Unit 8 Evolution
What is Evolution? A well-supported scientific theory stating that organisms change over time
Evidence in stone Preserved remains of a once living organism is called a FOSSIL Fossil evidence supported that organisms ...
Anatomical Evidence Comparative Anatomy: study of similarities and differences between organisms Homologous Structures A...
Homologous StructuresAs similar organisms adapted to differentenvironments, the function of their appendageschanged. Resul...
Analogous StructuresDifferent organisms began living in similarenvironments - their appendages evolved to performthe same ...
Vestigial Structures Structures which remain in organisms but have no obvious function   Leg bones in snakes and whales   ...
Comparative EmbryologyExamining theembryos oforganismsOrganisms withsimilar embryos arethought to be moreclosely related
Biochemical Evidence    (Molecular Biology)  Comparison of the amino acid sequences    Chimp and human hemoglobin are VER...
Genetic Evidence DNA passes on traits When mutations occur the genes and chromosomes can change Humans have imposed change...
Jean Baptiste de Lamark           First to recognize that           organisms change           Published his hypotheses   ...
Jean Baptiste de Lamark3 Key Assumptions:  Desire to Change: organisms have an  inborn urge to better themselves  Law of U...
Lamark’s Giraffes
Charles DarwinCredited for the theory of evolutionHMS Beagle sailed in 1831 – Galapagos IslandsPublished Origin of Species...
Darwin’s ObservationsObserved tortoises, iguanas, andfinchesThe islands had different climatesand vegetationThe animals we...
Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection Variations help members of a species to survive in a given environment The environmen...
Darwin’s AssumptionsVariations Differences among members of the same speciesOverproduction More offspring are produced t...
Darwin’s Finches
Fossil FormationWater carries small       Dead organisms are buried   The preserved remainsrock particles to lakes   by la...
Fossil RecordPreserved remains of a once livingorganism is called a FOSSIL  IE: amber, sedimentary rock, tar, and iceFossi...
Relative Dating Used to ESTIMATE the age of fossils Older fossils are in deeper layers of rock
Patterns and Processes of Evolution Macroevolutionary Patterns   Large-scale (more than a single species)   Occurs over lo...
Speciation – Isolating MechanismSpecies – group of organisms that interbreed toproduce fertile offspring under normal cond...
Patterns of ExtinctionBackground Extinction – “business asusual” extinction – slow and steadyMass Extinction – many specie...
Rates of EvolutionGradualism – change in species is slow andsteadyPunctuated Equilibrium – long periods ofstability follow...
Patterns of Macroevolution:Adaptive Radiation A single species evolves into many species Often occurs when a niche opens u...
Patterns of Macroevolution:ConvergentEvolutionOrganisms come toresemble one anotherbut evolveddifferentlySource of analogo...
CoevolutionOrganisms with close ecological relationshipsevolve togetherPollinators and flowers                            ...
The Role of Genes in Evolution In terms of genetics, evolution is the change in the frequency of alleles in a population’s...
Genetic DriftRandom change in allele frequency – changes inthe gene pool of a small population due to chanceTypes of Genet...
Genetic Drift  Founder Effect – small group colonizes a  new habitat                                             31
Molecular Evolution Molecular Clocks – use mutation rates in DNA to estimate time two species have been evolving independe...
Molecular Evolution: Hox Genes Genes which control an organism’s basic body plan   Anterior/posterior ends   Limbs, wings ...
Ancient EarthAtmosphere was composed of gases:  CO2, N2, water vapor, CH4, H2S  No O2Earth formed ~4.6 billion years ago
First Organic Molecules                1950’s Miller & Urey                reproduced                conditions of ancient...
First Cell
Oxygen Accumulation inAtmosphere
What is a Primate?Binocular VisionDeveloped brainLong fingers & toesRotating shoulders
What makes us Human?Characteristics ofthe Hominine Family  Bipedal  Opposable Thumbs  Larger Brains
Did we evolve from chimps?
Hominine Evolution Ardipithecus ramedus “Ardi”, 4.4 mya Australopithecus afarensis “Lucy”, 3.2 mya Homo habilis “handy man...
Family Tree or Bush?
Bio 163 evolution lmk 2013 for moodle
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  • Why are really old Fossils are hard to come by? -The remains decay. -Special circumstance embed bones into rocks or images of animals like the Trilobites I recommend visiting the Museum of Science and Industry. How would you date fossils from rocks?
  • What is an example of a homologous Structure? Birds wing to mans arm, or horse leg
  • Analagous- similar to the word analogy: A comparison between two different situations that have something in common
  • Does anyone have any examples of selective breeding? Tell the class about Cats I am waiting until they breed cats they have less of a chemical that causes allergic reactions because I love cats, but allergic to them
  • Bio 163 evolution lmk 2013 for moodle

    1. 1. Unit 8 Evolution
    2. 2. What is Evolution? A well-supported scientific theory stating that organisms change over time
    3. 3. Evidence in stone Preserved remains of a once living organism is called a FOSSIL Fossil evidence supported that organisms changed gradually
    4. 4. Anatomical Evidence Comparative Anatomy: study of similarities and differences between organisms Homologous Structures Analogous Structures Vestigial Organs
    5. 5. Homologous StructuresAs similar organisms adapted to differentenvironments, the function of their appendageschanged. Result of descent with modification froma common ancestor.  A bird’s arms became wings to flap  A human’s arm is used to pick-up, carry, grasp, etc…  A horse’s arm became a fore-leg to run on
    6. 6. Analogous StructuresDifferent organisms began living in similarenvironments - their appendages evolved to performthe same function, although structurally different. A butterfly has wings to fly that are made from an exoskeleton A sparrow has wings to fly that have an endoskeleton Butterfly Bird
    7. 7. Vestigial Structures Structures which remain in organisms but have no obvious function Leg bones in snakes and whales Appendix in humans ** Ear muscles in humans
    8. 8. Comparative EmbryologyExamining theembryos oforganismsOrganisms withsimilar embryos arethought to be moreclosely related
    9. 9. Biochemical Evidence (Molecular Biology) Comparison of the amino acid sequences  Chimp and human hemoglobin are VERY similar
    10. 10. Genetic Evidence DNA passes on traits When mutations occur the genes and chromosomes can change Humans have imposed change through selective breeding The higher the percentage of similarities the closer the relationship between two organisms
    11. 11. Jean Baptiste de Lamark First to recognize that organisms change Published his hypotheses in 1809 Theory was disproved!
