feministuri
biblioTeka




                                homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi
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H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi
                                                                      siuzan farri



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H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi
                                                                     siuzan farri




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H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi
                                                                     siuzan farri




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H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi
                                                                     siuzan farri




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H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi
                                                                    siuzan farri




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H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi
                                                                     siuzan farri




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H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi
                                                                      siuzan farri



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H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi
                                                                     siuzan farri




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H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi
                                                                      siuzan farri



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H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi
                                                                     siuzan farri




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H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi
                                                                       siuzan farri


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H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi
                                                                     siuzan farri




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ჰომოფობია_როგორც_სექსიზმის_იარაღი _homophobia_sexism

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ჰომოფობია_როგორც_სექსიზმის_იარაღი _homophobia_sexism

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ჰომოფობია_როგორც_სექსიზმის_იარაღი _homophobia_sexism

  1. 1. feministuri biblioTeka homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi siuzan farri homofobia – aris iracionaluri SiSi da siZulvili im adamianebisa, romlebsac uyvarT da seqsualur ltolvas ganicdian sakuTari sqesis warmomadgenelTa mimarT. miuxedavad imisa, rom Sinaganad vicodi misi mniSvneloba, sityva “homofobia” CemTvis ucnobi iyo gvian 1970-ian wlebamde, roca is pirvelad movismine. MmaSinve gamaogna iman, Tu raoden rTuli iyo misi warmoTqma, ra saSineli sityvaa - iseTive saSineli, rogorc misi mniSvneloba. igi rasizmisa da antisemitizmis msgavsad acocxlebs Tavisuflebis dakargvis, sityvieri da fizikuri Zaladobisa da sikvdilis suraTebs. avadmyofobis Teoriis Seswavlam mimiyvana imis Segnebamde, rom homoseqsualoba ubralod seqsualuri identobis sakiTxia, romelic heteroseqsualur identobasTan erTad, yalibdeba gzebiTa da xerxebiT, romlebic, saboloo jamSi, aravis esmis. amerikis fsiqologiuri asociaciis (The American Psychological Association) gancxadebiT, iyo homoseqsuali - iseTive normaluria, rogorc werde marcxena xeliT. heteroseqsualoba an marjvena xeliT wera sulac ar aris ufro jansaRi. saqme ubralod isaa, rom mosaxleobis garkveuli nawili aseTia. is, rac marTla arajansaRia – da xandaxan imxela stresisa da avadmyofobis wyaro xdeba, rom SeiZleba TviTmkvlelobamdec ki migviyvanos – aris homofobia, is socialuri daavadeba, romelic avrcelebs uaryofiT informacias da gmobs geebsa da lesboselebs ise, rom Cven mTeli cxovrebis manZilze gviwevs brZola TviTSefasebis problemebTan. qristianoba da krizisi - homoseqsualebis mimarT diskriminaciis didi nawili bibliis Cveuli araswori kiTxviT aixsneba. bibliis bevr inglisurenovan TargmanSi sityva “homoseqsuali” ukiduresad uaryofiT konteqstSi gamoiyeneba. magram faqti isaa, rom Tavad sityva “homoseqsuali” bibliaSi arsad moiZebneba. arcerTi arsebuli teqsti, arcerTi xelnaweri - ebrauli, berZnuli, siriuli Tu arameuli - ar Seicavs am sityvas. terminebi homoseqsuali da heteroseqsuali arcerT enaSi ar gamoCenila 1890-ian wlebamde, rodesac pirvelad Camoyalibda cnobiereba imis Taobaze, rom arseboben adamianebi, romlebic mTeli cxovrebis manZilze organulad arian orientirebulni sakuTari sqesis warmomadgenlebze. aqedan gamomdinare, sityva “homoseqsualobis” gamoyeneba bibliis zogierTi inglisurenovani mTargmnelis mier im ukiduresad uaryofiTi gavlenis magaliTia, romelic safrTxis winaSe ayenebs homoseqsualTa adamianur da samoqalaqo uflebebs.
