a tetrode power amplifier tube being screen modulated by a triode clamp tube. Voltage Multiplier Voltage multiplier is a circuit which produces an output d.c voltage whose value is a multiple of peak a.c input voltage (i.e., 2Vm, 3Vm, 4Vm and so on). SILK circuits are used as a power supply for high voltage/low current device like cathode ray tube. Voltage multiplier is a modified capacitor filter circuit that delivers a dc voltage twice or rnore times of the peak value (amplitude) of the input ac voltage. Such power supplies are used for high-voltage and low-current devices such as cathode-ray tubes (the picture tubes in TV receivers, oscilloscopes and computer display). Here we will consider half-wave voltage doubler, full-wave voltage doubler and voltage tripler and quadrupler Half-Wave Voltage Doubler: The circuit of a half-wave voltage doubler is given in figure shown below. During the positive half cycle of the ac input, voltage, diode D1 being forward biased conducts (diode D2 does not conduct because it is reverse-biased) and charges capacitor C1 upto peak values of secondary voltage Vsmax with the polarity, as marked in figure shown below
  51. 51. Dept. of ECE Page 51 During the negative half-cycle of the input voltage diode D2 gets forward biased and conducts charging capacitor C2. For the negative half cycle, the lower end of the transformer secondary is positive while upper end is negative. The polarity of the capacitor C2 has also been marked in the figure. Now starting from the bottom of the transformer secondary and moving clockwise and applying Kirchhoffs voltage law to the outer loop
  52. 52. Dept. of ECE Page 52 CHAPTER-4 4.1 COMPARATOR A comparator is a device which is used to sense when an arbitrary varying signal reaches some threshold or reference level. Comparators find application in many electronics systems: for example, they may be used to sense when a linear ramp reaches some defined voltage level, or to indicate whether or not a pulse has an amplitude greater than a particular value. Provided that suitable output limiting is provided, comparator outputs may be used to drive logic circuits. The Schmitt trigger is an important switching circuit that is widely used in digital systems. Its stable state is determined by the amplitude of the input voltage. For a given circuit two finite values of input voltages, called the upper trip point (UTP) and the lower trip point (LTP), cause the circuit to switch from one stable state to the another. Thus the circuit may be used to discriminate between two D.C. voltage levels: in this capacity it is known as a comparator The non-linear circuits to perform the operation of clipping may also be used to perform the operation of comparison. The basic difference between the two is that in comparator there is no interest in reproducing any part of the signal waveform. For example, the comparator output may consist of an abrupt departure from source quiescent level which occurs at the time the signal attains the reference level but is otherwise independent of the signal. Or the comparator output may be a sharp pulse which occurs when signal and reference are equal. If we assume that ramp signal is applied to the input, as shown in Figure 1(a) the output Figure 1(b) is constant VR volts until the ramp signal reduces a value equal to VR volts until the ramp signal reduces a value equal to VR volts then the diode conducts and the input signal appears at the output.
  53. 53. Dept. of ECE Page 53 In a circuit a clipper was important that the portion of the wave form passed by the diode was not distorted. The exact time t1 at which the diode began conducting was of secondary importance. Now this circuit will be considered as a voltage comparator, (since it compares the varying signal voltage with the reference voltage and hence the name voltage comparator) and of primary concern is the time at which the input signal voltage reaches the reference level VR. The shape of the output waveform is of secondary importance. A diode used for this purpose called pick-off diode. Similarly with an increasing ramp at its input the circuit of Figure 1(c) will be continue to operate as a comparator. Its response will be same as shown in Figure 2(b). The diode of this circuit is then referred to as a breakaway diode. The other two circuits shown in Figure 1 (a) and (b) will act as comparators with a decreasing ramp. Their response is shown in Figure 2 (c) and (d).
  54. 54. Dept. of ECE Page 54 4.2 TRANSISTOR COMPARATOR The basic differential amplifier circuit using bipolar transistor shown in Figure 3 acts as a voltage comparator circuit, where Vo (t) is the input signal to be compared with a reference voltage V. For good results, it is necessary that the transistors Q1 and Q2 as will as resistors RC1 and RC2 are well matched. The circuit will offer an excellent CMRR (defined as the ratio of common mode input voltage change and equivalent differential input voltage), high voltage gain and optimum output stability with respct to device when (i) RE is large (>re of Q1, Q2) and (ii) outputs is taken differentially. The former requirement is usually met with by employing a constant current source (IE) in the common emitter path of Q1 and Q2.
