1The Human RespiratorySystem
•    Breathing is aninvoluntary action,controlled by themedulla oblongata •   High levels of carbondioxide in theblood tri...
Gas Exchange in the Lungs• Gas exchange takesplace in the alveoli3
Diffusion of Gases• Oxygen diffuses into the blood, the oxygen moleculeattaches to the hemoglobin forming a molecule calle...
The Mechanics for Breathing5
6Exhalation(Breathing Out)Inhalation(Breathing In)Diaphragm relaxed Diaphragm contractedRib cage moves in anddownRib cage ...
7Diseases of the RespiratorySystem
8BronchitisInflammation of the bronchiUsually caused by infectionAlso caused by irritants suchas exposure to smoke,chemica...
9Emphysema• Destruction of alveoli sogas exchange is reduced• Almost always caused bysmoking, but in rare casesmay be due ...
10Pneumonia• Inflammation or swelling in the lungs in which air sacs fill with pusand other fluids, making it difficult fo...
11Lung Cancer• Cancer that originates in thelung, often caused by smoking• Occurs when cells in the lungsstart to grow rap...
12Asthma• A disease of the bronchial tubesin which airways constrictand mucus secretion increases,making breathing difficu...
Extreme Respiration:Carbon Monoxide Poisoning• CO, poisonous gasreleased by cars andcigarettes• Binds to hemoglobinprevent...
• Occurs under cold water• Breathing and pulse slows• Blood shunts away from skin, stomach,and muscles and is sent to the ...
Extreme Respiration: Diving• High pressure deeper in theocean• Tanks release pressurizedair containing O2Extreme Respirati...
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Respiration 2013 for moodle

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Respiration 2013 for moodle

  1. 1. 1The Human RespiratorySystem
  2. 2. •    Breathing is aninvoluntary action,controlled by themedulla oblongata •   High levels of carbondioxide in theblood trigger thebreathing response 2The Process of Breathing
  3. 3. Gas Exchange in the Lungs• Gas exchange takesplace in the alveoli3
  4. 4. Diffusion of Gases• Oxygen diffuses into the blood, the oxygen moleculeattaches to the hemoglobin forming a molecule calledoxyhemoglobin•   Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into thelungs, the carbon dioxide is a waste product that isexhaled4
  5. 5. The Mechanics for Breathing5
  6. 6. 6Exhalation(Breathing Out)Inhalation(Breathing In)Diaphragm relaxed Diaphragm contractedRib cage moves in anddownRib cage moves upand outVolume of chest smaller Volume of chest largerLungs squeezed Lungs expandAir pushed out Air pulled inIncreased pressure inthe chest cavityDecreased pressure inthe chest cavity
  7. 7. 7Diseases of the RespiratorySystem
  8. 8. 8BronchitisInflammation of the bronchiUsually caused by infectionAlso caused by irritants suchas exposure to smoke,chemicals, or air pollutionSymptoms include throatpain, fever, coughing, andcoughing up mucusTreatment includes coughmedicine and antibiotics
  9. 9. 9Emphysema• Destruction of alveoli sogas exchange is reduced• Almost always caused bysmoking, but in rare casesmay be due to a geneticdisorder• Symptoms include shortnessof breath and chronic cough• No cure, not reversible• Patients must be on oxygen
  10. 10. 10Pneumonia• Inflammation or swelling in the lungs in which air sacs fill with pusand other fluids, making it difficult for oxygen to reach the blood.Caused by bacteria or viruses.• Symptoms include pain in chest, fever, chills, spitting up bloodymucus, and coughing. Treatment: antibiotics and rest
  11. 11. 11Lung Cancer• Cancer that originates in thelung, often caused by smoking• Occurs when cells in the lungsstart to grow rapidly in anuncontrolled manner• No symptoms in early stages;in later stages symptomsinclude coughing, wheezing,and loss of weightTreatment includes removing part oflung with cancer and usingchemotherapy and/or radiation if cancerhas spread to other parts of the body
  12. 12. 12Asthma• A disease of the bronchial tubesin which airways constrictand mucus secretion increases,making breathing difficult• May be caused by allergies,infection, exertion, emotions,and weather changes• Common symptoms includeshortness of breath, coughing,tightening in the chest, andwheezing• Is a chronic disease; peoplewith asthma live with it everyday and very often for theirwhole livesTreatment: inhalers,antihistamines, steroids
  13. 13. Extreme Respiration:Carbon Monoxide Poisoning• CO, poisonous gasreleased by cars andcigarettes• Binds to hemoglobinpreventing O2 frombinding as well• Symptoms: flushing,nausea, and pain
  14. 14. • Occurs under cold water• Breathing and pulse slows• Blood shunts away from skin, stomach,and muscles and is sent to the brain,heart, and lungs• Conserves O2 improving chances ofsurvival• See UP 78-81Extreme Respiration:Mammalian Diving Reflex
  15. 15. Extreme Respiration: Diving• High pressure deeper in theocean• Tanks release pressurizedair containing O2Extreme Respiration: High Altitudes• Low atmospheric pressure, less O2• Hypoxia – body is deprived of O2• Body compensates by hyperventilation• Pulmonary Edema may result

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