1 = High potentials tend to have the operational and technical skills to create successful organizational strategy, but many are lacking the interpersonal skills to motivate employees and communicate effectively
How people perform, individually or collectively, is fundamentally controlled by one factor – human development. LEADERS ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY MORE MATURE.
Paradigm Shift in Leadership Training, from the dominant emphasis on the superficial level of behavioral skills to the deepest most powerful level: developing consciousness. Each successively deeper level of the model unfolds greater power, not only to explain leadership but also to develop leadership to new heights Level 4 – A common approach on Ldrship Dev is Behavioral Skills training – negotiation, strategic planning, teamwork. Gives some benefits, yet Level 4 is insufficient in itself to explain what makes one individual a more effective leader than another, when BOTH receive the same behavioral training. Level 3 – Leadership behaviours have been attributed to individual differences. Such traits include personality factors associated with influencing others, and cognitive abilities such as convergent and divergent thinking. But its difficult to pinpoint leaders by studying them on the more superficial levels of behavior and individual characteristics since they display a wide range of personal tendencies, likes, and dislikes. There is no such thing as a ‘leadership personality’. Level 2 – Stages of Psych Development Although its often suggested that leadership qualities can be adopted by individuals who assume an enthusiastic attitude, one cannot change oneself that simply. The qualities of leadership needed in a business setting are not available without higher stages of psych dev. Research shows that the realization of leadership behaviors is inherently constrained by the limits of such development in the individual. Level 1 – Development of Consciousness represents a breakthru shift to a much more powerful range of invincible Ldrship Dev available thru the unfoldment of TC. Developing consciousness thru transcending exerts a strong influence on the complete psychology, physiology, and behavior of the individual. Thus, fundamental transformations in consciousness have been found, in one stroke, to effect desirable changes in not only the developmental stages of Level 2, but also in traits and characteristics (Level 3), and Leadership Performance (Level 4). (Invincible Leadership – H. Harung, C. Alexander, D. Heaton)
How people perform, individually or collectively, is fundamentally controlled by one factor – human development. LEADERS ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY MORE MATURE.
Leadership development and self-development: an empirical study (Bruce McCollum, 1999) Abstract: This paper explores, theoretically and empirically, some relationships between self-development and leadership development. A theory about consciousness and leadership practices will be presented drawing from both modern science and the oldest texts on consciousness, the Vedas. Empirically, in a small, preliminary eight-month pretest-posttest control group study in one company, 24 subjects who learned a standard self-development technique, Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation, grew more in their expression of leadership behaviors, measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory, and expressed in individual and group interviews (0.05 and 0.01 significance).
Statistical meta-analysis of all available studies (42 independent outcomes) indicated that the effect of the Transcendental Meditation program on increasing self-actualization is much greater than concentration, contemplation, or other techniques. Self-actualization refers to realizing more of one’s inner potential, expressed in every area of life: integration and stability of personality, self-regard, emotional maturity, capacity for warm interpersonal relationships, and adaptive response to challenges. References: 1. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6 (1991): 189–248. 2. Journal of Counseling Psychology 19 (1972): 184–187. 3. Journal of Counseling Psychology 20 (1973): 565–566.
? A study of executives and workers in the automotive industry found that after three months of regular practice of the TM Program, employees showed improved work and personal relationships , in comparison to controls from the same work sites. Reference: Anxiety, Stress and Coping: An International Journal 6: 245–262, 1993.
Increased Creativity 1. The Journal of Creative Behavior 19 (1985): 270–275. 2. The Journal of Creative Behavior 13 (1979): 169–180. This study used the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking to measure figural and verbal creativity in a control group and in a group that subsequently learned the Transcendental Meditation technique. On the posttest 5 months later, the Transcendental Meditation group scored significantly higher on figural originality and flexibility and on verbal fluency. Reference I: The TM technique and creativity: A longitudinal study of Cornell University undergraduates, Journal of Creative Behavior 13: 169-190, 1979. Reference II: A psychological investigation into the source of the effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique, (Ph.D. dissertation, York University) Dissertations Abstracts International 38, 7-B: 33723373, 1978.
