Open            Leslie Carr, UniversiPlatforms     of Southampton
The Internet is Doomed!                              • “This extraordinary book                                explains th...
Internet as a Generative System• unanticipated change emerges through unfiltered  contribution from broad and varied audie...
Example of Generative System: Building• Kiosks• Retail Point of Sales (POS)                              on the PC    Syst...
Convincing argument, but is it true?                                                                                      ...
“Open” Platforms                                    Internet                                          Web      Wiki       ...
“Open” Platforms                                      Internet                                           Web      Wiki    ...
“Open” Platforms                                Internet                                    Web     Wiki          Facebook...
“Open” Platforms                                     Internet                                          Web      Wiki      ...
“Open” Platforms                                      Internet                                            Web       Wiki  ...
e.g. building on Twitter Platform                                                                    Mr Tweet, Brand Chirp...
e.g. building on Twitter Platform                                                                    Mr Tweet, Brand Chirp...
Open vs Closed?              • Side taking              • Camps
Open          It’s Complicated Open Platforms: Android                                                        Proprietary ...
Open            It’s ComplicatedOpen Platforms: Amazondroid                                                 Proprietary / ...
Open         It’s ComplicatedOpen Platforms: Baidudroid                                                     Proprietary / ...
Open         It’s Complicated     Open Platforms: Apple?                                                           Proprie...
(Symbian); both single-sponsor (Qt) and multi-sponsor projects (Eclipse); and both projects based on                      ...
Openness might not mean Freedom                                                                                           ...
Building on Android  • 600 brands and 4000 devices  • Diversity, or fragmentation? The press can’t    decide.The many face...
Who Develops Open Components?                     • Apple,                       Google,                       Nokia, RIM ...
Walled Gardens• Controlled ecosystems that promote the growth or  availability of content at the expense of ‘freedom’ and ...
Why Open Systems are Vital                    Evaluation                        Did Germany make the right choice in reloc...
How New Knowledge Growsknowledge apps   • Horizontal generativity                   means that you can build              ...
Closing Remarks• Open vs Closed  – isn’t a binary divide, it’s complicated  – isn’t Good / Bad  – isn’t Generative / Barre...
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Open Platforms

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Are open platforms necessary for generative phenomena? Is the Internet threatened by Apple? What does it mean to claim that the Open Web is under threat? What does it actually mean to claim that a system is Open?

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Open Platforms

  1. 1. Open Leslie Carr, UniversiPlatforms of Southampton
  2. 2. The Internet is Doomed! • “This extraordinary book explains the engine that has catapulted the Internet from backwater to ubiquity… • With the unwitting help of its users, the generative Internet is on a path to a lockdown, ending its cycle of innovation — and facilitating unsettling new kinds of control.”futureoftheinternet.org
  3. 3. Internet as a Generative System• unanticipated change emerges through unfiltered contribution from broad and varied audiences• same way that PC development has been unrestricted and open. – No-one controls what you can do with a PC, what programs you should be able to write, to run or what information you should be allowed to process.• The very processes that could control the Internet to make it a "safer" place will also – restrict technological development – make the future of the Internet a much poorer place • the user experience • future economic activity
  4. 4. Example of Generative System: Building• Kiosks• Retail Point of Sales (POS) on the PC System• Self-Serve Check in/Checkout Kiosk• Information Kiosk• Airport, Train station and Subway e-Ticketing Kiosk• Self-Serve DVD Rental Kiosk• Multimedia preview Kiosk• Parking Machine• e-Ticketing Kiosk• ATM Terminal• Multimedia Vending Machine• Coin Exchange Machine• Photo Kiosk• Scientific Instruments e.g. Helium Ion Microscope• Industrial Manufacturing Equipment How often is a PC built into something rather than used as a PC?
  5. 5. Convincing argument, but is it true? Open? Closed?This is one chart does not disprove Zittrain, but demonstrates that the situation might be complicated…
  6. 6. “Open” Platforms Internet Web Wiki Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Media Wikipedia open platform on which people are free to create new protocols andThe Internet is an Channel Xapplications. It’s not ‘open’ in other senses because it’s a set of privately owned networks(ie the information superhighway is not a public highway)
  7. 7. “Open” Platforms Internet Web Wiki Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Media Wikipedia platform on which people are free to create new kinds of sites, pages,The Web is an open Channel Xservices and applications. It’s not ‘open’ in most other senses in that it’s a set of privateservers – there’s no public space where you have a right to comment.
