Global Change Effects on Water Supplies <ul><li>Global inventory: </li></ul><ul><li>-  Oceans 98.897 % </li></ul><ul><li>-...
The Hydrologic Cycle
The Hydrologic Cycle <ul><li>Groundwater and runoff (stored in reservoirs) are the main, and practically speaking, only so...
Supply and Demand <ul><li>Precipitation does not always (rarely!) fall where the demand is. </li></ul>
Who Uses What?
Groundwater
Aquifers
What Happens When One Pumps From An Aquifer?
Groundwater Contamination as a Result of Pumping
Existing Saltwater Intrusion Problems Due to Pumping Alone
<ul><li>Approximate 4.2 million people depend on the Biscayne aquifer for water. </li></ul>Existing Saltwater Intrusion Pr...
Saltwater Intrusion as a Result of Sea Level Rise <ul><li>Increase in sea level forces saltwater further into the aquifer....
Additional Effects of Groundwater Pumping <ul><li>Freshwater demand is likely to increase due to a growing population and ...
Groundwater-Related Subsidence <ul><li>Water helps support the surrounding and overlying ground. </li></ul>
Groundwater-Related Subsidence <ul><li>In areas where the underlying geology is predominantly limestone (calcium carbonate...
Tangent – Caves!
Groundwater-Related Subsidence
Groundwater-Related Subsidence
Other Groundwater Issues – Ogallala Aquifer <ul><li>Primarily used for agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Water was stored com...
Surface Water <ul><li>Surface water exists where the land surface meets the water table. </li></ul>
Surface Water <ul><li>Several big issues here: </li></ul><ul><li>-  potential changes in where the precipitation  falls. <...
Surface Water <ul><li>Relative changes in precipitation for the period 2090-2099 relative to 1980-1989.  White areas are w...
Surface Water <ul><li>Aqueducts </li></ul>
Surface Water
Surface Water
Surface Water – Colorado River Compact <ul><li>In 1922 seven western states came up with an agreement to share the water f...
Surface Water – Colorado River Compact <ul><li>River survey done during an unusually wet period … </li></ul><ul><li>Water ...
<ul><li>Low reservoir levels in many places around the world! </li></ul>
Surface Water – Aral Sea
Surface Water – Aral Sea <ul><li>Diversion of water draining into the Aral for irrigation has caused the lake to shrink. <...
Surface Water – Aral Sea <ul><li>Remaining water has a salinity nearly twice that of the ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Blown sa...
Surface Water – Rain and Snow <ul><li>Snow and ice are critical parts of the hydrologic cycle in mountainous regions and a...
Surface Water – Rain Versus Snow <ul><li>Two issues here: </li></ul><ul><li>1)  If the precipitation falls as rain it may ...
 
Surface Water – Decreasing Snow and Melting Snowpack <ul><li>Two issues here: </li></ul><ul><li>2)  Mountain glaciers act ...
Surface Water – Decreasing Snow and Melting Snowpack Himalayas
Surface Water – Decreasing Snow and Melting Snowpack
Surface Water – Decreasing Snow and Melting Snowpack Bolivia
Surface Water – Decreasing Snow and Melting Snowpack Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa
<ul><li>More than 2 million people depend on Mt. Kilimanjaro’s ice and snow for water. </li></ul><ul><li>Projected to be g...
Where to go for Water? <ul><li>Need to make undrinkable water drinkable. </li></ul><ul><li>-  Filtration </li></ul><ul><li...
Where to go for Water?
Now What? <ul><li>More so than temperature increases or sea level rise, diminishing or changing water supplies will likely...
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08 water supplies