  2. 2. H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi siuzan farri homoseqsualoba, heteroseqsualoba da biseqsualoba moralurad neitraluri cnebebia. konkretuli seqsualuri identoba keTilis an borotis maCvenebeli ar aris. mniSvnelovani ara urTierTobaSi myofi ori adamianis sqesi, aramed urTierTobis Sinaarsia. Seicavs Tu ara urTierToba Zaladobas da erTi adamianis mier meores kontrols? aZlevs Tu ara es urTierToba masSi myof adamianebs zrdis saSualebas? cxadia, rom Cven yvela urTierToba, heteroseqsualuric da erTsqesianic am standartebs unda mivusadagoT. patriarqati – patriarqatis ideologia aris ZaldatanebiT damkvidrebuli rwmena mamakacuri dominaciisa da kontrolisa, xolo seqsizmi is sistemaa, romelic mas saZirkvels umagrebs. misi safuZvlebi Semdeg kiTxvaramde SeiZleba daviyvanoT: vis emsaxureba genderuli rolebi? mamakacebsa da qalebs, romlebic maTSi Zalauflebas eZeben. vin iCagreba genderuli rolebisgan? qalebi TiTqmis mTlianad da nawilobriv mamakacebi. rogor narCundeba genderuli rolebi? seqsizmis iaraRebiT: ekonomika, Zaladoba, homofobia. Tu asea, ratom mgznebared ar vcdilobT genderuli rolebisa da, amgvarad, seqsizmis ganadgurebas? Cemi Rrma rwmeniT, yvela adamianSi aris naperwkali, romelic Tavisuflebisken iltvis da msoflio sisastikis istoria nacisturi sakoncentracio banakebiT, samxreT afrikaSi TeTrkanianTa batonobiTa da qalebze fizikuri ZaladobiT aris am naperwklis Caqrobis mcdelobaTa jaWvi. roca es naperwkali alad ver viTardeba, es imis niSania, rom kontrolisa da ganadgurebisTvis gankuTvnilma iaraRma iseTi Zlieri ziani miayenea mas, rom naperwkali TiTqmis Caqra. seqsizms, im sistemas, romliTac qalebs mamakacebs umorCileben, saZirkvels umagrebs sami Zlevamosili iaraRi, gamiznuli imisTvis, rom qalebs tkiviliT daemuqros da ziani miayenos. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, es sami aris ekonomika, Zaladoba da homofobia. ojaxuri Zaladobis - yvelaze saSineli seqsizmis - msxverplTa istoriebi, gviCvenebs rom es sami Zala mudam erTmaneTs erTvis. rodesac ojaxuri Zaladobis msxverpli qalebi xsnian, Tu ratom rCebodnen moZaladesTan an ratom xdebodnen iZulebulebi, masTan kvlav dabrunebuliyvnen, mizezad xSirad imas asaxeleben, rom maT ar SeeZloT sakuTari Tavisa da Svilebis finansurad rCena, aranairi samuSao kvalifikacia ar gaaCndaT, ar SeeZloT sakuTari Svilebis sacxovrebeli adgiliT, transportiTa da samedicino momsaxurebiT uzrunvelyofa. rogor xdeboda maTi marTva? Tavad Zaladobis, rogorc sityvieri ise fizikuri, da Zaladobis muqaris meSveobiT, ris Sedegadac maT eSinodaT sakuTari da Svilebis sicocxlis gamo da eWvi SehqondaT sakuTar SesaZleblobebsa da sakuTari Tavis fasSi. ratom scemdnen maT? imitom, rom isini ar iyvnen sakamrisad kargebi, ar iyvnen ”namdvili qalebi”, iyvnen “daiqebi”, an imitom, rom mamakacs ise ewinaaRmdegebodnen, rogorc ”namdvili qali” ar izamda. moZalade mamakaci, romelsac sazogadoeba umagrebs zurgs, gamarTlebulad da xSirad samarTlianadac ki Tvlis qalis misTvis miCenil adgilze Sesakaveblad gamiznul Tavis saqciels. 2
  3. 3. H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi siuzan farri ekonomika pirvel rigSi unda ganvixiloT imitom, rom bevri feministi swored mas miiCnevs seqsizmis fesvad. rasakvirvelia, gaerTianebuli erebis kvleva qalebze, romelic gamoqveynda nairobiSi, keniaSi 1985 wels Catarebul saerTaSoriso aTwleulis daskvniT konferenciaze, mxars uWers am mosazrebas: msoflios mTeli mosaxleobidan qalebi asruleben samuSaos 75 %-s, iReben 10% anazRaurebas da floben 1% sakuTrebas. amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi amas emateba mTavrobis winaaRmdegoba Tanabari anazRaurebis ideis mimrT, rac, magaliTad, imaSi gamoixata, rom ronald reiganma anazRaurebis miukerZoebloba “xumrobad” moixsenia. aSkaraa, rom es saxifaTo cnebad moiazreba. mamakacebi mogebas iReben ara mxolod saxlSi qalTa aunazRaurebeli Sromidan, aramed, qalTa horizontaluri segregaciis farglebSi moqceuli dabalanazRaurebadi Sromidan, rogoricaa, magaliTad, saofiso samuSao an uflebaTa marad mzardi simboluri miniWeba samuSao adgilebze, sadac mcire raodenobiT pozitiuri diskriminaciis niSniT ganxorcielebulma waxalisebam unda daakmayofilos yvela qalis ekonomikuri Tanasworobis saWiroeba. ufro metic, mamakacebi sargebels naxuloben qalis sxeulisgan pornografiis, prostituciisa da qalTa saerTaSoriso seqsualuri monobis meSveobiT. garda amisa, TeTrkaniani mamakacebi iyeneben feradkaniani qalebisa da mamakacebis Sromas. iZulebiTi ekonomikuri damokidebuleba aqcevs qals mamakacis kontrolqveS da mkacrad zRudavs misi TviTgamorkvevisa da TviTkmarobis SesaZleblobebs. saerTod, ekonomika unda ganvixiloT ara mxolod rogorc seqsizmis fesvi, aramed rogorc misi ZiriTadi mamoZravebeli Zala, romelic Seviwrovebas uWers mxars. