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Understanding Environmental Pollution
Sponsors
Global climate change
 
 
Grinnell Glacier in Glacier National Park (US) showing recession since 1850 of 1.1 km
Between 1976 and 2000, the area of Furtwängler Glacier (Mount  Kilimanjaro ) was cut almost in half, from 113,000 m² to 60...
The Boulder Glacier retreated 450 m from 1987 to 2005.
Sea levels are rising The sea level has risen more than 120 m since the peak of the last ice age about 18,000 years ago. T...
… since 1900 the level has risen at 1 to 3 mm/yr; since 1992 satellite altimetry indicates a rate of about 3 mm/yr.
Greenhouse gases and their sources  The basic mechanism http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/greenhouse/
Average concentrations of atmospheric  carbon dioxide  in the year 2005 were about 380 parts per million. Prior to 1700, l...
Carbon dioxide emissions per capita
 
 
The Wall Street   Journal   (December 4, 1997) Τ he shorter the solar cycle (the more active the sun), the higher the temp...
The amount of solar radiation received at the outer surface of Earth's atmosphere was once assumed to not change much from...
Sunspot Cycles
Solar variation has probably been the cause of some climate change, for example during the Maunder minimum. A 2006 study a...
Urban Heat Island Effects
 
Causal links between global warming & El Niño conditions? Normal El Nino La Nina
 
Causal links between global warming  & extreme meteorological events?
 
Stratosphere-ozone depletion
Ozone’s natural cycle
Image of the largest Antarctic ozone hole ever recorded  in September 2006.
 
BUT…… do NOT exaggerate!!!!!!
The world’s response to desertification “ must be equal to that demanded by global warming, the destruction of the stratos...
Desertification Desertification already affects nearly 1 billion people, and over 41% of the Earth’s land area. Desertific...
Dust storms in China
Chernobyl disaster The  Chernobyl disaster  was an accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on April 26, 1986 at 01:2...
Coral reef bleaching
 
1 week after the accident! 2 weeks after the accident!!!!!!
=
Eutrophication
Diatoms
Dinoflagellates
Cyanobacteria
Level II Consumers Level III
Level   III Level IV
 
 
Lake Erie
 
- The bottom layer of water (the hypolimnion), because it is cold, tends to not mix with warmer surface water (the epilimn...
 
Pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli   Pathogenic viruses and bacteria in coastal waters can infect swimmers. E. col...
The  Exxon Valdez oil spill  was one of the most devastating environmental disasters ever to occur at sea, seriously affec...
An "invasive species" is a plant or animal that is non-native (or alien) to an ecosystem, and whose introduction...
Sea lamprey  (Petromyzon marinus)
 
 
 
 
 
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ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΙΚΗ ΜΟΛΥΝΣΗ

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Παρουσίαση του καθηγητή Γιώργου Αρχοντίτση στο σχολείο Eastern-Αριστοτέλης της Ελληνικής Κοινότητας Τορόντο