  8. 8. “Open” Platforms Internet Web Wiki Facebook Twitter YouTube Google MediaAll these new kindsdevelop new kinds of service… Channel X Wikipedia of Web applications are open for people to use in innovative ways and to
  9. 9. “Open” Platforms Internet Web Wiki Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Media Wikipedia Social Applications Channel XExcept Google. You can’t use Google as a platform – it has no APIs and it doesn’t allow crawlers!
  10. 10. “Open” Platforms Internet Web Wiki Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Media Wikipedia Social Applications Channel XIn that sense, Google is not ‘open’. It’s free, but you can’t build a new service on it as a platform.
  11. 11. e.g. building on Twitter Platform Mr Tweet, Brand Chirp, We Follow, Twitter Friends Network Browser, Friend or Follow, Featured Users, Tweepler, TwitterTroll, Refollow, Twitdir, Just Tweet It, Twellow, Twitaholic, Twitter Poster, Nearby Tweets, The Twit Cleaner, Twuffer, Twittercal, TweetLater, Twitter Dmer, TwitPic, Twt Poll, Twit Wall, Group Tweet, Backupify, Twitter Counter, Tweet Beep, Twitsay, Tiny Chat, Twit Cam, Chirp Stats, Tweet Stats, Twitter Grader, Tweet Volume, Twitter Analyzer, Tweetmeme, Topsy, Whos Talkin, Trendistic, Twitscoop, Echofon, Tweetie, Brizzly, OpenBeak, Dial2do, Tweetdeck, Twittad,Top 50 Twitter Apps http://www.tuttoaster.com/50-amazing-twitter- Twhirl, Twittload,services-that-you-do-not-want-to-miss/ , June 2010 Twittonary
  12. 12. e.g. building on Twitter Platform Mr Tweet, Brand Chirp, We Follow, Twitter Friends Network Browser, Friend or Follow, Featured Users, Tweepler, TwitterTroll, Refollow, Twitdir, Just Tweet It, Twellow, Twitaholic, Twitter Poster, Nearby Tweets, The Twit Cleaner, Twuffer, Twittercal, TweetLater, Twitter Dmer, TwitPic, Twt Poll, Twit Wall, Group Tweet, Backupify, Twitter Counter, Tweet Beep, Twitsay, Tiny Chat, Twit Cam, Chirp Stats, Tweet Stats, Twitter Grader, Tweet Volume, Twitter Analyzer, Tweetmeme, Topsy, Whos Talkin, Trendistic, Twitscoop, Echofon, Tweetie, Brizzly, OpenBeak, Dial2do, Tweetdeck, Twittad,Top 50 Twitter Apps http://www.tuttoaster.com/50-amazing-twitter- Twhirl, Twittload,services-that-you-do-not-want-to-miss/ , June 2010 Twittonary
  13. 13. Open vs Closed? • Side taking • Camps
  14. 14. Open It’s Complicated Open Platforms: Android Proprietary / Controlled / Closed Android Ecosystem Android Products Google Services Search, Gmail,Smartphone / Tablet Hardware Android Open Source Project Android App Store Maps, Play, Pay Private Open Privileged Any Public Open Any Branches Development Partners Manufacturers Branches Developers (e.g. ICS) APIGoogle control some bits of it, restrict some bits and make other bits open.The ultimate reason (of course) is to increase Google’s reach in mobile advertising.
  15. 15. Open It’s ComplicatedOpen Platforms: Amazondroid Proprietary / Controlled / Closed Amazon Ecosystem Amazon Products Amazon Services Tablet Kindle Store & Android Open Source Project Amazon App Store Hardware Amazon MediaQuanta Computer Public Open Private Fork Android Open Any Kindle Fire Branches Development API DevelopersAmazon controls most components and leaves other bits open.The ultimate reason (of course) is to increase Amazon’s reach in mobile retail, leveragingothers’ investment, but without being subject to Google’s restrictions.
  16. 16. Open It’s ComplicatedOpen Platforms: Baidudroid Proprietary / Controlled / Closed Baidu EcosystemBaidu Cloud Smart Terminal Baidu Cloud Baidu Search, Smartphone Android Open Source Project Baidu App Store Music, Map, Hardware Netwdrive Changhong Public Open Private Fork Android Open Any H5018 Branches Development API DevelopersBaidu controls most components and leaves other bits open.The ultimate reason (of course) is to increase Baidu’s reach in mobile, leveraging others’investment, and without being subject to Google’s restrictions.
  17. 17. Open It’s Complicated Open Platforms: Apple? Proprietary / Controlled / Closed Apple Ecosystem Apple Products Apple Services Smartphone / iOS / OS X Apple App Stores iTunes, iBooksTablet Hardware Components: Open AnyApple iPhone/iPad Darwin, WebKit, Proprietary Code Any Publisher Development API Developers cups…Apple controls almost all components and leaves some bits open.The ultimate reason (of course) is to increase sales of Apple’s hardware. It leverages others’investment, but also contributes heavily to some Open Source projects.