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis ekonomikur sistemas piramidis forma aqvs. mwvervalze adamianTa mcirericxovani jgufia, ZiriTadad TeTrkaniani mamakacebi, romlebsac arCens didi raodenobiT aunazRaurebeli Tu dabali anazRaurebis mqone momuSave piramidis Zirze. roca Cven am piramidas vuyurebT, gasagebi xdeba ramxela kavSiria seqsizmsa da rasizms Soris imitom, rom adamianTa jgufebi piramidis Zirze Sedgeba qalebisa da feradkanianebisgan. amgvarad vxvdebiT mCagvreli sistemebis (rasizmis da seqsizmis maTi nebismieri gamovleniT) da dabalanazRaurebadi Sromis SenarCunebis Tavgamodebuli mcdelobis mizezs. ra moxdeboda, qalebs rom moepovebinaT gamomuSavebis is SesaZleblobebi da Zalaufleba, romelic mamakacebs aqvT xelT? ra moxdeboda, es SesaZleblobebi samarTlianad da miukerZoeblad rom yofiliyo ganawilebuli sqesis, rasobrivi kuTvnilebisa da sacxovrebeli adgilis miuxedavad? ra moxdeboda saganmanaTleblo SesaZleblobebi Tanabari rom yofiliyo? gaatarebdnen qalebi axalgazrdobis umetes nawils qorwinebisTvis mzadebaSi? iqneboda Tu ara qorwinebis mTavari safuZveli qalis ekonomikuri gadarCena? ra mouvidoda Zalauflebisa da kontrolis sakiTxebs? darCebodnen Tu ara qalebi moZaladeebTan? qals rom ekonomikuri damoukidebloba hqonoda iseT sazogadoebaSi, sadac qalebs Tanaswori SesaZleblobebi eqnebodaT, aRiqmeboda Tu ara is kvlavac mamis an qmris sakuTrebad? 3
  4. 4. H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi siuzan farri ekonimika didi makontrolebeli Zalaa seqsizmSic da rasizmSic. Tu adamiani ver iZens sakvebs, sacxovrebels, tansacmels da ar SeuZlia am yvelafriTY Svilebi uzrunvelyos, maSin SesaZlebeli xdeba, mas gadarCenis sababiT, bevri ramis gakeTeba dasZaldes. farTod gamoyenebuli taqtika, msoflios masStabiT, aris arakompensirebuli, an Seusabamod anazRaurebuli Sromis gamoyeneba im jgufebis sasargeblod, romlebsac simdidris berketebi aqvT xelT. amitom Cven vxedavT qalebs, romlebic asruleben aunazRaurebel samuSaos saxlSi an avseben dabalanazRaurebad samuSao adgilebs. agreTve vxedavT feradkanianebs arsebulTagan yvelaze dabalanazRaurebad samsaxurebSi. Zaladoba qalebis viwrod gansazRvrul CarCoSi marTvis meore saSualebaa. pirvel adgilze dgas fizikuri Zaladoba: cema, gaupatiureba da incesti. xSirad, rodesac ojaxuri Zaladobis msxverpli qalebi TavSesafarSi Tavis cxovrebaze yvebian, vigebT rom cemis garda maT seqsualuri Zaladobac ganucdiaT, xolo maTi Svilebi xSirad incestis msxverplni gamxdaran. qalTa anti-Zaladobis moZraobaSi ocwlianma samuSaom sakmarisi samxilebi warmoaCina imis dasamtkiceblad, rom am qmedebaTagan TiToeuli, seqsualuri Zaladobisa da incestis CaTvliT, aris meore adamianze Zalauflebisa da kontrolis mopovebis mcdeloba. TiToeul SemTxvevaSi msxverpli aRiqmeba rogorc nivTi, romelic moZaladis moTxovnilebebs emsaxureba. Zaladoba gamoiyeneba sasjelis ganxorcielebisa da morCilebis moTxovnis mizniT. qalebze Zaladoba pirdapir ukavSirdeba maT mdgomareobas sazogadoebaSi, romelic uars gveubneba Tanabar anazRaurebaze, resursebis Tanaswor gamoyenebasa da mamakacebTan mimarTebaSi Tanaswori statusis qonaze. swored am mdgomareobidan Cndeba mamakacebis mier qalTa flobis SegrZnebis, qalebze Zalauflebis qonisa da maTi sakuTari miznebis mixedviT marTvis uflebis konfirmacia. mamakacebi fizikurad da emociurad Zaladoben qalebze imitom, rom SeuZliaT. imitom, rom cxovroben iseT samyaroSi, romelic maT amis uflebas aZlevs. mamakacur Zaladobas asazrdoebs dominanturobisa da kontrolis ufleba da upiratesobis SegrZneba adamianTa im jgufTan mimarTebaSi, romelic sqesis gamo dabal safexurze mdgomad miiCneva. Cvens cxovrebas ara mxolod Zaladoba, aramed Zaladobis muqarac marTavs. vinaidan pasuxismgeblobis tvirTi ase xSirad potenciur msxverpls awveba mxrebze, Cven, rogorc qalebma Zaladobisgan Tavdasacavad SevkveceT sakuTari Tavisufleba. seqsualuri Zaladobis SiSiT Cven vfrTxilobT, vcdilobT ar viaroTYukacriel adgilebSi, yuradRebiT virCevT manqanis dasayenebel adgils da saxlSi usafrTxoebis warmoudgenel zomebs viyenebT (masiuri saketebi, ganaTeba da gangaSis sistema, Tuki amis saSualeba gvaqvs). vcdilobT moveridoT adgilebs, sadac mowyvladebi an daucvelebi gamovCndebiT, moZalade ki am dros Tavisuflad dadis. SiSi dResdReobiT imdenad gacveTilia, rom xSirad SeumCnevelic ki rCeba, formas aZlevs Cvens cxovrebas da gvizRudavs Tavisuflebas. 4