A study of executives and workers in the automotive industry found that after three months of regular practice of the TM program, employees showed increased effectiveness on the job, as well as increased satisfaction with their professional and personal life, in comparison to controls from the same work sites. References: 1. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping 6 (1993): 245–262. 2. Academy of Management Journal 17 (1974): 362–368.
This meta-analysis compared the effectiveness of various relaxation techniques for reducing trait anxiety. 146 studies were analyzed - virtually all of the published research that met basic design criteria at the time, such as sufficient control and group size. The studies were grouped according to the type of technique used and the number of studies in each category. The study controlled for potential confounders, including population, age, sex, experimental design, etc. All techniques were equal to or less effective than placebo except TM, which measured an effect size nearly twice that of any other technique. Notably, meditation that involved concentration led to an increase in anxiety, further emphasizing that not all meditation techniques yield the same results. (Orme-Johnson D, Walton K. All approaches to preventing or reversing effects of stress are not the same. American Journal of Health Promotion . 1998:(5)297-298. Eppley, K, Abrams, A, Shear, J. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology . 1989; 45:957-974.)
The Effectiveness of TM Compared to Other Techniques Effectiveness in Reducing Blood Pressure Meta-analysis of 28 studies comparing the effectiveness of different approaches to reducing blood pressure including biofeedback and other relaxation techniques showed that some approaches, such as biofeedback actually had negative results, while the TM technique had substantial results in improving both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. (Orme-Johnson DWW, Walton K. All approaches to preventing or reversing effects of stress are not the same. American Journal of Health Promotion . 1998 :(5)297-298.)
In a major hypertension study funded by NIH, a group of African Americans with hypertension were randomly assigned to 3 groups . One group practiced TM for 15-20 minutes twice a day. Nothing else was changed in their life. A second group practiced progressive muscle relaxation (a widely practiced relaxation technique) for 15 or 20 minutes a day. The third group was given usual care, which is instructions to lose weight, avoid salt, increase exercise, and avoid stress. These are the changes seen in systolic blood pressure. Over the three months, the usual care group had little or no change in blood pressure. The PMR group had a modest reduction. The TM group, had about 11mm reduction in systolic blood pressure, which is about the same as reductions seen on average with drug treatment for high blood pressure. Similar reductions in diastolic blood pressure were also seen. Again, these results are similar to drug treatment for high blood pressure, but without the adverse side effects seen with antihypertensive medication. TM was also significantly lower in cost, as you will see later. ROTH: More than 30 million Americans suffer from high blood pressure, one of the most serious risk factors for heart disease. Sixteen studies have clearly demonstrated the positive effects of Transcendental Meditation on hypertension. For example, a recent study was conducted on 128 inner-city, elderly African-Americans with hypertension. They were randomly assigned to either the Transcendental Meditation technique, progressive muscle relaxation, or a usual-care control group. All subjects followed the same diet and exercise regimen. After 3 months Transcendental Meditation produced an 11-point decrease in systolic blood pressure and a 6-point decrease in diastolic blood pressure, compared to untreated controls, and more than twice the reduction in blood pressure produced by progressive muscle relaxation. ( Personality, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Essential Hypertension , Johnson, Gentry, and Julius (eds.). Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 291-312, 1992
A five-year study of medical care utilization statistics on 2,000 people throughout the U.S. who regularly practiced the Transcendental Meditation program found that their overall rate of hospitalization was 56% lower than the norm. The group practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique had fewer hospital admissions in all disease categories compared to the norm—including 87% less hospitalization for cardiovascular disease, 55% less for cancer, 87% less for diseases of the nervous system, and 73% less for nose, throat, and lung problems. References: 1 . Psychosomatic Medicine 49 (1987): 493–507. 2. American Journal of Managed Care 3 (1997): 135–144.
