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Block Diagram of 8086
PRESENTED BY:
D.SUKANYA(16711A0514)
Block Diagram of 8086
THE 8086 CPU IS DIVIDED INTO
TWO INDEPENDENT FUNCTIONAL
UNITS:
o BUS INTERFACE UNIT (BIU)
o EXECUTION UNIT (EU)
Bus Interface Unit (BIU)
THE FUNCTION OF BIU IS TO:
 FETCH THE INSTRUCTION OR DATA FROM MEMORY.
WRITE THE DATA TO MEMORY.
WRITE THE DATA TO THE PORT.
 READ DATA FROM THE PORT.
INSTRUCTION QUEUE
1. TO INCREASE THE EXECUTION SPEED, BIU FETCHES AS
MANY AS SIX INSTRUCTION BYTES AHEAD TO TIME FROM
MEMORY.
2. ALL SIX BYTES ARE THEN HELD IN FIRST IN FIRST OUT 6
BYTE REGISTER CALLED INSTRUCTION QUEUE.
3. THEN ALL BYTES HAVE TO BE GIVEN TO EU ONE BY
ONE.
4. THIS PRE FETCHING OPERATION OF BIU MAY BE IN
PARALLEL WITH EXECUTION OPERATION OF EU, WHICH
IMPROVES THE SPEED EXECUTION OF THE
INSTRUCTION.
Execution Unit (EU)
THE FUNCTIONS OF EXECUTION UNIT ARE:
 TO TELL BIU WHERE TO FETCH THE INSTRUCTIONS OR
DATA FROM.
TO DECODE THE INSTRUCTIONS.
 TO EXECUTE THE INSTRUCTIONS
General Purpose Registers of 8086
1. AX REGISTER: AX REGISTER IS ALSO KNOWN AS
ACCUMULATOR REGISTER THAT STORES OPERANDS
FOR ARITHMETIC OPERATION LIKE DIVIDED, ROTATE.
2. 2. BX REGISTER: THIS REGISTER IS MAINLY USED AS
A BASE REGISTER. IT HOLDS THE STARTING BASE
LOCATION OF A MEMORY REGION WITHIN A DATA
SEGMENT.
3. 3. CX REGISTER: IT IS DEFINED AS A COUNTER. IT IS
PRIMARILY USED IN LOOP INSTRUCTION TO STORE
LOOP COUNTER.
4. 4. DX REGISTER: DX REGISTER IS USED TO CONTAIN
I/O PORT ADDRESS FOR I/O INSTRUCTION.
Segment Registers
1. CODE SEGMENT (CS): THE CS REGISTER IS USED
FOR ADDRESSING A MEMORY LOCATION IN THE CODE
SEGMENT OF THE MEMORY, WHERE THE
EXECUTABLE PROGRAM IS STORED.
2. DATA SEGMENT (DS): THE DS CONTAINS MOST DATA
USED BY PROGRAM. DATA ARE ACCESSED IN THE
DATA SEGMENT BY AN OFFSET ADDRESS OR THE
CONTENT OF OTHER REGISTER THAT HOLDS THE
OFFSET ADDRESS.
3. STACK SEGMENT (SS): SS DEFINED THE AREA OF
MEMORY USED FOR THE STACK.
4. EXTRA SEGMENT (ES): ES IS ADDITIONAL DATA
SEGMENT THAT IS USED BY SOME OF THE STRING TO
HOLD THE DESTINATION DATA.
Flag Registers of 8086
8086 HAS 9 FLAGS AND THEY ARE DIVIDED INTO TWO
CATEGORIES:
1. CONDITIONAL FLAGS
2. 2. CONTROL FLAGS
CONDITIONAL FLAGS CONDITIONAL FLAGS REPRESENT RESULT OF LAST
ARITHMETIC OR LOGICAL INSTRUCTION EXECUTED. CONDITIONAL
FLAGS ARE AS FOLLOWS:
 CARRY FLAG (CF): THIS FLAG INDICATES AN OVERFLOW CONDITION
FOR UNSIGNED INTEGER ARITHMETIC. IT IS ALSO USED IN MULTIPLE-
PRECISION ARITHMETIC.
 AUXILIARY FLAG (AF): IF AN OPERATION PERFORMED IN ALU
GENERATES A CARRY/BARROW FROM LOWER NIBBLE (I.E. D0 – D3) TO
UPPER NIBBLE (I.E. D4 – D7), THE AF FLAG IS SET I.E. CARRY GIVEN BY D3
BIT TO D4 IS AF FLAG. THIS IS NOT A GENERAL-PURPOSE FLAG, IT IS
USED INTERNALLY BY THE PROCESSOR TO PERFORM BINARY TO BCD
CONVERSION.
 PARITY FLAG (PF): THIS FLAG IS USED TO INDICATE THE PARITY OF
RESULT. IF LOWER ORDER 8-BITS OF THE RESULT CONTAINS EVEN
NUMBER OF 1’S, THE PARITY FLAG IS SET AND FOR ODD NUMBER OF 1’S,
THE PARITY FLAG IS RESET.
