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California Teachers of English Learners (CTEL) Module 1, Domain 2 First and Second-Language Development and Their Relation...
Readings from CLAD Handbook <ul><li>Chapter 2: Learning about Second Language Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Read Page 32 “...
Contemporary Theories of Language Acquisition <ul><li>Constructivism -  we construct our knowledge based on individual exp...
First Language Acquisition Stages <ul><li>Predict, based on personal experience or prior knowlege, what each L1 stage woul...
1st Language Acquisition Stages <ul><li>Babbling :  from 6mo - 1yr during which a child imitates the sounds of human langu...
1st Language Acquisition Stages <ul><li>Two-Word :  this state emerges when a child reaches approximately 2yrs and begins ...
2nd Language Proficiency Levels <ul><li>Beginning : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal  receptive/productive skills </li></ul><...
2nd Language Proficiency Levels <ul><li>Early Intermediate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe  a picture/object using common...
2nd Language Proficiency Levels <ul><li>Intermediate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond  to a prompt using difficult vocabula...
2nd Language Proficiency Levels <ul><li>Early Advanced : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand  and follow difficult instructio...
2nd Language Proficiency Levels <ul><li>Advanced : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand  and follow more complex instructions/...
Relationship of 1st & 2nd Language Acquisition <ul><li>Specific to L1 </li></ul><ul><li>Immersed in language </li></ul><ul...
Relationship of 1st & 2nd Language Acquisition <ul><li>Specific to L2 </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Part ...
Relationship of 1st & 2nd Language Acquisition <ul><li>Commonalities Across L1 & L2 </li></ul><ul><li>Universals </li></ul...
Krashen’s 5 Hypotheses on Second Language Acquisition (The Monitor Model) <ul><li>CLAD Handbook, Ch3, pages 56 - 59 </li><...
Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis <ul><li>Subconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to L1   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long, active ...
Monitor Hypothesis <ul><li>Editor </li></ul><ul><li>Time  (conversations vs. writing a  ¶) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on form...
Natural Order Hypothesis <ul><li>We acquire grammatical structures in a fairly predictable order, but cannot teach to that...
Input Hypothesis <ul><li>We acquire language when we understand what is said to us </li></ul><ul><li>i + 1  (known to the ...
Affective Filter Hypothesis <ul><li>Self confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Level of anxiety </li><...
Cummins’ BICS, CALP, CUP <ul><li>CLAD Handbook, Ch3 pages 59- 62 </li></ul><ul><li>CTEL pg 64 </li></ul><ul><li>SLMS: page...
Cummins’ BICS, CALP, CUP L1 L2 BICS CALP CUP
Cummins’ Quadrants A B C D Many Clues Few Clues
Cummins’ Quadrant Activity <ul><li>Look at the Quadrant Activity on page 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Try to determine in which qu...
Cummins’ Quadrants
Cognitive & Social Strategies Learners Use in Developing a Second Language (pg 41) <ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Me...
ELD Lesson Intro <ul><li>The following is a sample ELD lesson intro </li></ul><ul><li>“ Last week we finished learning abo...
ELD Lesson Intro <ul><li>“ Let’s have someone volunteer to  read  what you told me and I wrote about the different types o...
ELD Lesson Intro <ul><li>“ Now, we are going to think about what else we want to learn about transportation. . . </li></ul...
Schooling for Language Minority Students <ul><li>English Proficiency, Academic Achievement, Positive Self-Concept </li></u...
Schooling for Language Minority Students <ul><li>Use primary language to learn and support learning.  Comprehensible input...
Schooling for Language Minority Students <ul><li>Yes, most of the skills transfer.  If you learn to think in one language,...
Cognitive, Linguistic, and Physical Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>CTEL ed 1: pages 70-74; 77-80 </li...
Affective Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>CTEL: pages 74-77 </li></ul><ul><li>In table groups, read an...
Sociocultural and Political Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>CTEL: pages 81-89 (read and know!!) </li><...
Cognitive, Linguistic, and Physical Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Synthesis/Summary </li></ul><ul><u...
Cognitive, Linguistic, and Physical Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Pedagogical Implications </li></ul...
