Pharmacognosy & phytochemistry


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Pharmacognosy & phytochemistry

  1. 1. Lyra June M. Sarker
  2. 2.  Materia medica Study of crude drugs obtained from plants,animals and mineral kingdom and theirconstituents An applied science that deals with thebiologic, biochemical and economic featuresof natural drugs and their constituents
  3. 3.  C.A. Seydler, a medical student at Halle,Germany in 1815; wrote his doctoral thesistitled Analectica Pharmacognostica Physician J.A. Schmidt (Vienna) used theterm in his Lehrbuch der materia medica in1811, to describe the study of medicinalplants and their properties
  4. 4.  Latin words:pharmakon (drug)gignoso (to acquire knowledge of) Greek words:pharmakon (drug)gnosis (knowledge)Knowledge/science of drugs
  5. 5.  Vegetable or animal drugs that consist ofnatural substances which after collection aresubjected only to drying or making them intotransverse or longitudinal slices or peelingthem in some cases May also be obtained by simple physicalprocesses like drying or extraction withwater Plant exudates such as gums, resins andbalsams, volatile oils and fixed oils
  6. 6.  Aloe – dried juice of leaves of Aloe sp. Opium – dried latex from poppy capsules Black catechu – dried aqueous extract fromthe wood of Acacia catechu
  7. 7.  Natural substances – substances found in naturethat comprise whole plants and herbs and anatomicparts thereof Crude – any product that has not been advance invalue or improved in condition by shredding,grinding, chipping, crushing, distilling, evaporating,extracting, artificial mixing with other substancesor by any other process or tx beyond what isessential to its proper packing and to theprevention of decay or deterioration pendingmanufacture
  8. 8.  Derivatives/extractives(chief constituent) – chiefprinciples separated by various means of extraction Solvent/menstruum – liquid/liquid mixture used toextract active principles Marc – the undissolved portion of the drug thatremains after the extraction process is completed Extractive – usually a mixture of subs which is theproduct of the extraction process
  9. 9.  Geographic source/habitat – the region in which theplant or animal yielding the drug grows Indigenous – plants growing in their native countries(Pinus palustris – southern US) Naturalized – plants that grow in a foreign land or ina locality other than their native homes (Daturastramonium – introduced in the US from Europe) Commercial origin of a drug – production andchannels of trade
  10. 10.  Collection – most advantageous collectiontime is when the part of the plant thatconstitutes the drug is highest in its contentof active principles and when the materialwill dry to give the maximum quality andappearance Harvesting – hand labor (digitalis) / with theuse of mechanical devices
  11. 11.  Drying – removes sufficient moisture to ensure goodkeeping qualities and to prevent molding, theaction of enzymes/bacteria, and chemical or otherpossible changes- fixes the constituents, facilitates grinding andmilling, and converts the drug into a more convenientform for commercial handling- control of temp and regulation of air flow- by the sun/ artificial heat- “curing” - special drying process for naturalprods (vanilla), fermentation or sweating processesare necessary to bring about changes in theconstituents
  12. 12.  Garbling – final step in the preparation of acrude drug; consists of the removal ofextraneous matter(other plant parts, dirt,adulterants) Packaging, storage and preservation – shouldprovide ample protection and economy ofspace- must maintain a high degree of qualityof the drug