Higher levels of EEG coherence measured during the practice of TM are significantly correlated with increased fluency of verbal creativity; increased efficiency in learning new concepts; more principled moral reasoning, higher verbal IQ, and decreased neuroticism; higher academic achievement; clearer experiences of Transcendental Consciousness; and increased neurological efficiency, as measured by faster recovery of the paired H-reflex. References: The chart above refers to data from the following four studies: 1. International Journal of Neuroscience 13 (1981): 211–217. 2. International Journal of Neuroscience 15 (1981): 151–157. 3. Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers, Volume 1 (1977): 208– 212. 4. Scientific Research on Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programme: Collected Papers, Volume 4 (1989): 2245–
A study of college students who practiced TM at MIU, found that they improved significantly on a &quot; culture-fair&quot; (nonverbal) measure of IQ over a 2-year period , while no change in IQ was found in non-meditating college students from another Iowa university over the same period. Subjects' age, education level, level of interest in meditation, father's education level, and father's annual income were statistically controlled for in the study. No other procedure has consistently been found to increase general intelligence in college-age students . ( Personality and Individual Differences 12: 1105-1116, 1991
Clp October 20 012010
Improving the CEO’s Brain How to Optimize your Brain to Realize your Full Leadership Potential CEO Club Dallas October 20, 2009 Center for Leadership Performance
Agenda 1. Leadership Development Today 2. Center for Leadership Performance 3. Results of our Programs 4. Optimizing the Brain Demonstration 5. Corporate Case Study - Bridgewater 6. Q&A
Leadership Development Gap <ul><li>Existing leadership development programs are not enough for sustainable long-term growth and development of leaders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Millions spent annually on LD programs, but pessimism on their use and very little evidence on what transfers to the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% of CEOs identified improving leadership talent as a top business priority¹ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 41% of CEOs are satisfied with what their organizations offered to help them develop leadership skills (12% decline since 2007)¹ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More than one-third¹ of all new leaders fail due to a lack of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership skills - facilitating change, building a team, and coaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal skills - building relationships, networking, and communicating </li></ul></ul>¹ Development Dimensions International - “Global Leadership Forecast 2008-2009”
Leadership depends on Self-Development <ul><li>Effective leadership requires a wide range of capabilities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical and creative thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy and inner locus of control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal competencies to resolve conflict constructively and build team spirit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leadership capacities are primarily a function of a single comprehensive dimension: self-development </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced self-development in the context of our knowledge economy and networked organizations is fundamental to realize effective leadership </li></ul>Psychological Development
Advancing Enlightened Leadership Transcendental Consciousness Leadership as a Function of Development of Consciousness (see Notes) NOT HERE NOT HERE HERE NOT HERE
Center for Leadership Performance <ul><li>The Center for Leadership Performance provides individuals and organizations with customized training courses in the Transcendental Meditation program </li></ul><ul><li>As our clients grow to higher stages of development, their enhanced cognitive, interpersonal, and ethical capacities make them more capable of envisioning progressive solutions and implementing them in their organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Results validated by 40 years of research at top medical schools and by the experiences of tens of thousands of meditating professionals </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. medical schools that have conducted research: </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard Medical School </li></ul><ul><li>Yale Medical School </li></ul><ul><li>University of Virginia Medical Center </li></ul><ul><li>University of Chicago Medical School </li></ul><ul><li>University of Michigan Medical School </li></ul><ul><li>UCLA Medical School </li></ul><ul><li>University of Southern California Medical School </li></ul><ul><li>Stanford Medical School </li></ul><ul><li>University of California at San Francisco Medical School </li></ul>
ROI within 4 months Employees who learned the TM Program showed, over a four-month study period, significant increase in a composite scale of leadership behavior (LPI), in contrast to controls. Increased Leadership Behavior in Employees Career Development International 4: 149–154, 1999
Increased Self-Actualization Self-Actualization increases 3 times more with TM than with other meditation techniques
Improved Workplace Relations Anxiety, Stress, and Coping 6 (1993): 245–262. Academy of Management Journal 17 (1974): 362–368
More Innovative Thinking Journal of Creative Behavior 19 (1985): 270–275; 13 (1979): 169–180 Using standard tests of Creative Thinking, TM practitioners score higher on figural originality and flexibility, and on verbal creativity
Enhanced Job Performance Anxiety, Stress, and Coping 6 (1993): 245–262. Academy of Management Journal 17 (1974): 362–368 Executives and workers in the auto industry after 3 months of the TM Program:
Scientifically Proven Results <ul><li>The most researched program of self-development with 600 scientific studies at 250 universities and research institutes in 33 countries </li></ul><ul><li>National Institutes of Health (NIH) has granted more than $25 million over the past 20 years to study the effects of the TM program and other related programs on cardiovascular disease </li></ul>
EEG Brainwave Coherence Eyes Closed TM Practice International Journal of Psychophysiology , 116, 1519-38 (2006); Biological Psychology , 61, 293-319 (2002); Consciousness & Cognition , 8(3), 302-18 (1999); Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology , 35 (1973); International Journal of Neuroscience 14: 147–151, 1981.