  55. 55. Dept. of ECE Page 55 Voltage comparators following the differential amplifier approach can be easily designed to posses CMRR of 40-60 dB. This is helpful in increasing the range over which the two input voltages are equal. 4.3 IC VOTAGE COMPARATOR Comparator type circuits are used where it is desired to determine if an unknown analog voltage equals or exceeds a known reference voltage. In addition, the comparison can be used to convert sine wave and trigger pulses into square waves and thereby serves a pulse generator. The comparator makes use of an operational amplifier whose output can be fed back to the non-inverting (positive) input in order to provide "snap action" in the output switching. When an operational amplifier is provided whit a reference voltage at one input and trigger or comparing voltage at its other input, the output of the amplifier will rest at either cut-off or saturation. If the amplifier is supplied with ±15V(Vcc), the output will be either plus or minus 15V, depending on the polarity of the trigger voltage compared to the reference voltage. Figure 4 shows an inverting voltage comparator. The non-inverting input is provided with the reference voltage, and the inverting input is fed with a signal voltage to be compared with the reference. Since the input is to the inverting terminal, the signal voltage will result in an output pulse of opposite polarity. The input voltage must be greater than the reference voltage before the comparator will change its state. There is no upper positive limit so long as the inputresistor limits the current to 200 µA or less (depending on the parameters of the operational amplifier used.)
  56. 56. Dept. of ECE Page 56 The output of the amplifier can be made to change states quickly (snap action) if positive feedback is provided, as in Figure 5. The input to the amplifier at the inverting terminal and hence the comparator is of the inverting type. In addition the feedback network here provides the reference voltage. The reference voltage developed across R2 is determined as follows: Vref = (R2 / (R1 + R2)) Vout where Vout can be either positive or negative. The input signal polarity needed for switching to occur depends on the resting state of the output.
  57. 57. Dept. of ECE Page 57 DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS
  58. 58. Dept. of ECE Page 58 CHAPTER-1 1.1 INTRODCUCTION Digital communication: Communication has been one of the deepest needs of the human race throughout recorded history. It is essential to forming social unions, to educating the young, and to expressing a myriad of emotions and needs. Good communication is central to a civilized society. The various communication disciplines in engineering have the purpose of providing technological aids to human communication. One could view the smoke signals and drum rolls of primitive societies as being technological aids to communication, but communication technology as we view it today became important with telegraphy, then telephony, then video, then computer communication, and today the amazing mixture of all of these in inexpensive, small portable devices. Initially these technologies were developed as separate networks and were viewed as having little in common. As these networks grew, however, the fact that all parts of a given network had to work together, coupled with the fact that different components were developed at different times using different design methodologies, caused an increased focus on the underlying principles and architectural understanding required for continued system evolution. This need for basic principles was probably best understood at American Telephone and Tele- graph (AT&T) where Bell Laboratories was created as the research and development arm of AT&T. The Math center at Bell Labs became the predominant center for communication re- search in the world, and held that position until quite recently. The central core of the principles of communication technology were developed at that center. Perhaps the greatest contribution from the math center was the creation of Information Theory [27] by Claude Shannon in 1948. For perhaps the first 25 years of its existence, Information Theory was regarded as a beautiful theory but not as a central guide to the architecture and design of communication systems. After that time, however, both the device technology and the engineering understanding of the theory were sufficient to enable system development to follow information theoretic principles. A number of information theoretic ideas and how they affect communication system design will be explained carefully in subsequent chapters. One pair of ideas, however, is central to almost every topic. The first is to view all communication sources, e.g., speech waveforms, image waveforms, and text files, as being representable by binary sequences. The second is to design communication systems that first convert the source output into a binary sequence and then convert that binary sequence into a form suitable for transmission over particular physical media such as cable, twisted wire pair, optical fiber, or electromagnetic radiation through space. Digital communication systems, by definition, are communication systems that use such a digital1 sequence as an interface between the source and the channel input (and similarly between the channel output and final destination) The purpose of a Communication System is to transport an information bearing signal from a source to a user destination via a communication channel. 1.2 MODEL OF A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM(ANALOG)
  59. 59. Dept. of ECE Page 59 Fig. 1.1: Block diagram of Communication System The three basic elements of every communication systems are Transmitter, Receiver and Channel. The Overall purpose of this system is to transfer information from one point (called Source) to another point, the user destination, The message produced by a source, normally, is not electrical. Hence an input transducer is used for converting the message to a time – varying electrical quantity called message signal. Similarly, at the destination point, another transducer converts the electrical waveform to the appropriate message. The transmitter is located at one point in space, the receiver is located at some other point separate from the transmitter, and the channel is the medium that provides the electrical connection between them. The purpose of the transmitter is to transform the message signal produced by the source of information into a form suitable for transmission over the channel. The received signal is normally corrupted version of the transmitted signal, which is due to channel imperfections, noise and interference from other sources.The receiver has the task of operating on the received signal so as to reconstruct a recognizable form of the original message signal and to deliver it to the user destination. Communication Systems are divided into 3 categories: Analog Communication Systems are designed to transmit analog information using analog modulation methods. Digital Communication Systems are designed for transmitting digital information using digital modulation schemes, and
