Restful webservices

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Restful webservices

  1. 1. RESTful Webservices Mohammed Luqman Shareef
  2. 2. Agenda • Introduction to Webservices • SOAP based webservices • RESTful webservices • Implementation of RESTful webservices • SOAP vs. REST • Why SOAP? • Why REST? • Q&A 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com 2
  3. 3. What is a webservice? • There are too many definitions. • Most of them are very specific to SOAP based services, and consider WSDL and UDDI as its integral parts, like ▫ “Web service is a standard way of integrating Web-based applications using the XML, SOAP, WSDL and UDDI open standards over an Internet protocol backbone. ” • There are too generic definitions as well, like ▫ “Web services are loosely coupled computing services that can reduce the complexity of building business applications, save costs, and enable new business models. Services running on an arbitrary machine can be accessed in a platform- and language-independent fashion.” ▫ “Web Services can convert your applications into Web-applications. Web Services are published, found, and used through the Web.” 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com 3
  4. 4. XML (eXtensible Markup Language) A uniform data representation and exchange mechanism SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) Lightweight (XML-based) protocol for exchange of information in a decentralized, distributed environment WSDL (Web Service Description Language) XML format that describes the web service UDDI (Universal Description Discovery and Integration) Like yellow pages of Web services 2010-02-08www.luqmanshareef.com 4 Components of a SOAP based web service
  5. 5. Lets take a scenario • An inventory database of a Supply chain management system gets updated with products’ information from various vendors. • What is the best way to communicate? ▫ Each Vendor exposes a webservice (say SOAP based). ▫ Each webservice has its own contract(WSDL) defined, consisting of various operations, input and output message types, bindings etc. ▫ The consumer application needs to understand the contracts, create a client stub to communicate with each vendor. For every new vendor a separate stub is needed. 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com 5
  6. 6. SOAP based webservice • Each Vendor shall expose a webservice through an end point like http://www.vendorX.com/the-endpoint ▫ Operations can be:  GetProduct  AddProduct  DeleteProduct • For Example GetProduct message will look like 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com 6 HTTP Header SOAP Envelope <env:Envelope xmlns:env="http://www.w3.org/2001/12/soap-envelope"> <env:Body> <v:GetProduct xmlns:v="http://vendorX.com/"> <v:ProdId>X123</v:ProdId> <v:Name>Hard Drive</v:Name> </v:GetProduct> </env:Body> </env:Envelope>
  7. 7. SOAP based webservice • Whether it is a pull operation or a push, (i.e., request for the product info, or add a new product) it is simply a get/post. And the content shared is always the product information in a standard format. • Why do we need different contracts from different vendors? • Can’t we use any of the standards prevailing in the industry to make life easier? • Why not a simple GET operation be done with HTTP GET method? 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com 7
  8. 8. HTTP Protocol • Lets use standard HTTP protocol. • It can be accessed via a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) like ▫ http://www.vendorx.com/products/x123 • It has standard methods to ▫ Retrieve ( GET ) ▫ Create ( POST ) ▫ Update ( PUT ) ▫ Delete (DELETE ) • Payload can be directly added to http message. No need to wrap it in another protocol. 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com 8
  9. 9. RESTful web services • It is a simple stateless architecture that generally runs over HTTP. • The focus is on a resource in the system ▫ Ex: an Employee, an Account, a Product etc. • Each unique URL is a representation of some object Ex : http://www.vendorx.com/products http://www.vendorx.com/products/x123 • HTTP methods (GET/POST/…) operates on the resource. • Object state is transferred and stored at client. • Representation of the resource state in XML, JSON etc. 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com REpresentational State Transfer 9
  10. 10. RPC vs REST • Every object has its own unique methods • Methods can be remotely invoked over the Internet • A single URI represents the end-point, and that's the only contract with the Web • Data hidden behind method calls and parameters • Data is unavailable to Web applications 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com  Every useful data object has an address  Resources themselves are the targets for method calls  The list of methods is fixed for all resources RPC REST 10
  11. 11. RESTful web services contd… 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com Client side > Easy to experiment in browser > Broad programming language support > Choice of data formats > bookmarkable Server side > Uniform Interface > Cacheable > Scalable > Easy failover Benefits > Resource identification through URI > Uniform interface GET/PUT/POST/DELETE > Self-descriptive messages > Stateless interactions through hyperlinks Principles 11
  12. 12. Six characteristics of REST: • Uniform interface • Decoupled client-server interaction • Stateless • Cacheable • Layered • Extensible through code on demand (optional) * Services that do not conform to the above required contstraints are not strictly RESTful web services. 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com 12
  13. 13. Product service as RESTful 9/29/2013 www.luqmanshareef.com Request GET /products/X123 HTTP/1.1 Host: vendorx.com Accept: application/xml Response HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Tue, 09 Feb 2010 11:41:20 GMT Server: Apache/1.3.6 Content-Type: application/xml; charset=UTF-8 <?xml version="1.0"?> <Products xmlns="…"> <Product id=“X123”> … </Product> </Products> Method Resource Representation State transfer 13
  14. 14. Developing a RESTful web service using JAX-RS 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com package com.vendorx.products; import javax.ws.rs.GET; import javax.ws.rs.Produces; import javax.ws.rs.Path; @Path("/employees/{pid}") public class Product{ @GET @Produces("text/xml") public String getProduct(@PathParam(“pid") String pId) { ... … } } 14
