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  1. 1. English speaking countries Australia
  2. 2. Content 1. Discover of Australia 2.Goverment 3. States and territories 4.Australia geography and climate 5.Environment of Australia
  3. 3. 1.Discover of Australia Following sporadic visits by  The Dutch charted the whole of the fisherman from the Malay western and northern coastlines of Archipelago the first recorded "New Holland" during the 17th European sight of the Australian century, but made no attempt at mainland and the first recorded settlement. William Dampier, an European landfall on the Australian English explorer and privateer continent were attributet to the landed on the north-west coast of Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon. Australia in 1688 and again in 1699 He sighted the coast of Cape York on a return trip. In 1770, James Peninsula on an unknown date in early Cook sailed along and mapped the 1606, and made landfall on 26 east coast of Australia, which he February at the Pennefather River named New South Wales and claimed on the western shore of Cape York, for Great Britain. near the modern town of Weipa
  4. 4. 2. Goverment Australia is a constitutional monarchy with a federal division of powers. It uses a parliamentary system of government with Queen Elizabeth II at its apex as the Queen of Australia, a role that is distinct from her position as monarch of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen resides in the United Kingdom, and she is represented by her viceroys in Australia who by convention act on the advice of her ministers. Supreme executive authority is vested by the Constitution of Australia in the sovereign, but the power to exercise it is conferred by the Constitution specifically to the Governor-General. The most notable exercise of the Governor-Generals reserve powers outside a Prime Ministers request was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the constitutional crisis of 1975.
  5. 5. 3. States and territories Australia has six states—New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western Australia—and two major mainland territories—the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory. In most respects these two territories function as states, but the Commonwealth Parliament can override any legislation of their parliaments. By contrast, federal legislation overrides state legislation only in areas that are set out in Section 51 of the Australian Constitution; state parliaments retain all residual legislative powers, including those over schools, state police, the state judiciary, roads, public transport, and local government, since these do not fall under the provisions listed in Section 51. Each state and major mainland territory has its own parliament—unicameral in the Northern Territory, the ACT, and Queensland, and bicameral in the other states. The states are sovereign entities, although subject to certain powers of the Commonwealth as defined by the Constitution. The lower houses are known as the Legislative Assembly the upper houses are known as the Legislative Council. The head of the government in each state is the Premier, and in each territory the Chief Minister. The Queen is represented in each state by a Governor; and in the Northern Territory, the Administrator. In the Commonwealth, the Queens representative is the Governor-General. The federal parliament directly administers the following territories: Ashmore and Cartier Islands Australian Antarctic Territory Christmas Island and Cocos Islands Coral Sea Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands Jervis Bay Territory, a naval base and sea port for the national capital in land that was formerly part of New South Wales
  6. 6. 4.Australia geography andclimate Australias landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres is on the Indo- Australian Plate. Surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas. The worlds smallest continent and sixth largest country by total area, Australia —owing to its size and isolation—is often dubbed the "island continent", and is sometimes considered the worlds largest island. Australia has 34,218 kilometres of coastline and claims an extensive Exclusive Economic Zone of 8,148,250 square kilometres.
  7. 7. 4.Australia geography andclimate The climate of Australia is significantly influenced by ocean currents, including the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niño- Southern Oscillation, which is correlated with periodic drought, and the seasonal tropical low pressure system that produces cyclones in northern Australia. These factors induce rainfall to vary markedly from year to year. Much of the northern part of the country has a tropical predominantly summer rainfall climate. Just under three quarters of Australia lies within a desert or semi-arid zone. The southwest corner of the country has a Mediterranean climate. Much of the southeast is temperate.
  8. 8. 6.Enviroment of Australia lthough most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, it includes a diverse range of habitats from alpine heaths to tropical rainforests, and is recognised as a megadiverse country. Because of the continents great age, extremely variable weather patterns, and long-term geographic isolation, much of Australias biota is unique and diverse. About 85 per cent of flowering plants, 84 per cent of mammals, more than 45 per cent of birds, and 89 per cent of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic. Australia has the greatest number of reptiles of any country, with 755 species.
  9. 9. 6.Enviroment of Australia Australian forests are mostly made up of evergreen species, particularly eucalyptus trees in the less arid regions, wattles replace them in drier regions and deserts as the most dominant species. Among well- known Australian fauna are the monotremes a host of marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, and wombat, and birds such as the emu and the kookaburra. Australia is home to many dangerous animals including some of the most venomous snakes in the world. The dingo was introduced by Austronesian people who traded with Indigenous Australians around 3000 BCE. Many plant and animal species became extinct soon after first human settlement, including the Australian megafauna; others have disappeared since European settlement, among them the thylacine.