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role of international oganizations on international trade

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role of international oganizations on international trade

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role of international oganizations on international trade

  1. 1. Presentation On Role of International Organization on International Trade 3/7/2015 1
  2. 2. Our Discussion Some important International Trade Organization from the prospective of • Objective • History • Headquarter • Membership • Governing bodies • Role on International Trade 3/7/2015 2
  3. 3. International Trade Organizations International Organization And Professional Group • International Chamber Of Commerce (ICC) • UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) • UN Conference On Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Standard Setters As Part Of Multilateral Agreements • International Union of Credit and Investment Insurers (Berne Union) • Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) • World Customs Organization (WCO) • World Trade Organization (WTO) Standard Setting, Coordinating And Monitoring Agencies • International Monetary Fund (IMF) • World Bank Group 3/7/2015 3
  4. 4. Area Covered by International Trade Organizations International Trade Payment and Finance Cross Boarder fund Transfer Uniformity and Efficiency in functions and operations Prevention of cross border Fraud and crime Financial Reforms and Openness 3/7/2015 4
  5. 5. International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Founded in 1919 Objective To serve world business by promoting trade and investment, open markets for goods and services, and the free flow of capital Headquarter Paris, france Regional offices In 140 countries In the ICC network About 6.5 million companies Staff members About 200, representing more than 30 nationalities Governing bodies • World council • Executive board • International secretariat • National committees • Finance committee 3/7/2015 5
  6. 6. Role of ICC • ICC has unrivalled authority in making rules that govern the conduct of business across borders. Rule setting • ICC‘s administered dispute resolution services help solve difficulties in international business. Dispute resolution • ICC policies, rules and standards are prepared by specialized working bodies. Policy advocacy 3/7/2015 6
  7. 7. UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Established by The united nations general assembly by its resolution 2205 (XXI) of 17 December 1966 Annual sessions Held alternately in New York city and Vienna. Objective To promote the progressive harmonization and unification of international trade law Composed of Sixty member states elected by the general assembly (elected for terms of six years, the terms of half the members expiring every three years) Membership 110 states Governing bodies Secretariat 3/7/2015 7
  8. 8. Role of UNCITRAL • Coordinating the work of organizations active and encouraging cooperation among them. • Promoting wider participation in existing international conventions and wider acceptance of existing model and uniform laws. • Preparing or promoting the adoption of new international conventions, model laws and uniform laws and promoting the codification and wider acceptance of international trade terms, provisions, customs and practice, in collaboration, where appropriate, with the organizations operating in this field. • Promoting ways and means of ensuring a uniform interpretation and application of international conventions and uniform laws in the field of the law of international trade. • Collecting and disseminating information on national legislation and modern legal developments, including case law, in the field of the law of international trade. • Establishing and maintaining a close collaboration with the UN Conference on Trade and development. • Maintaining liaison with other UN organs and specialized agencies concerned with international trade. 3/7/2015 8
  9. 9. Working Groups To Perform The Substantive Preparatory Work • Micro, Small and Medium-sized EnterprisesWorking Group I • Arbitration and ConciliationWorking Group II • Online Dispute ResolutionWorking Group III • Electronic CommerceWorking Group IV • Insolvency LawWorking Group V • Security InterestsWorking Group VI 3/7/2015 9
  10. 10. UN Conference On Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Established by 1964 Permanent secretariat Geneva, switzerland. Goal To maximize the trade, investment and development opportunities of developing countries and assist them in their efforts to integrate into the world economy on an equitable basis Primary objective To formulate policies relating to all aspects of development including trade, aid, transport, finance and technology. Principal achievements Conceive and implement the Generalised System Of Preferences (GSP). UNCTAD conference Held every four years Membership 194 states (as of october 2012) Governing bodies Secretariat 3/7/2015 10
  11. 11. Reports UNCTAD produces a number of topical reports, including The trade and development report The trade and environment review The world investment report The economic development in Africa report The least developed countries report UNCTAD statistics 3/7/2015 11
  12. 12. MANDATE • Research on trade and development issues • Consensus-building through intergovernmental machinery • Technical cooperation on all the topics of UNCTAD work STRENGHTS • Trust and credibility among developing countries • Independent research WEAKNESSES • Only a political role (no “teeth”) • Limited human and financial resources 3/7/2015 12