  13. 13.  Produced from wild (whale, musk, deer) Fished (cod and halibut) domesticated animals (hog, sheep, cattle) –lanolin and milk prods, hormones, endocrineprods, and some enzymes Wild insects (cantharides) Cultivated (honeybee)
  14. 14. According to: their morphology The taxonomy of the plants and animals fromwhich they are obtained Their therapeutic applications Their chemical constituents
  15. 15.  Drugs are arranged accdg to theirmorphological or external characters of theplant parts or animal parts, i.e. which part ofthe plant is used as a drug A: More helpful to identify and detectadulterationMore convenient for practical studyespecially when the chemical nature of thedrug is not clearly understood D: there is no correlation of chemicalconstituents w/ the therapeutic actionsRepetition of drugs or plant occurs
  16. 16.  obtained from the direct parts of the plantsand containing cellular tissues (rhizomes, barks, leaves, fruits, entireplants, hairs and fibers)
  17. 17.  Sandalwood Quassia Red sandalwood
  18. 18.  Digitalis Eucalyptus Gymnema Mint Senna Spearmint Squill Tulsi Vasaka Coca Buchu Hamamelis Hyoscyamus Belladonna tea
  19. 19.  Arjuna Ashoka Cascara Cassia Cinchona Cinnamon Kurchi Quillia Wild cherry
  20. 20.  Clove Pyrethrum Saffron Santonica Chamomile
  21. 21.  Amla Anise Bael Bahera Bitter orange peel Capsicum Caraway Cardamom Colocynth Coriander Cumin Dill Fennel Gokhru Hirda Lemon peel Senna pod Star anise Tamarind vidang
  22. 22.  Bitter almond Black mustard Cardamom Colchicum Ispaghula Kaladana Linseed Nutmeg Nux vomica Physostigma Psyllium Stophanthus White mustard
  23. 23.  Aconite Ashwagandha Calamus Colchicum corm Dioscorea Galanga Garlic Gention Ginger Ginseng Glycyrrhiza Podophyllum Ipecac Ipomoea Jalap Jatamansi Rauwolfia Rhubarb Sassurea Senega Shatavari Turmeric Valerian squill
  24. 24.  Ergot Ephedra Bacopa Andrographis Kalmegh Yeast Vinca Datura Centella
  25. 25.  Cotton Hemp Jute Silk Flax
  26. 26.  prepared from plants by some intermediatephysical processes such as incision, drying orextraction with a solvent and not containingany cellular plant tissues (aloe juice, opium latex, agarm gambir,gelatin, tragacanth, benzoin, honey,beeswax, lemon graass oil, etc.)
  27. 27.  Opium Papain
  28. 28.  Aloe Kino
  29. 29.  Agar Alginate Black catechu Pale catechu pectin
  30. 30.  Bee3swax Spermaceti Carnauba wax
  31. 31.  Acacia Guar gum Indian gum Sterculia Tragacanth
  32. 32.  Asafoetida Benzoin Colophony Copaiba Guaiacum Guggul Mastic Coal tar Tar Tolu balsam Storax sandarac
  33. 33.  Turpentine Anise Coriander Peppermint Rosemary Sandalwood Cinnamon Lemon Caraway Dill Clove Eucalyptus Nutmeg camphor
  34. 34.  Arachis Castor Chalmoogra Coconut Cottonseed Linseed Olive Sesame Almond Theobroma Cod liver Halibut liver Kokum butter
  35. 35.  Bees wax Cantharides Cod-liver oil Gelatin Halibut liver oil Honey Shark liver oil Shellac Spermaceti wax Wool fat Musk lactose
  36. 36.  Bentonite Kaolin Kiesslguhr Talc
  37. 37.  Classified accdg to kingdom, subkingdom,division,class, order, family, genus andspecies A: helpful for studying evolutionarydevelopments D: does not correlate in between thechemical constituents and biological activityof the drugs
  38. 38.  Angiospermae (Angiosperms)plants that produce flowers Gymnospermae (Gymnosperms) Plants which do not produce flowers
  39. 39.  Dicotyledonae (Dicotyledons, Dicots) plants with two seed leaves Monotyledonae (Monotyledons, Monocots) plants with one seed leaf
  40. 40.  A group of related plant families, classifiedin the order in which they are thought tohave developed their differences from acommon ancestor
  41. 41.  Magnoliidae Hamamelidae Caryophyllidae Dilleniidae Rosidae Asteridae