Deeper Physiological Relaxation American Psychologist  879-81, 1987 Meta-Analysis of 32 existing studies
Reducing Chronic Anxiety Meta-Analysis of 146 existing studies comparing the effectiveness of various relaxation techniques for reducing trait anxiety
Reducing High Blood Pressure Meta-Analysis of 28 studies comparing the effectiveness of different approaches to normalizing high blood pressure
Reducing High Blood Pressure NIH-funded study of hypertensive African-Americans 11mm reduction in BP, which is about the same as average reductions seen with drug treatment for high BP Education Control Progressive Muscle Relax. Hemisphere, 291-312, 1992
56% Less Hospitalization Psychosomatic Medicine 49: 493-507, 1987
Bridgewater Associates <ul><li>Ray Dalio </li></ul><ul><li>President, CIO </li></ul><ul><li>Founded firm at age 25 </li></ul><ul><li>#65 in Forbes’ 400 Richest Americans 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>“ TM is the single most important reason for whatever success I’ve had” </li></ul><ul><li>World's largest hedge fund </li></ul><ul><li>Manages $67 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Returned 14% in 2008 before fees, amid market turmoil </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100 employees learned the TM Program in 2008 </li></ul>
Ramani Ayer, The Hartford <ul><li>Ramani Ayer </li></ul><ul><li>Chairman & CEO </li></ul><ul><li>The Hartford Financial Services Group Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I have been practicing TM for over 30 years. It has certainly helped me consistently raise my performance levels and maintain a steady state of mind—it has given me equanimity no matter what happens.” </li></ul>
Nancy Lonsdorf, M.D. <ul><li>Nancy Lonsdorf, M.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s Health Specialist </li></ul><ul><li>Author, The Ageless Woman </li></ul><ul><li>“ When you meditate, job stress affects you less, and that has immediate benefits for your health and happiness. It also naturally follows that you enjoy your work more, are more productive. </li></ul><ul><li>You don’t carry stress from the office home with you. You’ve better relationships with your family and friends. </li></ul>
Bob Jones <ul><li>Bob Jones </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Director, CIO </li></ul><ul><li>Major NY investment bank </li></ul><ul><li>“ TM gives you the clarity of mind to realize: ‘These are the things I need to do, and these are the things that are less important.’ </li></ul><ul><li>By being more settled and focused, you end up with more time than you would without meditation.” </li></ul>
Russell Simmons <ul><li>Russell Simmons </li></ul><ul><li>Founder, Def Jam Music </li></ul><ul><li>One of the “Top 25 Most Influential People of the Past 25 Years” (USA Today) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Comprehension comes from stillness. Focus comes from stillness. TM is the practice for touching that stillness for a few minutes twice a day.” </li></ul>
David Lynch <ul><li>David Lynch </li></ul><ul><li>Director, Artist </li></ul><ul><li>Author, “Catching the Big Fish” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Transcendental Meditation is a simple, effortless way to ‘dive within,’ to experience an ocean of pure consciousness, pure creativity, pure knowingness. I’ve never missed a meditation in 34 years.” </li></ul>