  5. 5. H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi siuzan farri im faqts, rom seqsizmi Tavis adgils inarCunebs, nawilobriv xels uwyobs sazogadoebrivi dapireba imisa (raoden yalbi da ganuxorcielebelic unda iyos), rom qalebs Zaladobis gadatana ar mogviwevs da gadavrCebiT, Tuki Tavdacvis mizniT mamakacs mivekedlebiT. mamakacis gareSe myof qals eubnebian, rom is daucvelia gare Zaladobisgan da, uaresic, rom masSi raRac arasworia. rodesac moZalade mamakaci qals lesbosels uwodebs, is mainc da mainc ar gulisxmobs masSi qals, romelsac meore qali uyvars, aramed afrTxilebs, rom misTvis winaaRmdegobis gaweviT qali arCevs mamakacuri institutebisgan sazogadoebrivi dacvis farglebs gareT aRmoCndes da amgvarad daucveli gaxdes farTomasStabiani, sayovelTao Zaladobisgan. rodesac qali daxmarebisTvis mimarTavs mdedrobiTi sqesis megobrebs an ojaxuri Zaladobis msxverpl qalTa TavSesafars, kaci cnobs Zalas qalTa erTianobaSi da eSinia maTi monobisa da erTgulebis, anu Zalauflebis potenciuri dakargvisa. problema ara emociuri da seqsualuri identobaa, aramed Ralati, romlis sapasuxo muqarac Zaladobaa. bevri qali ambobs, rom sityvieri Seuracxyofa ufro did zians iwvevs, vidre fizikuri imitom, rom is daRs asvams adamianis TviTSefasebas. sxva qalebs ar surT imis mosmena, rom sityvieri Seuracxyofa iseTive mtkivneulia, rogorc fizikuri: simarTlis aRiareba imis aRiarebis tolfasi iqneboda, rom virtualurad yvela qali Zaladobis msxverplia. rTulia, simSvide SeinarCuno, roca gabraleben, rom xar Zukna, suleli, uvargisi da a.S.. gansakuTrebiT rTulia es, rodesac am individualur Tavdasxmebs zurgs umagrebs sazogadoeba, romelic Cumad urigdeba pornografiis arsebobas da romelic qals saxelmZRvaneloebSi, reklamaSi, satelevizio gadacemebsa da kinofilmebSi warmoaCens, rogorc Camofasebul, sulel, dabal safexurze mdgom, seqsualurad obieqtificirebul arsebas. am SetyobinebaTa internalizebis Sedegad viRebT ”dabal TviTSefasebas” , rac individualizebuli Terapiuli terminia. Tumca Cemis azriT, umjobesia metad politikuri gamoTqma gamoviyenoT: am SetyobinebaTa internalizaciis Sedegad Cven ganvicdiT ”internalizebul seqsizms”, rac saerToa seqsistur samyaroSi mcxovrebi yvela qalisTvis. Zaladobas Cvens mimarT mxars uWers sazogadoeba, romelSic Rrmadaa gamjdari qalTmoZuleoba. homofobia warmatebulad moqmedebs, rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi imitom, rom mas kidev erTi Zlevamosili iaraRi – heteroseqsizmi – uerTdeba. heteroseqsizmi qmnis klimats homofobiisTvis imis daSvebiT, rom msoflio aris da unda iyos heteroseqsualuri da sakuTari Zalisa da privilegiis normad warmoaCeniT. heteroseqsizmi aris homofobiis sistemuri gamovlena sazogadoebriv institutebSi. heteroseqsizmi da homofobia erTad iRwvian, savaldebulo heteroseqsualobis, patriarqaluri Zalauflebisa da nuklearuli ojaxis gansamtkiceblad. qalTa ganTavisuflebis winaaRmdeg Setevis centraluri samizne aris idea imisa, rom qalTa Tanasworoba, TviTgamorkveva, qalebis mier sakuTari sxeulisa da cxovrebis marTva zians miayenebs nuklearul ojaxs, romelic gadamwyveti mniSvnelobis mqone 5
  6. 6. H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi siuzan farri socialur institutad miiCneva. homoseqsualoba, abortTan erTad, gaxda fundamentalisti mRvdlebis mTavari samizne mTeli qveynis masStabiT. maT risxviT mihqondaT ieriSi qalTa klinikebze, da iTxovdnen homoseqsualebis eklesiidan mokveTasa da SidsiT daavadebuli adamianebisTvis sakarantino banakebis Seqmnas. SeewinaaRmdego qorwinebas da/an heteroseqsualobas niSnavs, mkacri sasjelisa da danakargis riskis winaSe dadge. SemTxveviToba araa, rom roca bavSvebi sqesobriv simwifesa da momatebul sqesobriv codnas uaxlovdebian, isini erTmaneTis dacinvas iwyeben iseTi sityvebiT, rogoricaa queer, faggot, pervert. swored sqesobrivi simwifisas iwyebs sazogadoebrivi zewola mTeli ZaliT moqmedebas imisTvis, rom daumorCilos mozardebi heteroseqsualobas da moamzados isini qorwinebisTvis. bavSvebma ician is, rac maT aswavles, maT ki gasagebad auxsnes, rom isini, vinc gadauxveven standartul molodins, iZulebiT unda davabrunoT CarCoSi. kontrolis saukeTeso taqtika seqsualuri simwifis miRwevis periodSi aris, moeqce adamians rogorc auTsaiders, gariyo swored maSin, rodesac mowonebasa da aRiarebas misTvis vitaluri mniSvneloba aqvs. maT, vinc gansxvavdebian, safasuris gadaxda mouwevT. swored seqsualuri simwifis dros xdeba mizoginia yvelaze aSkara. gogonebs ubiZgeben im sazogadoebrivi normebisadmi morCilebisken, romlebic krZalaven maTi sruli potencialis ganxorcielebas. swored am dros klebulobs maTi akademiuri miRwevebi, radgan maT uqvemdebareben savaldebulo heteroseqsualobas da aCveven ekonomikuri gadarCenisTvis mamakacze damokidebulebas. iyo dro, roca ori yvelaze gamkicxavi braldeba, romelic emsaxureboda qalis gariyvasa da dasustebas ”bozi” da ”lesboseli” gaxldaT. seqsualurma revoluciam da heteroseqsualuri qcevis mimarT Secvlilma damokidebulebam, albaT, cota Seasusta kidec sityva ”bozis” mniSvneloba, Tumca mas jer kidev SerCa seqsualuri sakuTrebis muqaris datvirTva, rac meZavTa stigmatizaciasa da maTze Zaladobas iwvevs. rac Seexeba sityva ”lesbosels”, is jer kidev srulad aris datvirTuli da Tavis TavSi atarebs Zalauflebisa da privilegiis sruli dakargvis, sazogadoebidan mokveTis, uaryofisa da sazogadoebis dacvis gareT aRmoCenis muqaras. iyo lesboseli niSnavs, aRiqmebode adamianad, romelmac zRvars gadaabija, dasZlia mamakacze seqsualuri da ekonomikuri damokidebuleba, da romelic sakuTar Tavs qalad gansazRvravs. lesboseli aRiqmeba adamianad, romelsac mamakacis gareSe cxovreba SeuZlia, da aqedan gamomdinare (rac ar unda alogikuri iyos), mis winaaRmdegaa. lesboseli aRiqmeba rogorc misaRebsa da dadgenil wesrigs gareT myofi. is moiazreba, rogorc damcvel sazogadoebriv institutebsa da mamakacebis dacvis privilegias moklebuli adamiani. bevri heteroseqsuali qali lesbosels uyurebs rogorc adamians, romelic upirispirdeba maT mier savaldebulo heteroseqsualobisadmi damorCilebisTvis gaRebul msxverpls. lesboseli iTvleba muqarad nuklearuli ojaxis, mamakacuri dominaciisa da kontrolis, TviT seqsizmis arsis winaaRmdeg. 6