  18. 18. (Symbian); both single-sponsor (Qt) and multi-sponsor projects (Eclipse); and both projects based on meritocracy (Linux) and membership status (Eclipse). Open Governance Index. We quantified governance by introducing the Open Governance Index, a Android Openness Quantified measure of open source project “openness”. The Index comprises thirteen metrics across the four areas of governance: Open Governance Index Open Governance Index 1. Access: availability of the latest source code, developer (% open) support mechanisms, public roadmap, and transparency of Android 23% decision-making Qt 58% 2. Development: the ability of developers to influence the Symbian 58% content and direction of the project MeeGo 61% 3. Derivatives: the ability for developers to create and Mozilla 65% distribute derivatives of the source code in the form of spin- WebKit 68% off projects, handsets or applications. Linux 71% 4. Community: a community structure that does not Eclipse 84% • Access: availability of the latest source code, © VisionMobile 2011 | www.visionmobile.com developer support mechanisms, public roadmap, 3 and transparency of decision-making • Development: the ability of developers to influence the content and direction of the project • Derivatives: the ability for developers to create and distribute derivatives of the source code in the form of spin- off projects, handsets or applications. • Community: a community structure that does not © VisionMobile 2011 | www.visionmobile.com discriminate between developers 1http://www.visionmobile.com/blog/2011/07/the-open-governance-index-measuring-openness-from-android-to-webkit/
  19. 19. Openness might not mean Freedom http://img.gawkerassets.com/img/17z5• Reports surfaced yesterday (Sept 13th 2012) that Google prevented Acer 38r96d27pjpg/original.jpg from launching a phone using a rival operating system, by threatening to terminate its Android- related partnership with the hardware company.• Google said that Acer Acer didnt sign away all of its rights to make signed away its rights to rival phones—after all, it does sell Windows make Android-like phones Phones. But Acer wanted to release a phone not blessed by Google using Alibabas Aliyun OS, which can run when it joined the Open Android apps but hasnt met the requirements Handset Alliance, a of the Android compatibility program. Thats a consortium designed to no-no because it leads to Android promote Android and fragmentation, in Googles view. create "greater openness in the mobile ecosystem." http://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2012/09/google-blocked-acers-rival- phone-to-prevent-android-fragmentation/
  20. 20. Building on Android • 600 brands and 4000 devices • Diversity, or fragmentation? The press can’t decide.The many faces of a little green robothttp://opensignalmaps.com/reports/fragmentation.php , June 2012
  21. 21. Who Develops Open Components? • Apple, Google, Nokia, RIM etc • Apple contribute to open components Data runs out just when it gets interesting!
  22. 22. Walled Gardens• Controlled ecosystems that promote the growth or availability of content at the expense of ‘freedom’ and ‘openness’ • e.g. Apple iPhone, Amazon Kindle, Facebook, AOL, Compuserve • Apple app store requires Apple approval for all apps • Facebook content only available for registered users– Do these constitute a threat to the Internet itself? • Not everything built on an open platform has to be open • Walled gardens don’t threaten the open platform ecosystem UNLESS they take over and become dominant
  23. 23. Why Open Systems are Vital Evaluation Did Germany make the right choice in relocating their post-unification capital from Bonn? Increasing cognitive capabilities Synthesis Create a set of guidelines for choosing alternative national capitals in a post-climate change Europe. Analysis What were the overriding factors in the choice of sites for the European parliament and commission? Application Choose the most appropriate capital for the Isle of Wight Comprehension Why is Paris the capital of France? Knowledge What is the capital of France? Bloom’s Educational Taxonomy demonstrates why closed systems are bad – human understanding is built on top of successively better knowledge platforms.
  24. 24. How New Knowledge Growsknowledge apps • Horizontal generativity means that you can build new kinds of platform (iOS DBpedia vs Android vs Win Phone) Wikipedia • Vertical generativity means that you can pile platforms on platforms on platforms Wiki to achieve ever more sophisticated applications Web • But it requires ‘open’ licenses across generations Internet of platforms.
  25. 25. Closing Remarks• Open vs Closed – isn’t a binary divide, it’s complicated – isn’t Good / Bad – isn’t Generative / Barren• The tech press doesn’t get platform building – it understands existing categories (e.g. browser, PC, phone) and promotes ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ according to market dominance• HOWEVER building on open platforms is crucial – Especially for making progressively more sophisticated information systems

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