Affective Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Synthesis/Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are several af...
Affective Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Pedagogical Implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work to lower...
Sociocultural and Political Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Synthesis/Summary : </li></ul><ul><li>Cult...
Sociocultural and Political Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Synthesis/Summary : </li></ul><ul><li>For ...
Sociocultural and Political Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Synthesis/Summary : </li></ul><ul><li>Ther...
Sociocultural and Political Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Pedagogical Implications : </li></ul><ul><...
Language Acquisition Matching Game!! <ul><li>In table groups, match the description of the theories or perspectives to the...
Constructed Response Review <ul><li>A variety of  sociopolitical  factors can affect English Learners' English language de...
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Ctel Module1 Domain2 Fall07

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Ctel Module1 Domain2 Fall07

  1. 1. California Teachers of English Learners (CTEL) Module 1, Domain 2 First and Second-Language Development and Their Relationship to Academic Achievement jeffery heil
  2. 2. Readings from CLAD Handbook <ul><li>Chapter 2: Learning about Second Language Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Read Page 32 “Contemporary Theories (of Language Acquisition)” to familiarize yourselves with two major theories, Constructivism & Cognitivism , and the other theories aligned with them. Summarize the theories on page 33 </li></ul><ul><li>For this test, you will need to know theories, not theorists!! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Contemporary Theories of Language Acquisition <ul><li>Constructivism - we construct our knowledge based on individual experience and schema. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Interactionist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social-cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactionist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlanguage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitivism - knowledge is viewed as symbolic, mental constructions in the mind of individuals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CALLA </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. First Language Acquisition Stages <ul><li>Predict, based on personal experience or prior knowlege, what each L1 stage would be like. . . </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1st Language Acquisition Stages <ul><li>Babbling : from 6mo - 1yr during which a child imitates the sounds of human language </li></ul><ul><li>Holophrastic : child uses one word to mean a whole statement (“holo”= complete or undivided, is a one word = one sentence stage.) For example, dog is a whole sentence. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1st Language Acquisition Stages <ul><li>Two-Word : this state emerges when a child reaches approximately 2yrs and begins to produce two-word utterances such as “car go.” </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraphic : state of stringing more than two words together. Children often sound as if there are reading a Western Union message, as in “Cathy build house.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2nd Language Proficiency Levels <ul><li>Beginning : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal receptive/productive skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin to recognize some basic groups of related words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write some isolated English words </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 2nd Language Proficiency Levels <ul><li>Early Intermediate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe a picture/object using common vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Match simple vocabulary words to pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write sentences appropriate to prompt </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 2nd Language Proficiency Levels <ul><li>Intermediate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond to a prompt using difficult vocabulary in a relevant complete sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read a story and recall details and answer literal questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write simple sentences appropriate to prompt or write story by listing events or ideas </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 2nd Language Proficiency Levels <ul><li>Early Advanced : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand and follow difficult instructions/delivery in an academic context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read involving processes such as: sequencing, generalization, drawing conclusions, and making predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing contains fluent sentences, paragraphs, well-organized ideas, and accurate transitions </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 2nd Language Proficiency Levels <ul><li>Advanced : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand and follow more complex instructions/delivery in an academic context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read more complex narrative and expository texts and answer increasingly difficult questions that involve sequencing, generalizing, drawing conclusions, and predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing contains fluent sentences and paragraphs with well organized ideas, accurate transitions, vivid vocabulary, and no significant grammatical errors </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Relationship of 1st & 2nd Language Acquisition <ul><li>Specific to L1 </li></ul><ul><li>Immersed in language </li></ul><ul><li>Whole to part </li></ul><ul><li>Natural babbling </li></ul><ul><li>Building concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Praise/reinforce </li></ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><li>“ parent-talk” </li></ul><ul><li>Long silent period </li></ul><ul><li>Time to develop concrete things </li></ul><ul><li>One-to-one w/many clues </li></ul>