  7. 7. H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi siuzan farri homoseqsuali mamakacebic aseTive muqarad aRiqmebian da maT mimarT gamoxatul homofobias igive sawyisebi aqvs, rac lesboselebis siZulvils. xiluli geebi ukiduresi siZulvilisa da SiSis obieqtebi xdebian heteroseqsuali mamakacebis mxridan imitom, rom maTi gavardna mamakacTa heteroseqsualuri erTobidan moizareba, rogorc zianis momtani ganxeTqileba seqsizmis struqturaSi. maT uyureben rogorc moRalateebs, romlebic unda daisajon da ganadgurdnen. geebis cema da kvla am siZulvilis naTeli samxilia. rodesac vxedavT geebis winaaRmdeg gamoxatul mZvinvare homofobias, vxvdebiT, Tu rogor axdens seqsizmi maTze zemoqmedebas dehumanizaciisa da mkacri genderuli rolebis Tavze moxveviT. ori garemoeba, sadac legitimurad iTvleba mamakacebs Soris Ria fizikuri da emociuri siaxlove, aris sporti da omis krizisi. bevri mamakacisTvis am saxis gamocdileba cxovrebis RirsSesaniSnav moments warmoadgens da isini mas kvlav da kvlav nostalgiiT ixseneben. omi da sporti uzrunvelyofs sruliad mamakacuri usafrTxoebisa da dominanturobis safars, raTa ar iqnas daSvebuli maTi emociuri gaxsnilobis gaigiveba homoseqsualobasTan. rodesac mamakacebi genderul rolebs scdebian erTmaneTTan emociuri kavSiris damyarebis gziT sportul da saomar arenebs miRma, isini ar aRiqmebian ”namdvil mamakacebad”, anu igivdebian qalebTan, sust sqesTan, romelic daqvemdebarebisTvisaa gankuTvnili da saukuneebis manZilze iyo mamakacTa mxridan siZulvilisa da Zaladobis obieqti. mizoginia SurisZiebis saxiT vrceldeba geebze da Zlierdeba imis SiSiT, rom maTi seqsualuri identoba da qceva daamxobs mamakacuri dominaciisa da savaldebulo heteroseqsualobis mTel sistemas. raxan lesboselebs miiCneven muqarad status qvos winaaRmdeg, gariyulebad, romlebic unda daisajon, homofobias SeuZlia gaamyaros Tavisi Zalaufleba qalebze [lesboselis] iarliyis mikerebiT. qalTa gakontrolebis es xerxi maSin gamoiyeneba, roca Cveni saqcieli miuRebeli xdeba. anu, roca Cven damoukideblad vmoqmedebT, sakuTari gziT mivdivarT, savse cxovrebiT vcxovrobT, Cveni uflebebisTvis vibrZviT, viTxovT Tanabar anazRaurebas, vewinaaRmdegebiT Zaladobas, varT sakuTar TavSi darwmunebulebi, gviyvars da gvsiamovnebs qalebis garemocvaSi yofna, viRebT uflebebs sakuTar sxeulze, daJinebiT mivuTiTebT Cvens avtoritetze, vaxorcielebT cvlilebebs, romlebic gulisxmobs Cvens monawileobas sazogadoebrivi gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi. msgavs SemTxvevebSi qals lesbosels imitom eZaxian, rom is mamakacebis dominaciasa da kontrols ewinaaRmdegeba, rac arc ise did an saerTod araviTar kavSirSia mis seqsualur identobasTan. 7
  8. 8. H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi siuzan farri gandevnili qalebi: lesbosuri gamocdileba internalizebuli homofobia: homofobiuri samyaros ziani lesboselebs iseve, rogorc adamianebs nebismier Seviwrovebul jgufSi, uxdebaT TviTSefasebis sakiTxebze muSaoba imisTvis, rom gaaneitralon am jgufebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli, internalizebuli SeviwroebiT miyenebuli ziani. rwmena imisa, rom Cven ar varT sakmarisad kargebi aris is, rasac internalizebul Seviwrovebas eZaxian. magaliTad, rasizmis erT-erTi meTodia, CaubeWdos sazogadoebas TavSi, rom feradkanianebi ar arian TeTrkanianebiviT Wkvianebi, niWierebi da ambiciurebi. aqedan gamomdinare, feradkaniani lesboselebi mravalmxrivi Seviwrovebis winaSe dgebian da gare da internalizebul homofobias, rasizmsa da seqsizms upirispirdebian. Setyobinebebi, romlebsac sazogadoebrivi azri lesboselebsa da geebze avrcelebs, gveubneba, rom Cven varT avadmyofebi, amoralurebi, ojaxis gamanadgureblebi, aranormalurebi, gadaxrilebi, umwifrebi da a.S. Zalian rTulia, gaizardo mudmivi Setevis garemoSi da Senamde ar miuSva amgvari gzavnilebi, romelime maTganis internalizebis gareSe. amasTanave, roca Cven maT internalizebas vaxdenT, sakuTar Tavs zians vayenebT da samyaroSi sakuTari SesaZleblobebis mixedviT raimes miRwevis Cvens Tavisuflebas mkacr sazRvrebs vuwesebT. es mxolod mcire, magram metyveli magaliTebia, romlebic gviCvenebs Cvens SiSs im epoqis CarCoSi, sadac gare saSiSroeba araa xiluli. swored am dros unda gadavavloT Tvali sakuTar saqciels rogorc erTmaneTTan mimarTebaSi, ise sazogadoebaSi. ras vfiqrobT sakuTar Tavze, ramdenad vzRudavT sakuTar Tavs, roca SedarebiT usafrTxo adgilebSi vimyofebiT (saxlSi, lesbosur sazogadoebaSi da a.S.)