  15. 15. JAX-RS REST Annotations Annotation Description @Path The @Path annotation's value is a relative URI path indicating where the Java class will be hosted, for example, /helloworld. You can also embed variables in the URIs to make a URI path template. For example, you could ask for the name of a user, and pass it to the application as a variable in the URI, like this, /helloworld/{username}. @GET The @GET annotation is a request method designator and corresponds to the similarly named HTTP method. The Java method annotated with this request method designator will process HTTP GET requests. The behavior of a resource is determined by the HTTP method to which the resource is responding. @POST The @POST annotation is a request method designator and corresponds to the similarly named HTTP method. The Java method annotated with this request method designator will process HTTP POST requests. The behavior of a resource is determined by the HTTP method to which the resource is responding. @PUT The @PUT annotation is a request method designator and corresponds to the similarly named HTTP method. The Java method annotated with this request method designator will process HTTP PUT requests. The behavior of a resource is determined by the HTTP method to which the resource is responding. @DELETE The @DELETE annotation is a request method designator and corresponds to the similarly named HTTP method. The Java method annotated with this request method designator will process HTTPDELETE requests. The behavior of a resource is determined by the HTTP method to which the resource is responding. 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com 15
  16. 16. JAX-RS REST Annotations Annotation Description @HEAD The @HEAD annotation is a request method designator and corresponds to the similarly named HTTP method. The Java method annotated with this request method designator will process HTTP HEAD requests. The behavior of a resource is determined by the HTTP method to which the resource is responding. @PathParam The @PathParam annotation is a type of parameter that you can extract for use in your resource class. URI path parameters are extracted from the request URI, and the parameter names correspond to the URI path template variable names specified in the @Path class-level annotation. @QueryParam The @QueryParam annotation is a type of parameter that you can extract for use in your resource class. Query parameters are extracted from the request URI query parameters. @Consumes The @Consumes annotation is used to specify the MIME media types of representations a resource can consume that were sent by the client. @Produces The @Produces annotation is used to specify the MIME media types of representations a resource can produce and send back to the client, for example, "text/plain". 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com 16
  17. 17. Using Spring framework 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com 17
  18. 18. Arguments: SOAP vs. REST • SOAP based webservices are too complex for a web based service. • How about transactions and reliability in REST? • SOAP based webservices are protocol independent. • REST operations are limited (only http methods) • SOAP has built-in error handling. • REST is easy to test (in any browser) • SOAP is not only for Web. • REST development is faster and easier. 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com 18
  19. 19. Arguments: SOAP vs. REST • REST has better performance and scalability. • SOAP has many extensions built WS-* (security, transaction etc.) • A service offered in a REST style will be easier to consume than some complex API: ▫ Lower learning curve for the consumer ▫ Lower support overhead for the producer • What happens when you need application semantics that don't fit into the GET / PUT / POST / DELETE generic interfaces and representational state model? • These interfaces are sufficiently general. Other interfaces considered harmful because they increase the costs of consuming particular services 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com 19
  20. 20. Why REST? • Exposing a public API over the internet to handle CRUD operations on data. • REST permits many different formats like XML, JSON etc. • REST reads can be cached. • REST is concise. No need of additional messaging layer. • REST is stateless. If an operation needs to be continued just REST doesn’t help. • Easy to test (in any browser, no need of a new client to write) • REST is particularly useful for restricted-profile devices such as mobile and PDAs for which the overhead of additional parameters like headers and other SOAP elements are less. 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com 20
  21. 21. Why SOAP? • SOAP is not only for Web. It has its own protocol. • SOAP Exposes application logic (not data) as service. Exposes named operations. • Can implement stateful web services. • SOAP Web services are useful in handling asynchronous processing and invocation. • SOAP has additional feature built on top of it which REST doesn’t. ▫ WS-Security ▫ WS-Reliable Messaging ▫ WS-Atomic Transactions • Most real-world applications are not simple and support complex operations, which require conversational state and contextual information to be maintained. With the SOAP approach, developers need not worry about writing this plumbing code into the application layer themselves. 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com 21
  22. 22. WSDL 2.0 • WSDL 2.0 is tailored for SOAP-based Web services • However, HTTP binding in WSDL 2.0 allows for good description of HTTP services ▫ <binding name="HttpBinding" interface="m:GetTemperature" type="http://www.w3.org/2005/08/wsdl/http"> <operation ref="m:location" whttp:method="GET" whttp:location="{country}/{city}"/> </binding> • It allows for an HTTP GET on http://weather.example/country/city: ▫ HTTP/1.1 200 Here's the temperature for you Content-Type: application/xml … <weather xmlns="…"> <temperature>23</temperature> </weather> • All HTTP methods are supported. 9/29/2013www.luqmanshareef.com 22
  23. 23. 2010-02-08www.luqmanshareef.com 23 Questions?
  24. 24. 2010-02-08www.luqmanshareef.com 24

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