  42. 42.  Alismatidae Commelinidae Arecidae liliidae
  43. 43.  Each superorder is further divided intoseveral orders The names of the orders end in -ales
  44. 44.  Each order is divided into families These are plants with many botanicalfeatures in common, and are the highestclassification normally used. A widely accepted system is that devised byCronquist in 1968, which is only slightlyrevised today The names of the families end in –aceae
  45. 45.  The family may be further divided into anumber of subfamilies, which group togetherplants within the family that have somesignificant botanical differences. Subfamilies end in -oideae
  46. 46.  Part of the plant name that is most familiar;the normal name that you give a plant Papaver (poppy) Arachis (peanut)
  47. 47.  Level that defines an individual plant The name will describe some aspect of theplant – the color of the flowers, size or shapeof the leaves, or it may be named after theplace where it was found. Should be written after the genus name, insmall letters
  48. 48.  Grouping of drug according to theirpharmacological action or of most importantconstituent or their therapeutic use More relevant and mostly followed method A: this system of classification can be usedfor suggesting substitutes of drugs, if theyare not available at a particular place orpoint of time D: Drugs having different action on thebody get classified separately in more thanone group that causes ambiguity andconfusion Cinchona – antimalarial (quinine)antiarrhythmic(quinidine)
  49. 49. Drugs acting on G.I.T.Carminative Fennel, Cardamom, MenthaEmetic IpecacAntiamoebic Kurchi, IpecacLaxative Agar, Isabgol, BananaPurgative Senna, Castor oilCatharticBitter (stomachic, febrifuge, bittertonic, & for digestive disturbances)SennaCinchona, Quassia, Gentian
  50. 50. Drugs acting onRespiratory SystemAntitussive Opium (codeine)BronchodilatorsExpectorantEphedra, TeaVasaka, Liquorice,Ipecac
  51. 51. Drugs acting onCardiovascular SystemCardiotonic Digitalis, Strophantus,SquillCardiac depressant Cinchona, VeratrumVasoconstrictor ErgotAntihypertensive Rauwolfia
  52. 52. Drugs acting onAutonomic NervousSystemAdrenergic EphedraCholinergic Physostigma, PilocarpusAnticholinergic Datura, Belladonna
  53. 53. Drugs acting on CentralNervous SystemCentral analgesic Opium (morphine)CNS depressant Belladonna, Opium,HyoscyamusCNS stimulant Tea, CoffeeAnaleptic Nux vomica, Camphor,Lobelia
  54. 54. Antispasmodic Datura, Hyoscyamus,Opium, CurareAnticancer Vinca, Podophyllum, TaxusAntirrheumatic Aconite, Colchicum,GuggalAnthelminthic Quassia, VidangAstringent Catechu, MyrobalansAntimalarial Cinchona, Artemesia
  55. 55. Immunomodulatory Ginseng, Ashwagandha,TulsiImmunizing agent Vaccines, Sera, AntitoxinDrugs acting SkinMembraneBeeswax, Wool fat,Balsam of Tolu, Balsamof PeruChemotherapeutic AntibioticsLocal anesthetic Coca
  56. 56.  Crude drugs are classified depending uponthe active constituents Irrespective of the morphological ortaxonomical characters, the drugs withsimilar chemical constituents are groupedtogether A: it is a popular approach forphytochemical studies D: ambiguities arise when particular drugspossess a number of compounds belonging todifferent groups of compounds.
  57. 57. Chemical Constituent GroupAlkaloids Cinchona, Datura, Vinca,Ipecac, Nux vomicaGlycosides Senna, Aloe, ginseng,Glycyrrhiza, DigitalisCarbohydrates and itsderivativesAcacia, Tragacanth, Starch,IsabgolVolatile oil Clove, Coriander, Fennel,Cinnamon, CuminResin and Resin Combination Benzoin, Tolu Balsam, Balsamof PeruTannins Catechu, TeaEnzymes Papain, Casein, TrypsinLipids Beeswax, Kokum butter,Lanolin