L 34 and 35 final


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AIR POLLUTION CONTROL course material by Prof S S JAHAGIRDAR,NKOCET,SOLAPUR for BE (CIVIL ) students of Solapur university. Content will be also useful for SHIVAJI and PUNE university students

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L 34 and 35 final

  1. 1. L-34 GASEOUS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES Air Pollution and Control Elective- I
  2. 2. CONTENTS OF UNIT- VIII L-32 Principles of removal of gaseous pollutants, details of incineration, absorption adsorption systems. L-33 Vehicular pollution, composition, quantity and control. Status of air pollution in India, Air pollution control act and strategy for effective control of air pollution.
  3. 3. 1) ABSORPTION The removal of one or more selected components from a gas mixture by absorption is probably the most important operation in the control of gaseous pollutant emissions. Absorption is a process in which a gaseous pollutant is dissolved in a liquid. Water is the most commonly used absorbent liquid.
  4. 4. As the gas stream passes through the liquid, the liquid absorbs the gas, in much the same way that sugar is absorbed in a glass of water when stirred. Absorption is commonly used to recover products or to purify gas streams that have high concentrations of organic compounds. Absorption equipment is designed to get as much mixing between the gas and liquid as possible.
  5. 5. Absorbers are often referred to as scrubbers, and there are various types of absorption equipment. The principal types of gas absorption equipment include 1. spray towers, 2. packed columns, 3. spray chambers, and venture scrubbers. 4.  The packed column is by far the most commonly used for the absorption of gaseous pollutants.
  6. 6. The packed column absorber has a column filled with an inert (nonreactive) substance, such as plastic or ceramic, which increases the liquid surface area for the liquid/gas interface. The inert material helps to maximize the absorption capability of the column. In addition, the introduction of the gas and liquid at opposite ends of the column causes mixing to be more efficient because of the counter-current flow through the column.
  7. 7. In general, absorbers can achieve removal efficiencies grater than 95 percent.  One potential problem with absorption is the generation of waste-water, which converts an air pollution problem to a water pollution problem.
  8. 8. KEY TERMS 1. Absorbent: the liquid, usually water mixed with neutralizing agents, into which the contaminant is absorbed 2. Solute: the gaseous contaminant being absorbed, such as SO2, H2S, and so forth 3. Carrier gas : the inert portion of the gas stream, usually flue gas, from which the contaminant is to be removed 4. Interface : the area where the gas phase and the absorbent contact each other 5. Solubility : the capability of a gas to be dissolved in a liquid
  10. 10. Plate Tower
  11. 11. PACKED TOWER
  14. 14. 2) ADSORPTION  Adsorption 1. 2. 3. is used when The pollutant gas is incombustible or difficult to burn The pollutant is sufficiently valuable to warrant recovery The pollutant is in very dilute concentration in the exhaust system
  15. 15. The technique is based on the reaction of gases on the solid adsorbents. The adsorption may be physical or chemical. In this method gas is passed through a bed of adsorbents packed in the specially designed towers to allow the maximum contact between the two
  16. 16.  Physical adsorption depends on the temperature and pressure conditions. Adsorption is promoted by increase in pressure and decrease in temperature  Chemical adsorption depends on the reactivity of the gases and their bond forming capacity with the surface of the adsorbent, which provides surface for the reaction.  Adsorbent can be regenerated for continuous reuse.  In some cases if is not economical to regenerate, it better to dispose the pollutant together with the adsorbent
  17. 17. Adsorption is mostly pollutant specific. e.g – Activated carbon, silica gel and diatomaceous earth are suitable for adsorption of water vapours from a gas phase. It can also adsorb SO2 and NH3. Activated carbon is most suited for removal of organic gases from gas stream.
  18. 18.  Carbon adsorption systems are either regenerative or non-regenerative.  Regenerative system usually contains more than one carbon bed. As one bed actively removes pollutants, another bed is being regenerated for future use.  Non-regenerative systems have thinner beds of activated carbon. In a non-regenerative adsorber, the spent carbon is disposed of when it becomes saturated with the pollutant.
  19. 19. Regenerative Carbon Adsorption System
  20. 20. NonRegenerative Carbon Adsorption System
  22. 22. 3) COMBUSTION In many cases it is not possible to remove the required amount of specific pollutant from an exhaust stream by techniques such as absorption or adsorption. The other technique available is Combustion Combustion refers to rapid oxidation of substances (usually referred as fuels) with evolution of heat.
  23. 23. • • To summarize, Combustion is defined as rapid, hightemperature gas-phase oxidation. Simply, the contaminant (a carbon-hydrogen substance) is burned with air and converted to carbon dioxide and water vapor.
  24. 24.  Combustion process involves three distinct components 1. Fuel : -A solid, liquid or gaseous substance with energy rich C-C or C-H bonds among others, which are broken up during combustion 2. Oxidant:- A substance which aids in combustion process by breaking the chemical bonds allowing the release of heat. 3. Diluent:- A substance that does not take part in the combustion process but acts as carrier of the fuel or the oxidants. Most common diluents is Nitrogen present in the air