    12. 12. Jean Baptiste de Lamark3 Key Assumptions: Desire to Change: organisms have an inborn urge to better themselves Law of Use and Disuse: body parts that are used will develop; those not used will become smaller/disappear Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics: organisms pass on traits acquired during their lifetime
    13. 13. Lamark’s Giraffes
    14. 14. Charles DarwinCredited for the theory of evolutionHMS Beagle sailed in 1831 – Galapagos IslandsPublished Origin of Species in 1858
    15. 15. Darwin’s ObservationsObserved tortoises, iguanas, andfinchesThe islands had different climatesand vegetationThe animals were similar… buthad noticeable differences…why? Species vary globally Species vary locally Species vary over time
    16. 16. Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection Variations help members of a species to survive in a given environment The environment selects the beneficial adaptation and over time this trait will become more prevelant
    17. 17. Darwin’s AssumptionsVariations Differences among members of the same speciesOverproduction More offspring are produced than will surviveStruggle for Existence Predation and competitionSurvival of the Fittest (Natural Selection) Individuals best suited for the environment will survive, reproduce, and pass on traits to their offspringDescent with Modification Principle that species change but descend from common ancestors
    18. 18. Darwin’s Finches
    19. 19. Fossil FormationWater carries small Dead organisms are buried The preserved remainsrock particles to lakes by layers of sediment, may later be discoveredand seas which forms new rock and studied.
    20. 20. Fossil RecordPreserved remains of a once livingorganism is called a FOSSIL IE: amber, sedimentary rock, tar, and iceFossil record is incomplete
    21. 21. Relative Dating Used to ESTIMATE the age of fossils Older fossils are in deeper layers of rock
    22. 22. Patterns and Processes of Evolution Macroevolutionary Patterns Large-scale (more than a single species) Occurs over long periods of time Microevolution Small-scale (within a single species) Forms variations in populations 22
    23. 23. Speciation – Isolating MechanismSpecies – group of organisms that interbreed toproduce fertile offspring under normal conditions –share a common gene poolSpeciation – formation of a new species Requires reproductive isolation – organisms do not interbreed; gene pools become separate Behavioral Geographic Temporal 23
    24. 24. Patterns of ExtinctionBackground Extinction – “business asusual” extinction – slow and steadyMass Extinction – many species becomeextinct over a short period of time Causes: Asteroid Volcanic eruptions Moving continents Changing sea levels 24
    25. 25. Rates of EvolutionGradualism – change in species is slow andsteadyPunctuated Equilibrium – long periods ofstability followed by short periods of rapid change 25
    26. 26. Patterns of Macroevolution:Adaptive Radiation A single species evolves into many species Often occurs when a niche opens up 26
    27. 27. Patterns of Macroevolution:ConvergentEvolutionOrganisms come toresemble one anotherbut evolveddifferentlySource of analogousstructures!Examples: Dolphins and sharks Marsupials and mammals 27
    28. 28. CoevolutionOrganisms with close ecological relationshipsevolve togetherPollinators and flowers 28
    29. 29. The Role of Genes in Evolution In terms of genetics, evolution is the change in the frequency of alleles in a population’s gene pool Natural selection leads to that change 29
    30. 30. Genetic DriftRandom change in allele frequency – changes inthe gene pool of a small population due to chanceTypes of Genetic Drift: Bottleneck Effect – change in allele frequency following dramatic reduction in population size 30
    31. 31. Genetic Drift Founder Effect – small group colonizes a new habitat 31
    32. 32. Molecular Evolution Molecular Clocks – use mutation rates in DNA to estimate time two species have been evolving independently 32
    33. 33. Molecular Evolution: Hox Genes Genes which control an organism’s basic body plan Anterior/posterior ends Limbs, wings small sequence changes during embryological development can cause large changes in adults 33
    34. 34. Ancient EarthAtmosphere was composed of gases: CO2, N2, water vapor, CH4, H2S No O2Earth formed ~4.6 billion years ago
    35. 35. First Organic Molecules 1950’s Miller & Urey reproduced conditions of ancient Earth Electric sparks simulated lightning Amino acids began to form
    36. 36. First Cell
    37. 37. Oxygen Accumulation inAtmosphere
    38. 38. What is a Primate?Binocular VisionDeveloped brainLong fingers & toesRotating shoulders
    39. 39. What makes us Human?Characteristics ofthe Hominine Family Bipedal Opposable Thumbs Larger Brains
    40. 40. Did we evolve from chimps?
    41. 41. Hominine Evolution Ardipithecus ramedus “Ardi”, 4.4 mya Australopithecus afarensis “Lucy”, 3.2 mya Homo habilis “handy man”, ≈ 2 mya Used tools, first of the genus Homo Homo erectus, “Java Man”, ≈ 1.6 mya 1st to use fire Homo neanderthalensis ≈ 200,000 years ago Homo sapien Modern Human ≈ 100,000 years ago
    42. 42. Family Tree or Bush?

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