  13. 13. UNCTAD ideas Influenced by development theories of center/periphery Deterioration of the terms of trade Unfair and asymmetric international economic relations Need for international policies and rules to address these asymmetries: Special and differential treatment (trade preferences, exceptions, longer periods of adjustment…) Non-tariff barriers External debt : sustainability, reduction formulas Trade in services Positive agenda in trade negotiations Policy space No one size fits all 3/7/2015 13
  14. 14. International Union of Credit and Investment Insurers (Berne Union) Formed In In 1934 by private and state export credit insurers from France, Italy, Spain and the UK. Objective To actively facilitate cross-border trade • By supporting international acceptance of sound principles in export credits and foreign investments and • By providing a forum for professional exchanges among its members. First Meeting Berne, Switzerland Headquarters London, UK Member Companies 79 member companies Governing Bodies The Berne Union is led by the President, the Vice President and a Management Committee. Committees To Supervise The Activity Of The Members • The Short Term (ST) Committee for short term credit insurance • The Medium/Long Term (MLT) Committee for medium-long term credit insurance/lending • The Investment (INV) Committee for investment insurance 3/7/2015 14
  15. 15. Role of Berne Union Discuss professional matters through annual general meeting and committee meetings. Seminars and workshops for to exchange views and experience Berne union intranet Collaboration with the leading international and regional financial institutions and key partners in the credit and investment insurance industry 3/7/2015 15
  16. 16. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Formed In 30 September 1961 (After Canada and the US joined OEEC) Headquarters Paris, France Objective to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world. Membership 34 countries Governing Bodies • OECD Council, represented by a delegation led by an ambassador of member countries. • Substantive Committees, experts from member and non-member governments • Secretariat, led by the Secretary-General (currently Ángel Gurría), 3/7/2015 16
  17. 17. Role of OECD OECD uses its wealth of information on a broad range of topics to help governments foster prosperity and fight poverty through economic growth and financial stability. It help ensure the environmental implications of economic and social development are taken into account 3/7/2015 17
  18. 18. Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Formed In 10–14 September 1960 (at the Baghdad Conference) Headquarters Vienna, Austria (Previously at Geneva, Switzerland) Objective to co-ordinate and unify petroleum policies among Member Countries, in order to secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers; an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations; and a fair return on capital to those investing in the industry. Membership 12 states (2011) Governing Bodies Secretary General is the Organization’s Chief Executive Officer. • Office Of The Secretary General, • The Legal Office, • The Research Division And • The Support Services Division. 3/7/2015 18
  19. 19. Role of OPEC • It is responsible for the implementation of all resolutions passed by the Conference and • It carries out all decisions made by the Board of Governors. • It also conducts research, the findings of which constitute key inputs in decision-making. 3/7/2015 19
  20. 20. World Customs Organization (WCO) Formed In January 26, 1952 Objective to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of member customs administrations, Headquarters Brussels, Belgium Membership 180 customs administrations Governing Bodies • The Council, under its Chairperson who is elected from among the delegates. • Article VII of the Convention requires the Council to meet at least twice a year • Each Member of the WCO nominates one delegate and one or more alternates to be its representatives on the Council • Present Secretary General Kunio Mikuriya 3/7/2015 20
  21. 21. Strategic Goals Promote the security and facilitation of international trade, including simplification and harmonization of Customs procedures = Economic Competitiveness Package Promote fair, efficient, and effective Revenue collection = Revenue Package Protect society, public health and safety = Compliance and Enforcement Package Strengthen Capacity Building = Organizational Development Package Promote information exchange between all stakeholders Raise the performance and profile of Customs Conduct Research and Analysis 3/7/2015 21
  22. 22. Role of WCO The Development Of International Conventions, Instruments, And Tools On Topics Such As Commodity Classification &Valuation Rules Of Origin Collection Of Customs Revenue & Supply Chain Security. International Trade Facilitation & Customs Enforcement Activities. Combating Counterfeiting In Support Of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), Integrity Promotion. The WCO Maintains The International Harmonized System (HS) Goods Nomenclature, And Administers. 3/7/2015 22
  23. 23. World Trade Organization (WTO) Formed In 1 January 1995 Objective to supervise and liberalize international trade. Nature of Operation • It’s a negotiating forum; • It’s a set of rules; And • it helps to settle disputes. Headquarters Centre William Rappard, Geneva, Switzerland Membership 160 member states Governing Bodies • Council for Trade in Goods : • Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights: • Council for Trade in Services The Council for Trade in Services: • Trade Negotiations Committee 3/7/2015 23
  24. 24. Roles of WTO • Administering WTO trade agreements • Forum for trade negotiations • Handling trade disputes • Monitoring national trade policies • Technical assistance and training for developing countries • Cooperation with other international organizations 3/7/2015 24