  60. 60. Dept. of ECE Page 60 Hybrid Systems that use digital modulation schemes for transmitting sampled and quantized values of an analog message signal 1.3 ELEMENTS OF DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS: The figure 1.2 shows the functional elements of a digital Source of Information: 1. Analog Information Sources. 2. Digital Information Sources. Analog Information Sources → Microphone actuated by a speech, TV Camera scanning a scene, continuous amplitude signals Digital Information Sources → These are teletype or the numerical output of computer which consists of a sequence of discrete symbols or letters An Analog information is transformed into a discrete information through the process of sampling and quantizing. Digital Communication System: Fig :Block Diagram of a Digital Communication System SOURCE ENCODER / DECODER:
  61. 61. Dept. of ECE Page 61 The Source encoder ( or Source coder) converts the input i.e. symbol sequence into a binary sequence of 0‟ s and 1‟ s by assigning code words to the symbols in the input sequence. For eg. :-If a source set is having hundred symbols, then the number of bits used to represent each symbol will be 7 because 27 =128 unique combinations are available. The important parameters of a source encoder are block size, code word lengths, average data rate and the efficiency of the coder (i.e. actual output data rate compared to the minimum achievable rate) At the receiver, the source decoder converts the binary output of the channel decoder into a symbol sequence. The decoder for a system using fixed – length code words is quite simple, but the decoder for a system using variable – length code words will be very complex. At the receiver, the source decoder converts the binary output of the channel decoder into a symbol sequence. The decoder for a system using fixed – length code words is quite simple, but the decoder for a system using variable – length code words will be very complex. Ex: Huffman coding. CHANNEL ENCODER / DECODER: Error control is accomplished by the channel coding operation that consists of systematically adding extra bits to the output of the source coder. These extra bits do not convey any information but helps the receiver to detect and / or correct some of the errors in the information bearing bits. There are two methods of channel coding: Block Coding: The encoder takes a block of „k‟ information bits from the source encoder and adds „r‟ error control bits, where „r‟ is dependent on „k‟ and error control capabilities desired Convolution Coding: The information bearing message stream is encoded in a continuous fashion by continuously interleaving information bits and error control bits. The Channel decoder recovers the information bearing bits from the coded binary stream. Error detection and possible correction is also performed by the channel decoder. The important parameters of coder decoder are: Method of coding, efficiency, error control capabilities and complexity of the circuit. MODULATOR: The Modulator converts the input bit stream into an electrical waveform suitable for transmission over the communication channel. Modulator can be effectively used to minimize the effects of channel noise, to match the frequency spectrum of transmitted signal with channel characteristics, to provide the capability to multiplex many signals. DEMODULATOR: The extraction of the message from the information bearing waveform produced by the modulation is accomplished by the demodulator. The output of the demodulator is bit stream. The important parameter is the method of demodulation
  62. 62. Dept. of ECE Page 62 CHANNEL: The Channel provides the electrical connection between the source and destination. The different channels are: Pair of wires, Coaxial cable, Optical fibre, Radio channel, Satellite channel or combination of any of these The communication channels have only finite Bandwidth, non-ideal frequency response, the signal often suffers amplitude and phase distortion as it travels over the channel. Also the signal power decreases due to the attenuation of the channel. The signal is corrupted by unwanted, unpredictable electrical signals referred to as noise. The important parameters of the channel are Signal to Noise power Ratio (SNR), usable bandwidth, amplitude and phase response and the statistical properties of noise 1.4 Advantages of Digital Communication: The following are the advantages of the digital communication system: The effect of distortion, noise and interference is less in a digital communication system. This is because the disturbance must be large enough to change the pulse from one state to the other. Regenerative repeaters can be used at fixed distance along the link, to identify and regenerate a pulse before it is degraded to an ambiguous state. Digital circuits are more reliable and cheaper compared to analog circuits. The Hardware implementation is more flexible than analog hardware because of the use of microprocessors, VLSI chips etc. Signal processing functions like encryption, compression can be employed to maintain the secrecy of the information. Error detecting and Error correcting codes improve the system performance by reducing the probability of error. Combining digital signals using TDM is simpler than combining analog signals using FDM. The different types of signals such as data, telephone, TV can be treated as identical signals in transmission and switching in a digital communication system. We can avoid signal jamming using spread spectrum technique. 1.5 Disadvantages of Digital Communication: The following are the disadvantages of the digital communication system: Large System Bandwidth:- Digital transmission requires a large system bandwidth to communicate the same information in a digital format as compared to analog format.