? internalizebulma homofobiam SeiZleba daRi daasvas Cveni cxovrebis yvela aspeqts da akrZalos Cveni zrda da moZraoba msoflioSi. mudam unda gvaxsovdes, rom Cveni internalizebuli homofobiis TiToeuli nawili saTaves iRebs gare homofobiidan da misi mizania gvaiZulos, sakuTari Tavis winaaRmdeg vimoqmedoT. amitom, uaRresad mniSvnelovania, rom sakuTari Tavi ar davadanaSauloT homofobiis SeTvisebaSi - msgavsi qceva misTvis ulevi Zalis miniWebis tolfasia. amis nacvlad, Zala unda movikriboT da siamovnebiT unda gamoviyenoT sakuTar cxovrebaze gavlenis moxdenis unari homofobiis dasaZlevad. aq mogvyavs ramdenime xerxi, romliTac internalizebuli homofobia vlindeba calkeul individebsa da lesbosur sazogadoebebSi. izolacia – rodesac homofobiis moqmedeba erTmaneTisgan gvacalkevebs, misi warmateba absoluturia. mZimed Tavs moxveuli savaldebulo heteroseqsualobis fonze, lesboselebi axalgazrdobidanve Tavs gansxvavebulad, misaRebs miRma myof adamianebad aRviqvamT. vinaidan SiSi bevr Cvengans ”uxilavs” tovebs, xSirad gansxvavebulobis am SegrZnebas uerTdeba sruli martoobis grZnobac, rac piradad gvaiZulebs vieWvoT, rom Cvens Tavs raRac araswori xdeba imitom, rom sxva Cvennairebs ver vxedavT. marTlac, axalgazrda lesboselebs misabaZ magaliTad arc 8
  9. 9. H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi siuzan farri ise bevri xiluli lesboseli yavT. gansxvavebulobisa da martoobis SegrZnebas advilad mivyavarT sakuTari Tavis dadanaSaulebis safexuramde. imitacia – Cven, rogorc wesi, am procesis, or saxeobasTan gvaqvs saqme. erTia, roca Tavs heteroseqsualebad vasaRebT imisTvis, rom sakuTari lesbosuri identoba mTlianad davmaloT da xandaxan ise Sorsac ki mivdivarT, rom vTxovdebiT da heteroseqsualuri ojaxis nawili vxdebiT. meore isaa, roca ramdenadme sajarod vaRiarebT lesboselobas, magram viTvisebT ”heteroseqsualur Cacmulobasa da qcevas” imisTvis, rom socialurad ufro misaRebebi, anu ”kargi lesboselebi”, viyoT. imis gamo, rom bevr Cvengans ar unaxavs sakmarisi raodenobiT Zlieri, avtonomiuri da warmatebuli lesboseli, isini bevr samuSaos hkideben xels, raTa moaxdinon auTsaiderobis SegrZnebis kompensireba da heteroseqsualobis mier mowonebuli qcevis meSveobiT miRebulobas miaRwion. Semdeg, roca vxvdebiT sxva lesboselebs, sakuTar Tavs maTTan aRar vaigivebT da maTTan kavSiris damyarebas veridebiT, gansakuTrebiT, roca isini ar miekuTvnebian heteroseqsualebisTvis misaReb kategorias, radgan gveSinia, rom Cvenc maTnairebad CagvTvlian an, rom ufro xilul lesboselebTan dakavSirebiT, Cveni seqsualuri identoba sajarod gaxdeba cnobili da mZime SromiT mopovebul privilegiebs davkargavT. igive SiSi gviSlis xels, monawileoba miviRoT lesbosur socialur Tu politikur movlenebSi da iseTi raRaceebis keTebaSi, rac erTobas qmnis da homofobiasTan brZolisTvisaa gamiznuli. Cvens mcdelobaSi - Tavi heteroseqsualebad gavasaRoT, Cven Tavs vikveTavT sxva lesboselebisgan da vzrdiT Cvens izolacias. vgrZnobT, rom heteroseqsualebi marto imitom gviReben Tavis wreSi, rom Cvenc heteroseqsualebi vgonivarT da, Sesabamisad, bolomde arasodes gvjera maTi mowonebis. Cvens TviTSefasebas azianebs yvela is tyuili, romlis Tqmac gviwevs sakuTari identobis saidumlod SenaxvisTvis, radgan Sedegad Tavs arakeTilsindisier adamianebad vafasebT, amaSi ki Rirseuls verafers vpoulobT. sakuTari Tavis siZulvili – sakuTari Tavis siZulvili izolaciis erT-erTi Sedegia. Tu Cven davijerebT imas, rom varT avadmyofebi, borotebi, normidan gadaxrilebi da sxvebs zians vayenebT Cveni arsebobiT, bolos da bolos, daviwyebT imaze fiqrs, rom ar varT Rirsni, sxvebTan, rogroc heteroseqsualebTan ise homoseqsualebTan, Tanaswor bazisze vurTierTobdeT. sakuTari Tavis dadanaSaulebiT vnergavT sakuTar TavSi meorexarisxovnebis SegrZnebas. dabali TviTSefaseba Zlieri Seferxebaa Cveni potencialisTvis: Cven an simarTled vcnobT imas, rom ar varT keTilganwyobis, siyvarulisa da uflebebis qonis Rirsni da rac ar unda SemogvTavazon (raoden araadeqvaturic ar unda iyos) imas unda davjerdeT, an mudmivad unda vumtkicoT sakuTar Tavsa da sxvebs sapirispiro. TviTSefasebis problemebi xSirad gvaiZulebs mcirediT davkmayofildeT maSin, roca SegveZlo raRac srulad mogveTxova. 9
  10. 10. H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi siuzan farri arasakmarisi Sesruleba – SegrZneba imisa, rom raRacis Rirsni ar varT, xSirad zRudavs moTxovnebs, romlebsac cxovrebas vuyenebT. Cven vxedavT, rom zogi lesboseli muSaobs iseT samsaxurSi, romelic cotas moiTxovs misgan, radgan miaCnia, rom misTvis sxva araferia SesaZlebeli. Cven vTanxmdebiT dabal anazRaurebaze da dawinaurebis mcire SesaZleblobebze imitom, rom vTvliT, sakmarisad misaRebni ar varT raRac ufro didis mosaTxovad. misaRebobis standartebis mcdarad cnobisa da maT winaaRmdeg brZolis nacvlad, Cven vurigdebiT samsaxureobriv da Cveni zrdis SezRudvebs. Tavdacvis mizniT, xSirad virCevT iseT samsaxurebs, romlebSic bevris Cadeba ar dagvWirdeba, raTa tkivili ar ganvicadoT,Y Tuki Cveni seqsualuri identobis gamo am samsaxuris dakargva mogviwevs. gadaWarbebuli Sesruleba - Cven aseve xSirad vxedavT lesboselebs, romlebic, lamis Tavs aklaven samuSaos, cdiloben ra daamtkicon, rom kargi adamianebi arian. igive motivacia ubiZgebs maT iseTi profesiebisken, sadac maT SeuZliaT gamoamJRavnon sakuTari sikeTe, erTguleba da Tavdadeba kacobriobisadmi - TiTqos