  25. 25. Principles of the Trading System Most-favored-nation (MFN) National treatment Freer trade: gradually through negotiation Predictability: through binding and transparency Promoting fair competition Encouraging development and economic reform 3/7/2015 25
  26. 26. AGREEMENT ESTABLISHING WTO Goods • GATT • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Services • GATS • General Agreement on Trade in Services Intellectual property • TRIPS • Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Area for Agreement • Tariffs • Agriculture • Standards and Safety • Textiles • Services • Intellectual Property • Anti- dumping, Subsidy. • Non Tariff Barriers • Plurilaterals • Trade Policy Reviews 3/7/2015 26
  27. 27. World Bank Formation 27 December 1945 Headquartered Washington, D.C. Purpose Economic development, poverty elimination Membership 188 states (187 UN countries and Kosovo) President Jim Yong Kim Worldwide offices. 120 Website worldbank.org 3/7/2015 27
  28. 28. Organizations Of World Bank Group The World Bank Group consists of five organizations: International Bank For Reconstruction And Development (IBRD) International Development Association (IDA) International Finance Corporation (IFC) Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) International Center For Settlement Of Investment Disputes (ICSID) 3/7/2015 28
  29. 29. IBRD IDA IFC MIGA ICSID Formation 1944 1960 1956 1988 1966 Membership 188 countries 172 countries 184 countries 180 countries 159 countries President Jim Yong Kim Jim Yong Kim Jin-Yong Cai (EVP & CEO) Keiko Honda (EVP) Meg Kinnear (SG) 3/7/2015 29
  30. 30. Roles 3/7/2015 30 Clients Tools IBRD Middle-income and creditworthy low-income countries • Loans, • Guarantees, • Analytical and • Advisory services IDA Poorest countries • Interest-free loans, • Grants, analytical and • Advisory services IFC Businesses in developing countries where there is limited access to capital • Commercial-rate loans, • Equity investments, resource mobilization, • Advisory services MIGA Investors and lenders • Political risk insurance, • Advisory and • Legal services ICSID Member countries and private investors • Conciliation and arbitration mechanism for investment disputes
  31. 31. International Monetary Fund (IMF)Founded in 27 December 1945 Began financial operations 1 March 1947( de facto formation) Objective • To promote international monetary cooperation • To maintain orderly exchange arrangements • To facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of international trade • To provide temporary financial assistance to member countries Headquarter Washington, D.C., United States Membership 29 countries (founding); 188 countries (to date) Governing Bodies • Board of Governors • Executive Board (Consisting 24 Executive Directors) • Interim Committee (provides ministerial guidance) • Development committee (advises on development issues • Managing Director (chairs the Executive Board and serves as head of the organization’s staff) 3/7/2015 31
  32. 32. Quota • A member country's quota defines its financial and organizational relationship with the IMF, including • Subscription • Voting power • Access to financing • SDR allocations TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE (through many department) • The Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department (MAE) • The Fiscal Affairs Department • The Policy Development and Review Department • The Statistics Department • The IMF Institute • The Legal Department • The Treasurer’s Department • The Bureau of Computing Services 3/7/2015 32
  33. 33. Financial Operations and Policies Regular Facilities • Reserve Tranche • Credit Tranches • Stand-By Arrangements • Extended Fund Facility (EFF) Special Facilities • Compensatory and Contingency Financing Facility • Buffer Stock Financing Facility. • Supplemental Reserve Facility (SRF) Concessional Facilities • Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility (ESAF). 3/7/2015 33
  34. 34. Creation Of International Reserve Asset – SDR • The SDR (Special Drawing Right) is an International Reserve Asset created by the IMF in 1969 and allocated to its members to supplement existing reserve assets. • The SDR is the unit of account of the IMF and is used as a unit of account, or as a basis for a unit of account, by a number of other international and regional organizations and international conventions. • The value of the SDR is determined daily on the basis of a basket of major currencies: the Euro, Japanese yen, Pound sterling and U.S. dollar . • The SDR valuation basket is revised every five years. • The SDR interest rate, which is adjusted weekly, is a weighted average of the yields on specified short-term instruments in the domestic money markets of the countries whose currencies are included in the SDR basket. • IMF members may use SDRs in a variety of voluntary transfers. • The uses of SDRs between members and the IMF consist of receipts of SDRs by the IMF’s General Resources Account from members and transfers of SDRs from the General Resources Account to members. 3/7/2015 34
  35. 35. Some popular International Trade regulation and standard Issuing Body Name of the Standard/principles OECD • Principles of Corporate Governance ICC • Uniform Customs and Practice for documentary Credit (UCP 600) • Uniform Rules for demand Guarantee (URDG 758) • Intentional Commercial Terms • DOCDEX Rules UN • UN Vienna Convention on Contract of Sale (UNCITRAL) • UN Convention for the suppression the financing Terrorism IMF • Article VIII WTO • General agreement on trade in services 3/7/2015 35
  36. 36. Any Question??? 3/7/2015 36
  37. 37. Thanks to All 3/7/2015 37

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