  26. 26. Flare
  27. 27.  Combustible gases are burned in open air, which produces flare  The flare is usually employed to remove hydrocarbons and organic vapours, odorous compounds in refineries and chemical works.  It can also burn gases such as NH3, HCN or other toxic or dangerous gases.  If aromatic hydrocarbons are present, they burn with Smokey flame. This can be avoided by injecting a steam into the flame, which reacts and forms hydrogen and CO both burn smokelessly.  However such steam-injected flare are little noisy
  28. 28. ADVANTAGES OF FLARE Can be an economical way to dispose of sudden releases of large amounts of gas; 2. In many cases do not require auxiliary fuel to support combustion; and 3. Can be used to control intermittent or fluctuating waste streams. 1.
  29. 29. DISADVANTAGES OF FLARE 1. Can produce undesirable noise, smoke, heat radiation, and light. 2. Can be a source of SOx, NOx, and CO; 3. Cannot be used to treat waste streams with halogenated compounds; and. 4. Released heat from combustion is lost
  30. 30. 4) INCINERATION OR AFTERBURNING is method of reducing gases, liquid and solid waste streams by chemically altering the pollutant species once they are formed.  It is used to remove combustible air pollutants (gases, vapours or odours)  Incineration
  32. 32. this method combustibles in the gas stream are brought above auto ignition temperatures and burn with oxygen usually present in the gas stream. If sufficient oxygen is not available, air is added by means of blower fan. Thermal incineration is carried out in the temperature range of 10000 F to 15000F Because of this cost is less and NOx formation is also less. In
  33. 33. Important considerations in Design of thermal incinerators are the “Three Ts” Time- residence time should be 0.2 to 0.8 sec with 0.5 sec as a reasonable guideline Temperature (refer next slide) Turbulence- complete mixing is very important in case of odour control than hydrocarbons, Less residence time is required if proper mixing occurs
  34. 34. APPROXIMATE AVERAGE TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS Average temperature range (0K) Hydrocarbon oxidation 780 – 1030 Carbon monoxide oxidation 950- 1060 Odour control via oxidation 750 - 980
  35. 35. Thermal Incinerator
  36. 36. ADVANTAGES  Incinerators are one of the most positive and proven methods for destroying VOC, with efficiencies up to 99.9999% possible.  Thermal incinerators are often the best choice when high efficiencies are needed and the waste gas is above 20% of the LEL (Low explosive limit).
  38. 38.  Whichever may be the method, Temperature of gases leaving the system vary from 700 to 2000 0F  Thus considerable energy at high temperatures is associated with the gas stream.  So that heat can be used to preheat the contaminated gas entering into the reactor.  Heat exchanger used for this purpose is called as recuperator or regenerator  Use of recuperator reduce use of fuel and makes it economical.  Initial cost is high.
  39. 39. ADVANTAGES 1. 2. 3. 99.9999% efficiency can be achieved Recuperative incinerators usually are more economical than straight thermal incinerators because they recover about 70% of the waste heat from the exhaust gases. This heat can be used to preheat incoming air, and of ten times, sufficient waste heat will be available for process heating, or to generate steam or hot water
  40. 40. DISADVANTAGES  Thermal incinerators, including recuperative types, are not well suited to streams with highly variable flow because of the reduced residence time and poor mixing during increased flow conditions which decreases the completeness of combustion.  Incinerators, in general, are not recommended for controlling gases containing halogen- or sulfurcontaining compounds because of the formation of highly corrosive acid gases.
  42. 42. A catalyst accelerates rate of chemical reaction without undergoing a chemical change itself.  Residence time is in the range of 0.3 to 0.9 sec.  Combustion reaction occurs on the surface of the catalyst  Most gases containing combustible pollutants from industrial processes are at a fairly low temperature. Therefore some type of preheating burner is used to bring waste gas up to temperature , at which catalyst will be effective.
  43. 43. range is 590 to 810 0K Efficiency is 95% to 98% Effluent gases are CO2, vapours and nitrogen Temperature TEMPERATURE RANGES FOR DIFFERENT POLLUTANT GASES Industrial pollutant Solvents Average temperature range (0K) 530 – 730 Vegetable and animal fats 530 - 640 Chemical process exhausts 480 - 670
  44. 44.  Catalyst should be Cheap - Long lasting - Should be able to function at required temperatures. - Capable of formed into variety of shapes  Examples of catalyst are Platinum Palladium -
  45. 45. Catalytic Incinerator
  46. 46. ADVANTAGES 1. Lower fuel requirements; 2. Lower operating temperatures; 3. Little or no insulation requirements; 4. Reduced fire hazards; and 5. Less volume/size required
  47. 47. DISADVANTAGES 1. High initial cost; 2. Catalyst poisoning is possible; 3. Particulate often must first be removed; and 4. Spent catalyst that cannot be regenerated may need to be disposed
  48. 48. THEORY QUESTIONS Write short notes on 1. Absorption 2. Adsorption 3. Catalytic incineration 4. Recuperation 5. Flare 6. Thermal incineration A. Gaseous control of pollutants (note:- List all and explain any one or two in detail) B. Combustion method of gaseous pollution control (note:-list all methods under combustion and incineration and explain any one with figure)