Punita Singh - Language Your Mind

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Work and play with words to expand and enrich our vocabulary and usage. Learn about language evolution, word histories, idioms and the use of metaphors and rhetorical devices to evoke images and enhance memorability.

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Punita Singh - Language Your Mind

  1. 2. Language Your Mind! Punita G. Singh punitaontoast@ gmail.com
  2. 3. ENGLISH AROUND THE WORLD <ul><li>In a Mumbai restaurant: OPEN SEVEN DAYS A WEEK, AND WEEKENDS TOO. </li></ul><ul><li>Cocktail lounge, Norway: LADIES ARE REQUESTED NOT TO HAVE CHILDREN IN THE BAR. </li></ul><ul><li>In a Nairobi restaurant: CUSTOMERS WHO FIND OUR WAITERS RUDE OUGHT TO SEE THE MANAGER. </li></ul>
  3. 4. English – oh English <ul><li>Irregularities </li></ul><ul><li>Peculiarities </li></ul>
  4. 5. English – oh English <ul><li>Singular Plural </li></ul><ul><li>Man Men </li></ul><ul><li>Pan ? </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse Mice </li></ul><ul><li>House ? </li></ul><ul><li>Box Boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Ox ? </li></ul>
  5. 6. English – oh English <ul><li>Pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>Foot Boot </li></ul><ul><li>But Put </li></ul><ul><li>So Do </li></ul><ul><li>Read Read </li></ul><ul><li>Lead Lead </li></ul>
  6. 7. Play on verbs <ul><li>Mind your language </li></ul><ul><li>Language your mind </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns can be verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs can be adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Past tense rules </li></ul>
  7. 8. Where did all these languages come from?
  8. 9. Where did all these languages come from?
  9. 10. Where did modern English come from?
  10. 11. Languages live <ul><li>Borrowings </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptations </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul>
  11. 12. You know more than you know <ul><li>Making implicit knowledge explicit </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of knowledge across context </li></ul><ul><li>Logical inference, induction and extrapolation </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of similarities </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of cognates </li></ul>
  12. 13. Sprechen Sie Deutsch?
  13. 14. Sprechen Sie Deutsch? Blut Feder Garten Hund Haar Machen Milch Mutter Schuh Wasser bird covering
  14. 15. Sprechen Sie Deutsch? Blut Feder Garten Hund Haar Machen Milch Mutter Schuh Wasser bird covering red body fluid bird covering garden canine animal head fluff create something white baby food female parent Shoe basic liquid
  15. 16. Parlez-vous Français?
  16. 17. Parlez-vous Français? absence absorption accent accident accusation action addition admiration adolescent agriculture applicable attention avenue banquet boutique bouquet buffet cigarette clarification classification commercial communication costume couple cottage crime culture
  17. 18. Every word has a history <ul><li>Etymology: the study of word origins </li></ul><ul><li>Language from lingua = tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Glossary, Dictionary, Polyglot </li></ul><ul><li>Idiom from id = itself / own / particular </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting word histories </li></ul><ul><li>Scrupulous Shampoo </li></ul>
  18. 19. Inglish boley-toh … <ul><li>Indian contributions to the English language: </li></ul><ul><li>avatar, bazaar, brahmin, bungalow, cashmere, chutney, chakkar, cummerbund, curry, divan, guru, jodhpurs, karma, khaki, mantra, mogul, nirvana, pariah, pundit, pukka, pyjamas, sahib, sherbet, thug, verandah, yoga </li></ul>
  19. 20. Inglish boley-toh … <ul><li>and less obvious ones: </li></ul><ul><li>bandana, bandicoot, bangle, Blighty, candy, caravan, catamaran, cheroot, chintz, cot, cushy, dinghy, dungaree, ginger, godown, juggernaut, kedgeree, mulligatawny, punch, shampoo, toddy </li></ul>
  20. 21. It’s Greek to me And Latin too <ul><li>Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul><ul><li>Telepathy </li></ul><ul><li>Telecast </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommute </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraph </li></ul>
  21. 22. One and Many <ul><li>Mono </li></ul><ul><li>Uni </li></ul><ul><li>Poly </li></ul><ul><li>Multi </li></ul>
  22. 23. Same and Different <ul><li>Homo </li></ul><ul><li>Hetero </li></ul>
  23. 24. Above, below, through and beyond
  24. 25. Thesaurus <ul><li>Treasury / storehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Synonyms </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A rose by any other nym? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In other words: </li></ul><ul><li>Brilliant Bright Lively </li></ul><ul><li>Talkative Quiet Calm </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>sine qua non </li></ul><ul><li>ipso facto </li></ul><ul><li>glasnost </li></ul><ul><li>Zeitgeist </li></ul><ul><li>hoi polloi </li></ul><ul><li>non sequitir </li></ul><ul><li>caveat emptor </li></ul><ul><li>gaffe </li></ul><ul><li>et al. </li></ul><ul><li>fait accompli </li></ul>Quid pro quo Link the expression on the left to the correct meaning on the right <ul><li>openness </li></ul><ul><li>spirit of the times </li></ul><ul><li>buyer beware </li></ul><ul><li>and others </li></ul><ul><li>the common people </li></ul><ul><li>accomplished fact </li></ul><ul><li>illogical conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>by that very fact </li></ul><ul><li>blunder </li></ul><ul><li>Something essential </li></ul>
  26. 27. Linguistic devices <ul><li>Rhyme and rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Triples </li></ul><ul><li>Alliteration </li></ul><ul><li>Puns / word play </li></ul><ul><li>Visual words </li></ul><ul><li>Vivid descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphors, similes, analogies </li></ul>
  27. 28. Figuratively speaking <ul><li>Metaphor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A is B </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A is like B </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analogy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A is to B what C is to D </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Figuratively speaking <ul><li>Metaphor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She is sunshine on a dreary day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She is like sunshine on a dreary day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analogy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She is as bright and warm as sunshine is on a dreary day </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Figuratively speaking
  30. 31. LANGUAGE ZOO! <ul><li>The early bird catches the worm </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a bear market these days </li></ul><ul><li>Ants in your pants! </li></ul><ul><li>As the crow flies </li></ul>
  31. 32. LANGUAGE ZOO! BEAR SNAIL BIRD BLACK BOOK CAT’S DONKEY EAGLE GUINEA HORSE RAT WHITE CROCODILE CASH COW PIG POWER HUG BRAIN EYE WHISKERS TEAR ELEPHANT RACE WORK SHEEP WORM MAIL
  32. 33. Metaphorically speaking

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