  63. 63. Dept. of ECE Page 63 System Synchronization:- Digital detection requires system synchronization whereas the analog signals generally have no such requirement. 1.6 Channels for Digital Communications: The modulation and coding used in a digital communication system depend on the characteristics of the channel. The two main characteristics of the channel are BANDWIDTH and POWER. In addition the other characteristics are whether the channel is linear or nonlinear, and how free the channel is free from the external interference. Five channels are considered in the digital communication, namely: telephone channels, coaxial cables, optical fibers, microwave radio, and satellite channels. Telephone channel: It is designed to provide voice grade communication. Also good for data communication over long distances. The channel has a band-pass characteristic occupying the frequency range 300Hz to 3400hz, a high SNR of about 30db, and approximately linear response. For the transmission of voice signals the channel provides flat amplitude response. But for the transmission of data and image transmissions, since the phase delay variations are important an equalizer is used to maintain the flat amplitude response and a linear phase response over the required frequency band. Transmission rates upto16.8 kilobits per second have been achieved over the telephone lines. Coaxial Cable: The coaxial cable consists of a single wire conductor centered inside an outer conductor, which is insulated from each other by a dielectric. The main advantages of the coaxial cable are wide bandwidth and low external interference. But closely spaced repeaters are required. With repeaters spaced at 1km intervals the data rates of 274 megabits per second have been achieved. Optical Fibers: An optical fiber consists of a very fine inner core made of silica glass, surrounded by a concentric layer called cladding that is also made of glass. The refractive index of the glass in the core is slightly higher than refractive index of the glass in the cladding. Hence if a ray of light is launched into an optical fiber at the right oblique acceptance angle, it is continually refracted into the core by the cladding. That means the difference between the refractive indices of the core and cladding helps guide the propagation of the ray of light inside the core of the fiber from one end to the other. Compared to coaxial cables, optical fibers are smaller in size and they offer higher transmission bandwidths and longer repeater separations. Microwave radio: A microwave radio, operating on the line-of-sight link, consists basically of a transmitter and a receiver that are equipped with antennas. The antennas are placed on towers at sufficient height to have the transmitter and receiver in line-of-sight of each other. The operating frequencies range from 1 to 30 GHz. Under normal
  64. 64. Dept. of ECE Page 64 atmospheric conditions, a microwave radio channel is very reliable and provides path for high-speed digital transmission. But during meteorological variations, a severe degradation occurs in the system performance. Satellite Channel: A Satellite channel consists of a satellite in geostationary orbit, an uplink from ground station, and a down link to another ground station. Both link operate at microwave frequencies, with uplink the uplink frequency higher than the down link frequency. In general, Satellite can be viewed as repeater in the sky. It permits communication over long distances at higher bandwidths and relatively low cost. Bandwidth: Bandwidth is simply a measure of frequency range. The range of frequencies contained in a composite signal is its bandwidth. The bandwidth is normally a difference between two numbers. For example, if a composite signal contains frequencies between 1000 and 5000, its bandwidth is 5000 - 1000, or 4000. If a range of 2.40 GHz to 2.48 GHz is used by a device, then the bandwidth would be 0.08 GHz (or more commonly stated as 80MHz).It is easy to see that the bandwidth we define here is closely related to the amount of data you can transmit within it - the more room in frequency space, the more data you can fit in at a given moment. The term bandwidth is often used for something we should rather call a data rate, as in ―my Internet connection has 1 Mbps of bandwidth‖, meaning it can transmit data at 1 megabit per second. 1.7 Geometric representation of Signals: 1.Analog signal: If the magnitudes of a real signal s(t) over its range of definition, T1≤ t ≤ T2, are real numbers (there are infinite such values) within a finite range, say, Smin ≤ S(t) ≤ Smax, the signal is analog. A digital signal s(t), on the contrary, can assume only any of a finite number of values. Usually, a digital signal implies a discrete-time, discrete-amplitude signal. 2.Energy signal: If, for a signal s(t), i.e. the energy of the signal is finite,the signal is called an energy signal. However, the same signal may have large power.The voltage generated by lightning (which is of short duration) is a close example of physical equivalent of a signal with finite energy but very largepower 3.Power signal: A power signal, on the contrary, will have a finite power but may have finite or infinite energy. Mathematically,