  13. 13. Relationship of 1st & 2nd Language Acquisition <ul><li>Specific to L2 </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Part to whole </li></ul><ul><li>Planned language instruction </li></ul><ul><li>No babbling </li></ul><ul><li>Enrichment or requirement(depending on person) </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of error/high anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter silent period </li></ul><ul><li>Pressed for time </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Group/class translating concepts/knowledge </li></ul>
  14. 14. Relationship of 1st & 2nd Language Acquisition <ul><li>Commonalities Across L1 & L2 </li></ul><ul><li>Universals </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Building concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge in L1 facilitates L2 development </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Survival </li></ul><ul><li>modeling </li></ul>
  15. 15. Krashen’s 5 Hypotheses on Second Language Acquisition (The Monitor Model) <ul><li>CLAD Handbook, Ch3, pages 56 - 59 </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition-Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective Filter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Short Film of Krashen </li></ul>
  16. 16. Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis <ul><li>Subconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to L1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long, active listening period; speaking emerges in stages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Error accepted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correction is modeled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conscious </li></ul><ul><li>Know the rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having formal knowledge of language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Errors corrected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correction is overt </li></ul></ul>Acquisition vs. Learning
  17. 17. Monitor Hypothesis <ul><li>Editor </li></ul><ul><li>Time (conversations vs. writing a ¶) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on form </li></ul><ul><li>Know the rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor can be successful for language tests & writing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ The 'monitor' acts in a planning, editing and correcting function when three specific conditions are met: that is, the second language learner has sufficient time at his/her disposal, he/she focuses on form or thinks about correctness, and he/she knows the rule.” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Natural Order Hypothesis <ul><li>We acquire grammatical structures in a fairly predictable order, but cannot teach to that order. We must focus on meaningful messages. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Input Hypothesis <ul><li>We acquire language when we understand what is said to us </li></ul><ul><li>i + 1 (known to the unknown, combine familiar with something new) </li></ul><ul><li>Compare to Vygotsky’s ZPD </li></ul><ul><li>Caregiver speech (natural language expansion) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Affective Filter Hypothesis <ul><li>Self confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Level of anxiety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A high affective filter impedes the reception of comprehensible input </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Cummins’ BICS, CALP, CUP <ul><li>CLAD Handbook, Ch3 pages 59- 62 </li></ul><ul><li>CTEL pg 64 </li></ul><ul><li>SLMS: pages 4-19 </li></ul>
  22. 22. Cummins’ BICS, CALP, CUP L1 L2 BICS CALP CUP
  23. 23. Cummins’ Quadrants A B C D Many Clues Few Clues
  24. 24. Cummins’ Quadrant Activity <ul><li>Look at the Quadrant Activity on page 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Try to determine in which quadrant each of the items would be placed </li></ul><ul><li>Remember : there doesn’t have to be a right answer, some may be able to be placed in more than one!! This is designed to simply get you thinking about the issue </li></ul>
  25. 25. Cummins’ Quadrants
  26. 26. Cognitive & Social Strategies Learners Use in Developing a Second Language (pg 41) <ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Formulaic expression </li></ul><ul><li>Elaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal for Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Request for Clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Role-play </li></ul>
  27. 27. ELD Lesson Intro <ul><li>The following is a sample ELD lesson intro </li></ul><ul><li>“ Last week we finished learning about land transportation and today we are going to start our new lesson about air transportation. What do we know about types of transportation that we see in the sky?” </li></ul><ul><li>(Teacher writes students’ responses ) [expressive skills] </li></ul>
  28. 28. ELD Lesson Intro <ul><li>“ Let’s have someone volunteer to read what you told me and I wrote about the different types of transportation.” (A few students can read the list) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Has anyone else remembered some more types of transportation?” (while students are listening to teacher’s questions, they may come up with additional answers) Teacher asks student(s) to approach chart paper and write it down. [receptive skills] </li></ul>
  29. 29. ELD Lesson Intro <ul><li>“ Now, we are going to think about what else we want to learn about transportation. . . </li></ul><ul><li>What is the importance of this sample of an intro ELD lesson? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is integrating the four language domains (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) important? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we mean by “language is acquired in a natural process?” </li></ul>
  30. 30. Schooling for Language Minority Students <ul><li>English Proficiency, Academic Achievement, Positive Self-Concept </li></ul><ul><li>False </li></ul><ul><li>BICS & CALP </li></ul><ul><li>A: BICS B: CALP </li></ul><ul><li>Social conversation, playground, everyday conversation, family talk, friend talk </li></ul><ul><li>Higher order thinking, abstract thinking, academic language, test skill, problem solving </li></ul>