im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki maT devnas farTo masStabebi mieniWa, adamianebi, romlebic maTi gamoxatuli sikeTis momswreni gaxdnen, win gamovlen, maT sasargeblod miscemen Cvenebas da gadaarCenen. Tumca Cven gvaqvs nacistur germaniaSi mcxovrebi ebraelebis magaliTi imis saCveneblad, rom Seviwroeba sxvagvarad moqmedebs, mas ar anaRvlebs adamianis arsebiTi sikeTe da kargi qmedebebi; Seviwroeba brmaa yvelafrisadmi garda adamianebze kontrolis Tavisi saWiroebisa. fizikuri janmrTeloba – imisaTvis, rom sakuTari fizikuri janmrTelobis sakiTxebs saTanado yuradReba miaqcios, adamiani Tavs amis Rirsad unda Tvlides. lesboselebi xSirad mainc da mainc kargad ar epyrobian sakuTar sxeulsa da fizikur janmrTelobas, SesaZloa imitom, rom internalizebuli homofobiis gamo eCvenebaT, rom sxeulma maT uRalata Tavisi socialurad moZulebuli seqsualuri identobiT. Cven an metismetad bevrs vWamT, an vaSimSilebT sakuTar sxeulebs. xandaxan isini gvZuls kidec da yvela SesaZlebeli xerxiT vmalavT maT gare samyarosgan. vicvamT ise, rom WurWelma, sadac Cvens suls daudia bude, yuradReba ar miiqcios. dabali TviTSefasebis niSnebi gamokrTis imaSic Tu rogor uWiravs Tavi zogierT Cvengans – daWimuloba, simkacre, yurebamde aziduli mxrebi, daZabuli siarulis manera, Tavdacvis mizniT SigniT Seweuli mkerdi. yvelani stresulad aRviqvamT homofobiur samyaroSi cxovrebas, xolo isini, vinc ”uxilavad” darCenas amjobinebs, sakuTari identobis gasaidumloebis mcdelobis Sedegad damatebiT stress ganicdian. Cveni didi, mdinare energia sxeulSi rCeba gamoketili da fizikuri xarki, romlis gadaxdac gviwevs maRalia. 10
  11. 11. H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi siuzan farri gonebrivi janmrTeloba – homofobiur samyaroSi identobasTan dakavSirebuli problemebis mqone lesboselebs xandaxan qronikuli depresia uviTardebaT, radgan isini ver xedaven xerxs, romlis meSveobiTac samyaro mTlianad Seurigdeboda maT raobas. maxeSi moqcevis SegrZnebam da rwmenam imisa, rom cudi, uvargisi adamianebi varT, SeiZleba TviTmkvlelobamdec ki migviyvanos. axali kvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom bevri mozardis TviTmkvleloba swored seqsualuri identobis sakiTxebs ukavSirdeba. isRa rCeba vimarCieloT mozardTa TviTSefasebis doneze im samyaroSi, sadac amdeni mSobeli ambobs ”mirCevnia mokvde, vidre lesboseli iyo”. gariyulobisa da ostrakizmis ukiduresobebTan Sejaxebuli sxva mozardi gei da lesboselebi saxlidan garbian (an maT ojaxebi agdeben) da arCeven mZime cxovrebiT icxovron quCaSi, sadac maTi raoba naklebad ganisjeba. alkoholisa da narkotikebis gadaWarbebuli moxmareba – lesbosur da gei sazogadoebaSi bevri diskusia imarTeba Cvens mier alkoholisa da narkotikuli nivTierebebis moxmarebis maRal maCvenebelTan dakavSirebiT. iseve, rogorc stresi da dabali TviTSefaseba SeiZleba sxeulTan avad mopyrobis mizezi gaxdes, alkoholisa da narkotikuli saSualebebis gadaWarbebuli moxmarebac internalizebuli homofobiis mZime Sedegia. alkoholis, narkotikebisa da internalizebuli homofobiis kombinacia qmnis TviTganadgurebisTvis xelsayrel klimats. bevrisTvis alkoholi da narkotikebi sakuTar TavTan da samyarosTan brZolisgan dasaRwev saSualebad aRiqmeba. qalebi, romlebic alkoholizmisken arian midrekilebi, mxolod mcire mxardaWeras iReben socialuri sistemisgan, radgan bevrisTvis es sistema koncentrirebulia swored lesbosuri barebis irgvliv, romlebic erT-erTi im mcirericxovan adgilTagania, sadac lesboselebs usafrTxod SeuZliaT Sekreba. urTierToba partniorebTan – mtrulad ganwyobil samyaroSi, izolirebulobis SegrZnebis gamo, xSirad araadekvatur imedebs vamyarebT Cvens sasiyvarulo urTierTobebze, imis daSvebiT,Yrom meore adamiani Cvens yvela moTxovnilebas Seasrulebs da Cven ”viqnebiT orni msoflios winaaRmdeg”. zogadad realuri usafrTxoebis naklebobis gamo Cvens urTierTobebs metismetad didi masStabebis siwmindesa da mniSvnelobas vaniWebT. partniori ara mxolod wminda taZari xdeba, aramed fari msoflio Zaladobisgan da malamo, romelic yvela Wrilobas umkurnalebs. urTierTobisTvis miniWebuli amxela mniSvnelobis fonze, TiToeuli yvelaze mcire Secdoma da imedgacruebac ki gadaWarbebulad da dauZlevelad aRiqmeba. imedgacrueba Ralatisa da didi tkivilis wyaro xdeba. Tu urTierToba izolirebulia, msgavsad bevri urTierTobisa, gansakuTrebiT ”uxilav” lesboselebs Soris, is rac farTo perspeqtivaSi mcire problemad unda ganixilebodes, zviaddeba da iseT zRvars aRwevs, rom urTierToba iSleba. lesbosuri sazogadoebis erT-erTi problematuri sakiTxi urTierTobaTa xanmokleobaa. sxva mraval faqtorTan erTad, romelmac SeiZleba xeli Seuwyos arastabilur da xanmokle urTierTobebs, aris maTi umniSvnelod cnoba. vinaidan 11