ZERO FLAG (ZF): IT IS SET; IF THE RESULT OF
ARITHMETIC OR LOGICAL OPERATION IS ZERO ELSE IT IS
RESET.
 SIGN FLAG (SF): IN SIGN MAGNITUDE FORMAT THE
SIGN OF NUMBER IS INDICATED BY MSB BIT. IF THE
RESULT OF OPERATION IS NEGATIVE, SIGN FLAG IS SET.
WWW.EAZYNOTES.COM GURSHARAN SINGH TATLA PAGE
NO. 5
 OVERFLOW FLAG (OF): IT OCCURS WHEN SIGNED
NUMBERS ARE ADDED OR SUBTRACTED. AN OF
INDICATES THAT THE RESULT HAS EXCEEDED THE
CAPACITY OF MACHINE.
CONTROL FLAGS CONTROL FLAGS ARE SET OR RESET
DELIBERATELY TO CONTROL THE OPERATIONS OF THE
EXECUTION UNIT. CONTROL FLAGS ARE AS FOLLOWS:
1. TRAP FLAG (TP): A. IT IS USED FOR SINGLE STEP
CONTROL. B. IT ALLOWS USER TO EXECUTE ONE
INSTRUCTION OF A PROGRAM AT A TIME FOR
DEBUGGING. C. WHEN TRAP FLAG IS SET, PROGRAM
CAN BE RUN IN SINGLE STEP MODE. 2. INTERRUPT
FLAG (IF): A. IT IS AN INTERRUPT ENABLE/DISABLE
FLAG. B. IF IT IS SET, THE MASKABLE INTERRUPT OF
8086 IS ENABLED AND IF IT IS RESET, THE INTERRUPT
IS DISABLED. C. IT CAN BE SET BY EXECUTING
INSTRUCTION SIT AND CAN BE CLEARED BY
EXECUTING CLI INSTRUCTION.
2. 3. DIRECTION FLAG (DF): A. IT IS USED IN STRING
OPERATION. B. IF IT IS SET, STRING BYTES ARE
ACCESSED FROM HIGHER MEMORY ADDRESS TO
LOWER MEMORY ADDRESS. C. WHEN IT IS RESET,
THE STRING BYTES ARE ACCESSED FROM LOWER
MEMORY ADDRESS TO HIGHER MEMORY ADDRESS.
Thank u

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block diagram of 8086

  • 1. Block Diagram of 8086 PRESENTED BY: D.SUKANYA(16711A0514)
  • 2. Block Diagram of 8086 THE 8086 CPU IS DIVIDED INTO TWO INDEPENDENT FUNCTIONAL UNITS: o BUS INTERFACE UNIT (BIU) o EXECUTION UNIT (EU)
  • 3.
  • 4. Bus Interface Unit (BIU) THE FUNCTION OF BIU IS TO:  FETCH THE INSTRUCTION OR DATA FROM MEMORY. WRITE THE DATA TO MEMORY. WRITE THE DATA TO THE PORT.  READ DATA FROM THE PORT. INSTRUCTION QUEUE 1. TO INCREASE THE EXECUTION SPEED, BIU FETCHES AS MANY AS SIX INSTRUCTION BYTES AHEAD TO TIME FROM MEMORY. 2. ALL SIX BYTES ARE THEN HELD IN FIRST IN FIRST OUT 6 BYTE REGISTER CALLED INSTRUCTION QUEUE. 3. THEN ALL BYTES HAVE TO BE GIVEN TO EU ONE BY ONE. 4. THIS PRE FETCHING OPERATION OF BIU MAY BE IN PARALLEL WITH EXECUTION OPERATION OF EU, WHICH IMPROVES THE SPEED EXECUTION OF THE INSTRUCTION.
  • 5. Execution Unit (EU) THE FUNCTIONS OF EXECUTION UNIT ARE:  TO TELL BIU WHERE TO FETCH THE INSTRUCTIONS OR DATA FROM. TO DECODE THE INSTRUCTIONS.  TO EXECUTE THE INSTRUCTIONS
  • 6. General Purpose Registers of 8086 1. AX REGISTER: AX REGISTER IS ALSO KNOWN AS ACCUMULATOR REGISTER THAT STORES OPERANDS FOR ARITHMETIC OPERATION LIKE DIVIDED, ROTATE. 2. 2. BX REGISTER: THIS REGISTER IS MAINLY USED AS A BASE REGISTER. IT HOLDS THE STARTING BASE LOCATION OF A MEMORY REGION WITHIN A DATA SEGMENT. 3. 3. CX REGISTER: IT IS DEFINED AS A COUNTER. IT IS PRIMARILY USED IN LOOP INSTRUCTION TO STORE LOOP COUNTER. 4. 4. DX REGISTER: DX REGISTER IS USED TO CONTAIN I/O PORT ADDRESS FOR I/O INSTRUCTION.