  65. 65. Dept. of ECE Page 65 While electrical signals, derived from physical processes are mostly energy signals,several mathematical functions, usually deterministic, represent power signals. 4.Deterministic and random signals: If a signal s(t), described at t = t1 is sufficient for determining the signal at t = t2 at which the signal also exists, then s(t) represents a deterministic signal. 5.Continuous time signal: Assuming the independent variable „t‟ to represent time, if s(t) is defined for all possible values of t between its interval of definition (or existence), T1≤ t ≤ T2. Then the signal s(t) is a continuous time signal.If a signal s(t) is defined only for certain values of t over an interval T1≤ t ≤ T2, it is a discrete-time signal. A set of sample values represent a discrete time signal 6.Periodic signal: If s(t) = s(t + T), for entire range of t over which the signal s(t) is defined and T is a constant, s(t) is said to be periodic or repetitive. „T‟ indicates the period of the signal and 1/T is its frequency of repetition Chapter-2 2.1 SAMPLING:
  66. 66. Dept. of ECE Page 66 A message signal may originate from a digital or analog source. If the message signal is analog in nature, then it has to be converted into digital form before it can transmitted by digital means. The process by which the continuous-time signal is converted into a discrete–time signal is called Sampling Sampling operation is performed in accordance with the sampling theorem. Fig: 2.1 Natural Sampling – Waveforms SAMPLING THEOREM FOR LOW-PASS SIGNALS Statement:- ―If a band –limited signal g(t) contains no frequency components for ‫׀‬f‫׀‬ > W, then it is completely described by instantaneous values g(kTs) uniformly spaced in time with period Ts ≤ 1/2W. If the sampling rate, fs is equal to the Nyquist rate or greater (fs ≥2W), the signal g(t) can be exactly reconstructed. 2.2Quantization: The process of transforming Sampled amplitude values of a message signal into a discrete amplitude value is referred to as Quantization. The quantization Process has a two-fold effect: 1. the peak-to-peak range of the input sample values is subdivided into a finite set of decision levels or decision thresholds that are aligned with the risers of the staircase, and the output is assigned a discrete value selected from a finite set of representation levels that are aligned with the treads of the staircase A quantizer is memory less in that the quantizer output is determined only by the value of a corresponding input sample, independently of earlier analog samples applied to the input Types of Quantizers:
  67. 67. Dept. of ECE Page 67 1. Uniform Quantizer 2. Non- Uniform Quantizer Uniform Quantizer: In Uniform type, the quantization levels are uniformly spaced, whereas in non- uniform type the spacing between the levels will be unequal and mostly the relation is logarithmic. 0 Ts 2Ts 3Ts Time Fig:2.2 Typical Quantization process. Types of Uniform Quantizers: ( based on I/P - O/P Characteristics) 1. Mid-Rise type Quantizer 2. Mid-Tread type Quantizer In the stair case like graph, the origin lies the middle of the tread portion in Mid –Tread type where as the origin lies in the middle of the rise portion in the Mid-Rise type. Analog signal Discrete Samples (Quantized )
  68. 68. Dept. of ECE Page 68 Mid – tread type: Quantization levels – odd number. Mid – Rise type: Quantization levels – even number. Fig:2.4 Input-Output Characteristics of a Mid-Rise type Quantizer Fig:2.5 Input-Output Characteristics of a Mid-Tread type Quantizer Quantization Noise and Signal-to-Noise: ―The Quantization process introduces an error defined as the difference between the input signal, x(t) and the output signal, yt). This error is called the Quantization Noise.‖ q(t) = x(t) – y(t)
  69. 69. Dept. of ECE Page 69 Quantization noise is produced in the transmitter end of a PCM system by rounding off sample values of an analog base-band signal to the nearest permissible representation levels of the quantizer. As such quantization noise differs from channel noise in that it is signal dependent. Let „Δ‟ be the step size of a quantizer and L be the total number of quantization levels. Quantization levels are 0, ± ., ± 2 ., ±3 . . . . . . . The Quantization error, Q is a random variable and will have its sample values bounded by [-(Δ/2) < q < (Δ/2)]. If is small, the quantization error can be assumed to a uniformly distributed random variable. Consider a memory less quantizer that is both uniform and symmetric. L = Number of quantization levels X = Quantizer input Y = Quantizer output The output y is given by Y=Q(x) which is a staircase function that befits the type of mid tread or mid riser quantizer of interest. Non – Uniform Quantizer: In Non – Uniform Quantizer the step size varies. The use of a non – uniform quantizer is equivalent to passing the baseband signal through a compressor and then applying the compressed signal to a uniform quantizer. The resultant signal is then transmitted. At the receiver, a device with a characteristic complementary to the compressor called Expander is used to restore the signal samples to their correct relative level. The Compressor and expander take together constitute a Compander. Compander = Compressor + Expander Advantages of Non – Uniform Quantization : 1. Higher average signal to quantization noise power ratio than the uniform quantizer when the signal pdf is non uniform which is the case in many practical situation. 2.RMS value of the quantizer noise power of a non – uniform quantizer is substantially proportional to the sampled value and hence the effect of the quantizer noise is reduced. 2.3 Encoding: Encoding is the final step in what we call analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion.Sometimes, encoding is considered as a separate stage that follows the A/D stage. The encoding stage
  70. 70. Dept. of ECE Page 70 takes a bit stream of 1‟ s and 0‟ s and converts it into voltages appropriate for transmission on a physical channel. Encoding schemes are usually divided into: (a).Source encoding. (b).Channel encoding. ©. Line encoding . Source coding: Source coding (sometimes called entropy encoding) refers to the process of compressing data. This is typically done by replacing long binary codes (named codewords) that occur frequently by shorter ones, and those that occur less frequently by longer codes. For example, a 4-bit sequence ―0110‖ occurring frequently can be mapped into the shorter 2- bit ―01‖ sequence, while another 4-bit sequence ―1011‖ occurring less frequently can be mapped to the longer 7-bit sequence ―0011011‖. This makes sure that shorter sequences occur more often in the bit stream. In information theory, Shannon's noiseless coding theorem places an upper and a lower bound on the expected compression ratio. Examples of source codes currently in use are: Shannon codes, Huffman codes, run-length coding, arithmetic coding, Lempel-Ziv coding, MPEG video coding, etc. Channel coding: A channel code is a broadly used term mostly referring to error correcting codes. Such codes are used to protect data sent over the channel from corruption even in the presence of noise. In other words, channel codes can improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal. The most obvious example of such codes is the simple parity bit system. The theory behind designing and analyzing channel codes is called Shannon’s noisy channel coding theorem. It puts an upper limit on the amount of information you can send in a noisy channel using a perfect channel code. This is given by the following equation: where C is the upper bound on the capacity of the channel (bit/s), B is the bandwidth of the channel (Hz) and SNR is the Signal-to-Noise ratio (unitless). Examples of channel codes currently in-use include: Hamming codes, Reed-Solomon codes, convolutional codes (usually decoded by an iterative Viterbi decoder), Turbo codes, etc..
  71. 71. Dept. of ECE Page 71 CHAPTER-3 3.1 Pulse Code Modulation: Pulse code Modulation: The pulse code modulator technique samples the input signal x(t) at a sampling frequency. This sampled variable amplitude pulse is then digitalized by the analog to digital converter. Figure.(1) shows the PCM generator. x(t) x(nTS) q(nTs) pcm Figure.(1): PCM modulator In the PCM generator, the signal is first passed through sampler which is sampled at a rate of (fs) where: fs≥2fm (1) The output of the sampler x(nTs) which is discrete in time is fed to a q- level quantizer. The quantizer compares the input x(nTs) with it's fixed levels. It assigns any one of the digital level to x(nTs) that results in minimum distortion or error. The error is called quantization error, thus the output of the quantizer is a digital level called q(nTs). The quantized signal level q(nTs) is binary encode. The encoder converts the input signal to v digits binary word. the block diagram of the PCM receiver. The receiver starts by reshaping the received pulses, removes the noise and then converts the binary bits to analog. The received samples are then filtered by a low pass filter; the cut off frequency is at fc. fc= fm (2) where fm: is the highest frequency component in the original signal. PCM + Noise q(nTs) x(nTS) x(t) Figure.(3): PCM demodulator Sampling process Q level quantizer Binary coder Binary encoder D/A converter Low pass filter