  12. 12. H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi siuzan farri heteroseqsualuri samyaro ar wyalobs lesbosur urTierTobebs da ar uzrunvelyofs maT instituciuri an piradi mxardaWeriT, amas arc bevri Cvengani akeTebs. Cvens urTierTobebs xSirad rTul pirobebSi uwevT arseboba: isini sazogadoebisa da bevri sxva lesboselis mier ganixileba rogorc droebiTi da heteroseqsualur urTierTobebTan SedarebiT naklebad Sedegiani; maT mxars ar uWers lesbosuri an heteroseqsualuri institutebi; maTi arseboba izolaciaSi da arc ise bevri warmatebuli sajaro magaliTis fonze mimdinareobs. Tanamedrove popularuli literaturis umetesoba, dResdReobiT, heteroseqsualur urTierTobebs exeba (Tundac qalTa JurnalebSi rom CavixedoT) da lesbosur literaturaSic lesbosuri urTierTobis sakiTxebis nacvlad sxva Temebi Warbobs. saiTac ar unda gavixedoT, yvelgan gviTiTeben, rom Cveni urTierTobebi araa mniSvnelovani. fizikuri Zaladoba lesboselebs Soris – roca ojaxuri Zaladobis msxverplma da sxva lesboselebma, romlebic ojaxuri Zaladobis msxverpl qalTa moZraobaSi muSaoben, isaubres lesboselTa Soris Zaladobaze 1983 wlis NCADV (erovnuli koalicia ojaxuri Zaladobis winaaRmdeg) konferenciaze, romlis Temac gaxldaT Zaladoba lesbosur sazogadoebaSi, aRiniSna, rom msgavseba heteroseqsualur da lesbosur ojaxur Zaladobas Soris aris is, rom igi xorcieldeba im SemTxvevaSi, roca erTi adamiani cdilobs Zala ixmaros da kontroli daamyaros meores cxovrebaze. Cvenma analizma aseve gamoavlina, rom es msgavseba arsebobs ara imitom, rom, rogorc zogs miaCnia, lesboselebi rolebs inawileben da moZalade isaa, vinc mamakacis rols iRebs Tavis Tavze, aramed imitom, rom lesboselebi Zaladobas da mis meTodebs im samyarodan swavloben, romelSic gaizardnen da, romelic heteroseqsual mamakacTa mier aris dominirebuli. garda amisa aRiniSna, rom udidesi gansxvaveba heteroseqsualur da lesbosur ojaxur Zaladobas Soris aris homofobiis gavlena or individze lesbosur urTierTobaSi da igive gavlena Tavad urTierTobaze. Cven jer kidev srulad unda gaviazroT internalizebuli homofobiis zemoqmedeba lesbosur ojaxur Zaladobaze, magram ojaxuri Zaladobis msxverpl qalTa moZraobaSi gaweuli samuSaodan viciT, rom TviTSefasebis sakiTxebi aqac did rols TamaSobs. ojaxuri Zaladobis msxverpl qalTa TavSesafarSi myofi qalebi pirvel rigSi TviTSefasebis sakiTxebze iwyeben xolme muSaobas, rac gamiznulia im rwmenis danergvisTvis, rom aravin imsaxurebs fizikur Seuracxyofas. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom lesboselebs heteroseqsual qalebTan SedarebiT kidev ufro meti mizezi aqvT dabali TviTSefasebisTvis (isini xom seqsizmTan erTad homofobiasac upirispirdebian), SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom internalizebul homofobias didi zegavlena aqvs lesboselTa reaqciaze Zaladobis mimarT. urTierToba ojaxTan da heteroseqsual megobrebTan – Cveni ojaxebisa da megobrebis mier dakavebuli homofobiuri poziciebis gamo da Cveni mxridan 12
  13. 13. H homofobia rogorc seqsizmis iaraRi siuzan farri internalizebuli homofobiis mizeziT, bevr Cvengans ar aqvs namdvili urTierTobebi heteroseqsualad identificirebul adamianebTan. yvelaze didi Seferxeba Caketilobaa. xSirad vgrZnobT, rom mowoneba da siyvaruli, romelsac ojaxisgan da megobrebisgan viRebT pirobiTia, rom is efuZvneba gamowerili normebis mixedviT Cvens saqciels da rom is wagverTmeva, Tuki Cvenze damyarebul molodins ar gavamarTlebT. bevri Cvengani cxovrobda da axlac cxovrobs imis SiSiT, rom romelime sayvareli adamiani aRmoaCens Cvens seqsualur identobas da xels gvkravs. vinaidan Cven vTvliT, rom ver gadavitanT mSoblebis, da-Zmisa an saukeTeso megobris siyvarulis dakargvas, vibrZviT imisTvis, rom Cveni cxovreba maTgan saidumlod SevinaxoT. uaryofis es SiSi, yovelTvis riskis qveS ayenebs urTierTobebs da asustebs maT. horizontaluri Seviwroveba/mtruli ganwyoba – erT-erTi adgili, sadac internalizebuli homofobiiT gamowveul yvelaze didi zianis mowmeni vxdebiT, Cvenive lesbosuri sazogadoebaa. swored aq, Seviwrovebul adamianebs Soris, aRwevs yvelaze did warmatebas internalizebuli homofobia da aferxebs erTianobasa da zrdas socialuri Tu politikuri urTierTmoqmedebisas. gare siZulviliT gamowveuli Cveni tkivili risxvaSi gadadis da imis magivrad, rom Seviwroebis wyaros vebrZoloT, erTmaneTis winaaRmdeg vilaSqrebT. imis nacvlad, rom am risxvasa da energias erTad movuyaroT Tavi da dominant kulturaSi, sadac ufro sarisko da saxifaToa SeewinaaRmdego Cagvras, saWiro cvlilebebis misaRwevad mivmarToT, TavgamodebiT vesxmiT Tavs da vzRudavT erTmaneTs. Cven vxdebiT lesbosuri cxovrebis yvelaze mkacri da momTxovni kritikosebi. iqneb imitom, rom gare samyaroSi usafrTxoebis deficits ganvicdiT, viswrafviT miRebulobisken sakuTar erTobebSi. es ltolva deformacias ganicdis da gansxvavebulobis SiSad gardaiqmneba, ris gamoc naklebad Semwynareblebi vxdebiT maT mimarT, visac gansxvavebuli politikuri Sexedulebebi aqvs da sxvanairi cxovrebiT cxovrobs. raoden ironiulic unda iyos, gamodis, rom Cvenive ltolva usafrTxoebisken gvibiZgebs SevqmnaT adgili, romelic usafrTxo mxolod im viwro wrisTvis aris, romlis wevrebic erTnairad gamoiyurebian da fiqroben. amgvarad Cven danawevrebulebi varT politikuri koreqtulobis, klasobrivi sakiTxebis, rasis, miRebulobisa da Tavis moCvenebis, separatizmis, inkluziurobisa da sxva mravali niSniT. inglisuridan Targmna naTia gvianiSvilma 13

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