  31. 31. Schooling for Language Minority Students <ul><li>Use primary language to learn and support learning. Comprehensible input and low affective filter. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two separate “areas” where languages develop. When one language is “emphasized” the other is reduced. SUP </li></ul><ul><li>There is one “area” where languages develop and there is a relationship or connection between languages. One supports the other in the form of transferability. CUP </li></ul>
  32. 32. Schooling for Language Minority Students <ul><li>Yes, most of the skills transfer. If you learn to think in one language, you do not need to learn to think in another language. If you learn to read in one language, you only need to “break the code” in another language. </li></ul><ul><li>Students receiving instruction in L1 did better in English than those students who only received instruction in English language development. </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to communicate in primary language. Home context is conducive to developing literacy in an authentic manner, not school-like manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of realia, gestures, contextualization of lesson </li></ul>
  33. 33. Cognitive, Linguistic, and Physical Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>CTEL ed 1: pages 70-74; 77-80 </li></ul><ul><li>In table groups, read and complete page 44 of the study guide. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Affective Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>CTEL: pages 74-77 </li></ul><ul><li>In table groups, read and complete page 45 of the study guide. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Sociocultural and Political Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>CTEL: pages 81-89 (read and know!!) </li></ul><ul><li>In table groups, read and complete page 46 of the study guide. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Cognitive, Linguistic, and Physical Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Synthesis/Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cognitive and constructive perspectives stress the importance of viewing the students as active processors of information from birth and throughout their lives. These processes occur through social interaction and mental activity in which information is internalized and the learner then constructs meaning based n personal experience and prior knowledge. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Cognitive, Linguistic, and Physical Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Pedagogical Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider alternative assessment such as portfolios or performance-based assessment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning, contextualization </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Affective Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Synthesis/Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are several affective factors that impact student learning: self-esteem, motivation, and attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the students feels about her/himself can affect either in a general, or specific to a task or situation. As for motivation, it can be attributed to parents, friends, and teachers by creating a learning environment (not nec. Physical), which impacts the attitude of the student toward learning. It is when anxiety continues to exist that creates a high affective filter preventing the student from learning. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Affective Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Pedagogical Implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work to lower the affective filter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A variety of groupings: small, large, dyads, triads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use L1 to support core curriculum </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Sociocultural and Political Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Synthesis/Summary : </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is the explicit and implicit patterns for living, the dynamic system of commonly-agreed-upon symbols, meanings, knowledge, beliefs, morals, customs, traditions </li></ul>
  41. 41. Sociocultural and Political Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Synthesis/Summary : </li></ul><ul><li>For students learning a second language, success is dependent on such extra-linguistic factors as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the pattern of acculturation for their community; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the status and acceptance of their culture, which includes their language </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Sociocultural and Political Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Synthesis/Summary : </li></ul><ul><li>There are numerous structures within schools that affect student learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the school’s physical structure and disciplinary policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the limited roles of both students and teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limited parent and community involvement. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Sociocultural and Political Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Pedagogical Implications : </li></ul><ul><li>The acculturation process is an additive approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L1 is accepted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents are involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment/evaluation takes the whole child into account </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Language Acquisition Matching Game!! <ul><li>In table groups, match the description of the theories or perspectives to the appropriate term by numbering them </li></ul>
  45. 45. Constructed Response Review <ul><li>A variety of sociopolitical factors can affect English Learners' English language development. </li></ul><ul><li>In a written response: </li></ul><ul><li>describe one sociopolitical factor affecting second-language development (e.g., school program organization,differential status of the primary language or dialect and the target language, language planning and policies,community influences); </li></ul><ul><li>describe one strategy for addressing English Learners' needs with respect to the sociopolitical factor you described; and explain how this strategy would be effective in promoting English Learners' English language development. </li></ul>

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