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08 water supplies

  1. 1. Global Change Effects on Water Supplies <ul><li>Global inventory: </li></ul><ul><li>- Oceans 98.897 % </li></ul><ul><li>- Ice 1.060 % </li></ul><ul><li>- Underground 0.035 % </li></ul><ul><li>- Lakes and rivers 0.007 % </li></ul><ul><li>- Atmosphere 0.001 % </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Hydrologic Cycle
  3. 3. The Hydrologic Cycle <ul><li>Groundwater and runoff (stored in reservoirs) are the main, and practically speaking, only sources of water usable for drinking, agriculture, etc. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Supply and Demand <ul><li>Precipitation does not always (rarely!) fall where the demand is. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Who Uses What?
  6. 6. Groundwater
  7. 7. Aquifers
  8. 8. What Happens When One Pumps From An Aquifer?
  9. 9. Groundwater Contamination as a Result of Pumping
  10. 10. Existing Saltwater Intrusion Problems Due to Pumping Alone
  11. 11. <ul><li>Approximate 4.2 million people depend on the Biscayne aquifer for water. </li></ul>Existing Saltwater Intrusion Problems Due to Pumping Alone
  12. 12. Saltwater Intrusion as a Result of Sea Level Rise <ul><li>Increase in sea level forces saltwater further into the aquifer. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Additional Effects of Groundwater Pumping <ul><li>Freshwater demand is likely to increase due to a growing population and changes in precipitation/recharge patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>- Subsidence! </li></ul>
  14. 14. Groundwater-Related Subsidence <ul><li>Water helps support the surrounding and overlying ground. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Groundwater-Related Subsidence <ul><li>In areas where the underlying geology is predominantly limestone (calcium carbonate), groundwater will dissolve some of the rock over time. </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O + CO 2 + CaCO 3 Ca 2+ + 2HCO 3 - </li></ul>
  16. 16. Tangent – Caves!
  17. 17. Groundwater-Related Subsidence
  18. 18. Groundwater-Related Subsidence
  19. 19. Other Groundwater Issues – Ogallala Aquifer <ul><li>Primarily used for agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>Water was stored coming out of the last ice age. Modern recharge is negligible. </li></ul><ul><li>Development led to a 100-foot drop in the water table by the mid-1980’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Will likely empty it within decades. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Surface Water <ul><li>Surface water exists where the land surface meets the water table. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Surface Water <ul><li>Several big issues here: </li></ul><ul><li>- potential changes in where the precipitation falls. </li></ul><ul><li>- type of precipitation (snow versus rain). </li></ul><ul><li>- loss of natural reservoirs. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Surface Water <ul><li>Relative changes in precipitation for the period 2090-2099 relative to 1980-1989. White areas are where less than 66% of the models agree. Stippled areas are where more than 90% of the models agree. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Surface Water <ul><li>Aqueducts </li></ul>
  24. 24. Surface Water
  25. 25. Surface Water
  26. 26. Surface Water – Colorado River Compact <ul><li>In 1922 seven western states came up with an agreement to share the water from the Colorado River and its tributaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid development led to heavy water use leading to decreasing volume and water quality. </li></ul><ul><li>By the mid-1960’s the lower part of the river had a total dissolved solid content of 2700 ppm (2.7 g/kg, about a tenth of that of seawater). </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. built Mexico a desalinization plant as a result of a lawsuit. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Surface Water – Colorado River Compact <ul><li>River survey done during an unusually wet period … </li></ul><ul><li>Water divided up by volume rather then percent! </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Low reservoir levels in many places around the world! </li></ul>
  29. 29. Surface Water – Aral Sea
  30. 30. Surface Water – Aral Sea <ul><li>Diversion of water draining into the Aral for irrigation has caused the lake to shrink. </li></ul><ul><li>- in 14 years, the Aral went from being the 4 th to the 6 th largest lake in the world </li></ul>
  31. 31. Surface Water – Aral Sea <ul><li>Remaining water has a salinity nearly twice that of the ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Blown salt from the dried lakebed harming agriculture and causing respiratory problems. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Surface Water – Rain and Snow <ul><li>Snow and ice are critical parts of the hydrologic cycle in mountainous regions and at high latitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Water stored in the frozen state is released during Spring, providing water for the rest of the year. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Surface Water – Rain Versus Snow <ul><li>Two issues here: </li></ul><ul><li>1) If the precipitation falls as rain it may overflow reservoir capacities, and that water must then be released. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Surface Water – Decreasing Snow and Melting Snowpack <ul><li>Two issues here: </li></ul><ul><li>2) Mountain glaciers act as frozen reservoirs, and 80-90% of mountain glaciers worldwide are receding. </li></ul>1948 2002 2006 Switzerland Washington
  35. 36. Surface Water – Decreasing Snow and Melting Snowpack Himalayas
  36. 37. Surface Water – Decreasing Snow and Melting Snowpack
  37. 38. Surface Water – Decreasing Snow and Melting Snowpack Bolivia
  38. 39. Surface Water – Decreasing Snow and Melting Snowpack Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa
  39. 40. <ul><li>More than 2 million people depend on Mt. Kilimanjaro’s ice and snow for water. </li></ul><ul><li>Projected to be gone within the next twenty years. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Where to go for Water? <ul><li>Need to make undrinkable water drinkable. </li></ul><ul><li>- Filtration </li></ul><ul><li>- Distillation </li></ul><ul><li>- Reverse osmosis </li></ul>
  41. 42. Where to go for Water?
  42. 43. Now What? <ul><li>More so than temperature increases or sea level rise, diminishing or changing water supplies will likely be the a critical test of our ability to adjust to a changing climate. </li></ul><ul><li>- Change the way we use water (conservation, water reclamation). </li></ul><ul><li>- Infrastructure to move water from where we have enough to where we don’t. </li></ul>

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