  • 7. Segment Registers 1. CODE SEGMENT (CS): THE CS REGISTER IS USED FOR ADDRESSING A MEMORY LOCATION IN THE CODE SEGMENT OF THE MEMORY, WHERE THE EXECUTABLE PROGRAM IS STORED. 2. DATA SEGMENT (DS): THE DS CONTAINS MOST DATA USED BY PROGRAM. DATA ARE ACCESSED IN THE DATA SEGMENT BY AN OFFSET ADDRESS OR THE CONTENT OF OTHER REGISTER THAT HOLDS THE OFFSET ADDRESS. 3. STACK SEGMENT (SS): SS DEFINED THE AREA OF MEMORY USED FOR THE STACK. 4. EXTRA SEGMENT (ES): ES IS ADDITIONAL DATA SEGMENT THAT IS USED BY SOME OF THE STRING TO HOLD THE DESTINATION DATA.
  • 9. 8086 HAS 9 FLAGS AND THEY ARE DIVIDED INTO TWO CATEGORIES: 1. CONDITIONAL FLAGS 2. 2. CONTROL FLAGS
  • 10. CONDITIONAL FLAGS CONDITIONAL FLAGS REPRESENT RESULT OF LAST ARITHMETIC OR LOGICAL INSTRUCTION EXECUTED. CONDITIONAL FLAGS ARE AS FOLLOWS:  CARRY FLAG (CF): THIS FLAG INDICATES AN OVERFLOW CONDITION FOR UNSIGNED INTEGER ARITHMETIC. IT IS ALSO USED IN MULTIPLE- PRECISION ARITHMETIC.  AUXILIARY FLAG (AF): IF AN OPERATION PERFORMED IN ALU GENERATES A CARRY/BARROW FROM LOWER NIBBLE (I.E. D0 – D3) TO UPPER NIBBLE (I.E. D4 – D7), THE AF FLAG IS SET I.E. CARRY GIVEN BY D3 BIT TO D4 IS AF FLAG. THIS IS NOT A GENERAL-PURPOSE FLAG, IT IS USED INTERNALLY BY THE PROCESSOR TO PERFORM BINARY TO BCD CONVERSION.  PARITY FLAG (PF): THIS FLAG IS USED TO INDICATE THE PARITY OF RESULT. IF LOWER ORDER 8-BITS OF THE RESULT CONTAINS EVEN NUMBER OF 1’S, THE PARITY FLAG IS SET AND FOR ODD NUMBER OF 1’S, THE PARITY FLAG IS RESET.
  • 11. ZERO FLAG (ZF): IT IS SET; IF THE RESULT OF ARITHMETIC OR LOGICAL OPERATION IS ZERO ELSE IT IS RESET.  SIGN FLAG (SF): IN SIGN MAGNITUDE FORMAT THE SIGN OF NUMBER IS INDICATED BY MSB BIT. IF THE RESULT OF OPERATION IS NEGATIVE, SIGN FLAG IS SET. WWW.EAZYNOTES.COM GURSHARAN SINGH TATLA PAGE NO. 5  OVERFLOW FLAG (OF): IT OCCURS WHEN SIGNED NUMBERS ARE ADDED OR SUBTRACTED. AN OF INDICATES THAT THE RESULT HAS EXCEEDED THE CAPACITY OF MACHINE.
  • 12. CONTROL FLAGS CONTROL FLAGS ARE SET OR RESET DELIBERATELY TO CONTROL THE OPERATIONS OF THE EXECUTION UNIT. CONTROL FLAGS ARE AS FOLLOWS: 1. TRAP FLAG (TP): A. IT IS USED FOR SINGLE STEP CONTROL. B. IT ALLOWS USER TO EXECUTE ONE INSTRUCTION OF A PROGRAM AT A TIME FOR DEBUGGING. C. WHEN TRAP FLAG IS SET, PROGRAM CAN BE RUN IN SINGLE STEP MODE. 2. INTERRUPT FLAG (IF): A. IT IS AN INTERRUPT ENABLE/DISABLE FLAG. B. IF IT IS SET, THE MASKABLE INTERRUPT OF 8086 IS ENABLED AND IF IT IS RESET, THE INTERRUPT IS DISABLED. C. IT CAN BE SET BY EXECUTING INSTRUCTION SIT AND CAN BE CLEARED BY EXECUTING CLI INSTRUCTION. 2. 3. DIRECTION FLAG (DF): A. IT IS USED IN STRING OPERATION. B. IF IT IS SET, STRING BYTES ARE ACCESSED FROM HIGHER MEMORY ADDRESS TO LOWER MEMORY ADDRESS. C. WHEN IT IS RESET, THE STRING BYTES ARE ACCESSED FROM LOWER MEMORY ADDRESS TO HIGHER MEMORY ADDRESS.