  72. 72. Dept. of ECE Page 72 It is impossible to reconstruct the original signal x(t) because of the permanent quantization error introduced during quantization at the transmitter. The quantization error can be reduced by the increasing quantization levels. This corresponds to the increase of bits per sample(more information). But increasing bits (v) increases the signaling rate and requires a large transmission bandwidth. The choice of the parameter for the number of quantization levels must be acceptable with the quantization noise (quantization error). Figure.(4) shows the reconstructed signal. 1.1.1 Signaling Rate in PCM Let the quantizer use 'v' number of binary digits to represent each level. Then the number of levels that can be represented by v digits will be : q=2 v (3) The number of bits per second is given by : (Number of bits per second)=(Number of bits per samples)x(number of samples per second) = v (bits per sample) x fs (samples per second) The number of bits per second is also called signaling rate of PCM and is denoted by 'r': Signaling rate= v fs (4) Where: fs≥ fm 1.1.2 Quantization Noise in PCM System Errors are introduced in the signal because of the quantization process. This error is called "quantization error". We define the quantization error as: ε= xq (nTs)- x(nTs) (5) Let an input signal x(nTs) have an amplitude in the range of xmax to - xmax The total amplitude range is :
  73. 73. Dept. of ECE Page 73 Total amplitude = xmax-(- xmax) =2 xmax If the amplitude range is divided into 'q' levels of quantizer, then the step size '∆'. ∆= 2 X max (6) q If the minimum and maximum values are equal to 1, xmax,=1, - xmax=-1, then the equation (6)will be: ∆= 2 (7)q If ∆ is small it can be assumed that the quantization error is uniformly distributed. The quantization noise is uniformly distributed in the interval [-∆/2, ∆/2 ]. The figure.(5) shows the uniform distribution of quantization noise fε(ε) 1/∆ ε -∆/2 ∆/2 Fig.(5) The uniform distribution of quantization error
  74. 74. Dept. of ECE Page 74 The noise power is given by: Noise power =Vnoise 2 / R (8) Vnoise 2 : is the mean square value of noise voltage, since noise is defined by random variable "ε" and PDF fε(ε). 1.1.3 Signal to Quantization Noise ratio in PCM The signal to quantization noise ratio is given as: S Normalized signal power Normalized noise powerNq The number of quantization value is equal to: q=2 v 1.1.4 Advantages of PCM 1. Effect of noise is reduced. 2. PCM permits the use of pulse regeneration. Multiplexing of various PCM signals is possible 3.2 Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) For the signals which does not change rapidly from one sample to next sample, the PCM scheme is not preferred. When such highly correlated samples are encoded the resulting encoded signal contains redundant information. By removing this redundancy before encoding an efficient coded signal can be obtained. One of such scheme is the DPCM technique. By knowing the past behavior of a signal up to a certain point in time, it is possible to make some inference about the future values.
  75. 75. Dept. of ECE Page 75 Fig:3.1DPCM Transmitter and Receiver The transmitter and receiver of the DPCM scheme is shown above. Transmitter: Let x(t) be the signal to be sampled and x(nTs) be it‟ s samples. In this scheme the input to the quantizer is a signal e(nTs) = x(nTs) - x^(nTs) ----- (3.31) where x^(nTs) is the prediction for unquantized sample x(nTs). This predicted value is produced by using a predictor whose input, consists of a quantized versions of the input signal x(nTs). The signal e(nTs) is called the prediction error. By encoding the quantizer output, in this method, we obtain a modified version of the PCM called differential pulse code modulation (DPCM). Quantizer output, v(nTs) = Q[e(nTs)] = e(nTs) + q(nTs) ---- (3.32) where q(nTs) is the quantization error. Predictor input is the sum of quantizer output and predictor output, u(nTs) = x^(nTs) + v(nTs) ---- (3.33)
  76. 76. Dept. of ECE Page 76 The receiver consists of a decoder to reconstruct the quantized error signal. The quantized version of the original input is reconstructed from the decoder output using the same predictor as used in the transmitter. In the absence of noise the encoded signal at the receiver input is identical to the encoded signal at the transmitter output. Correspondingly the receive output is equal to u(nTs), which differs from the input x(nts) only by the quantizing error q(nTs). Advantages of dpcm: 1. Eliminating the problem of accumulation of quantization noise: 2. Reducing the effect of transmission errors: as mentioned before, transmission errors result in errors in all the reconstructed samples of the input signal that come after the transmission error. The best method to combat this problem is to divide the data into sets of samples and resent the transmitter and receiver after the transmission of each set of samples. This way, a transmission error that occurs will affect only the samples of that part of the data. Once the system is reset, the effect of that error will stop. Using 3.32 in 3.33, u(nTs) = x^(nTs) + e(nTs) + q(nTs) ----(3.34) u(nTs) = x(nTs) + q(nTs) ----(3.35)