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ΠΕΡΙΒΑΛΛΟΝΤΙΚΗ ΜΟΛΥΝΣΗ

  1. 1. Understanding Environmental Pollution
  2. 2. Sponsors
  3. 3. Global climate change
  4. 6. Grinnell Glacier in Glacier National Park (US) showing recession since 1850 of 1.1 km
  5. 7. Between 1976 and 2000, the area of Furtwängler Glacier (Mount Kilimanjaro ) was cut almost in half, from 113,000 m² to 60,000 m².
  6. 8. The Boulder Glacier retreated 450 m from 1987 to 2005.
  7. 9. Sea levels are rising The sea level has risen more than 120 m since the peak of the last ice age about 18,000 years ago. The bulk of that occurred before 6,000 years ago. From 3,000 years ago to the start of the 19th century sea level was almost constant, rising at 0.1 to 0.2 mm/yr…
  8. 10. … since 1900 the level has risen at 1 to 3 mm/yr; since 1992 satellite altimetry indicates a rate of about 3 mm/yr.
  9. 11. Greenhouse gases and their sources The basic mechanism http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/greenhouse/
  10. 12. Average concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the year 2005 were about 380 parts per million. Prior to 1700, levels of carbon dioxide were about 280 parts per million. This increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is primarily due to the activities of humans.
  11. 13. Carbon dioxide emissions per capita
  12. 16. The Wall Street Journal (December 4, 1997) Τ he shorter the solar cycle (the more active the sun), the higher the temperature .
  13. 17. The amount of solar radiation received at the outer surface of Earth's atmosphere was once assumed to not change much from an average value of 1366 W/m². The variations in total solar output are so slight (as a percentage of total output) that they remained at or below the threshold of detectability until the satellite era, although the small fraction in ultra-violet wavelengths varies by a few percent. Total solar output is now measured to vary (over the last two 11-year sunspot cycles) by approximately 0.1% or about 1.3 W/m² peak-to-trough of the 11 year sunspot cycle.
  14. 18. Sunspot Cycles
  15. 19. Solar variation has probably been the cause of some climate change, for example during the Maunder minimum. A 2006 study and review of existing literature, published in Nature, determined that there has been no net increase in brightness since the mid 1970s, and that changes in solar output within the past 400 years are unlikely to have played a major part in global warming http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_variation http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maunder_minimum
  16. 20. Urban Heat Island Effects
  17. 22. Causal links between global warming & El Niño conditions? Normal El Nino La Nina
  18. 24. Causal links between global warming & extreme meteorological events?
  19. 26. Stratosphere-ozone depletion
  20. 27. Ozone’s natural cycle
  21. 28. Image of the largest Antarctic ozone hole ever recorded in September 2006.
  22. 30. BUT…… do NOT exaggerate!!!!!!
  23. 31. The world’s response to desertification “ must be equal to that demanded by global warming, the destruction of the stratospheric-ozone layer, and the loss of biodiversity .” Klaus T ö pfer (UNEP)
  24. 32. Desertification Desertification already affects nearly 1 billion people, and over 41% of the Earth’s land area. Desertification is most pronounced in Africa where 65% of the agricultural land may be degraded.
  25. 33. Dust storms in China
  26. 34. Chernobyl disaster The Chernobyl disaster was an accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on April 26, 1986 at 01:23 a.m., consisting of an explosion at the plant and subsequent radioactive contamination of the surrounding geographic area. The power plant is located in Ukraine, at the time part of the Soviet Union. It is regarded as the worst accident ever in the history of nuclear power.
  27. 35. Coral reef bleaching
  28. 37. 1 week after the accident! 2 weeks after the accident!!!!!!
  29. 38. =
  30. 39. Eutrophication
  31. 40. Diatoms
  32. 41. Dinoflagellates
  33. 42. Cyanobacteria
  34. 43. Level II Consumers Level III
  35. 44. Level III Level IV
  36. 47. Lake Erie
  37. 49. - The bottom layer of water (the hypolimnion), because it is cold, tends to not mix with warmer surface water (the epilimnion), and therefore has no opportunity for oxygen replenishment from the atmosphere. - The central basin of Lake Erie is the primary problem area because the western basin is sufficiently shallow that the deepest waters warm enough to mix into the epilimnion in early summer. In contrast, the deeper eastern basin is not threatened by oxygen depletion because decomposition of algae and sediments cannot deplete the much greater water volume in its hypolimnion over the span of the spring and summer.
  38. 51. Pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli Pathogenic viruses and bacteria in coastal waters can infect swimmers. E. coli can be the causative agent of several intestinal and extra-intestinal infections such as urinary tract infections, meningitis, peritonitis, mastitis, septicemia and gram-negative pneumonia.
  39. 52. The Exxon Valdez oil spill was one of the most devastating environmental disasters ever to occur at sea, seriously affecting plants and wildlife.
  40. 53. An "invasive species" is a plant or animal that is non-native (or alien) to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage in that ecosystem. At least 25 non-native species of fish have entered the Great Lakes since the 1800s; they have had significant impacts on the Great Lakes food web by competing with native fish for food and habitat. Invasive Species
  41. 54. Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

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