  77. 77. Dept. of ECE Page 77 3.3 Delta Modulation (DM) Delta Modulation is a special case of DPCM. In DPCM scheme if the base band signal is sampled at a rate much higher than the Nyquist rate purposely to increase the correlation between adjacent samples of the signal, so as to permit the use of a simple quantizing strategy for constructing the encoded signal, Delta modulation (DM) is precisely such as scheme. Delta Modulation is the one-bit (or two-level) versions of DPCM. DM provides a staircase approximation to the over sampled version of an input base band signal. The difference between the input and the approximation is quantized into only two levels, namely, ±δ corresponding to positive and negative differences, respectively, Thus, if the approximation falls below the signal at any sampling epoch, it is increased by δ. Provided that the signal does not change too rapidly from sample to sample, we find that the stair case approximation remains within ±δ of the input signal. The symbol δ denotes the absolute value of the two representation levels of the one- bit quantizer used in the DM. Let the input signal be x(t) and the staircase approximation to it is u(t). In the receiver the stair case approximation u(t) is reconstructed by passing the incoming sequence of positive and negative pulses through an accumulator in a
  78. 78. Dept. of ECE Page 78 manner similar to that used in the transmitter. The out-of –band quantization noise in the high frequency staircase waveform u(t) is rejected by passing it through a low-pass filter with a band-width equal to the original signal bandwidth. Delta modulation offers two unique features: 1. No need for Word Framing because of one-bit code word. 2. Simple design for both Transmitter and Receiver . Disadvantage of DM: Delta modulation systems are subject to two types of quantization error: (1) slope –overload distortion, and (2) granular noise. 3.4 Adaptive Delta Modulation: The performance of a delta modulator can be improved significantly by making the step size of the modulator assume a time-varying form. In particular, during a steep segment of the input signal the step size is increased. Conversely, when the input signal is varying slowly, the step size is reduced. In this way, the size is adapted to the level of the input signal. The resulting method is called adaptive delta modulation (ADM). There are several types of ADM, depending on the type of scheme used for adjusting the step size. In this ADM, a discrete set of values is provided for the step size.
  79. 79. Dept. of ECE Page 79 Block Diagram of ADM Transmitter. Block Diagram of ADM Receiver Adaptive Sub-band Coding: PCM and ADPCM are both time-domain coders in that the speech signal is processed in the time-domain as a single full band signal. Adaptive sub-band coding is a frequency domain coder, in which the speech signal is divided into a number of sub-bands and each one is encoded separately. The coder is capable of digitizing speech at a rate of 16 kb/s with a quality comparable to that of 64
  80. 80. Dept. of ECE Page 80 kb/s PCM. To accomplish this performance, it exploits the quasi-periodic nature of voiced speech and a characteristic of the hearing mechanism known as noise masking. Periodicity of voiced speech manifests itself in the fact that people speak with a characteristic pitch frequency. This periodicity permits pitch prediction, and therefore a further reduction in the level of the prediction error that requires quantization, compared to differential pulse code modulation without pitch prediction. The number of bits per sample that needs to be transmitted is thereby greatly reduced, without a serious degradation in speech quality. In adaptive sub band coding (ASBC), noise shaping is accomplished by adaptive bit assignment. In particular, the number of bits used to encode each sub-band is varied dynamically and shared with other sub-bands, such that the encoding accuracy is always placed where it is needed in the frequency – domain characterization of the signal. Indeed, sub-bands with little or no energy may not be encoded at all. Applications 1. Hierarchy of Digital Multiplexers 2. Light wave Transmission Link Advantages: There are two major advantages of adaptive delta modulation: 1. Slope overload distortion: occurs when modulating signal varies faster than counter recovered signal. 2. Granular noise: occurs when variation in modulating signal is smaller than step size
  81. 81. Dept. of ECE 81 CHAPTER-4 4.1 Memory less modulation techniques: Modulation is defined as the process by which some characteristics of a carrier is varied in accordance with a modulating wave. In digital communications, the modulating wave consists of binary data or an M-ary encoded version of it and the carrier is sinusoidal wave. Different Shift keying methods that are used in digital modulation techniques are 1.Amplitude shift keying [ASK]   2.Frequency shift keying [FSK]   3.Phase shift keying [PSK]   Fig shows different modulations Fig:Hierarchy of digital modulation technique

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