Task-Based Instruction (TBI)


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Task-Based Instruction (TBI)
Presented as a requirement of TF 503 Teaching and Learning Strategies and Classroom Management
Designed by Ms.Chayaporn Thirachaimongkhonkun
Mr. Sunan Fathet
M.A.Teaching English as a Foreign Language @SWU Thailand

Task-Based Instruction (TBI)

  1. 1. Presented as a requirement of TF 503 Teaching and Learning Strategies and Classroom ManagementDepartment of Western Languages Faculty of Humanities Srinakharinwirot University
  2. 2. 123456 Comparing TBI and 3Ps7 Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 2
  3. 3. IntroductionTask-based learning is an alternativeapproach to communicate languageteaching because a task involves aprimary focus on meaning, real-worldprocesses of language use and any ofthe four language skills. Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 3
  4. 4. Defining “Task”“A task is an activity where the targetlanguage is used by the learner for acommunicative purpose (goal) in order toachieve an outcome” (Willis, 1996) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 4
  5. 5. Defining “Task”“A piece of classroom work that involve learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in target language while attention is focus on meaning rather than form. The task should also have a sense of completeness, being able to stand alone as a communicative act in its own right with a beginning, a middle and an end.” (Nunan, 2004) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 5
  6. 6. Defining “Task”“Tasks are activities that call for primarily meaning-focused language use. In contrast, exercises are activities that call for primarily form-focused language use. (Ellis, 2003) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 6
  7. 7. The core task elements have six components. 1 • Goals 2 • Input 3 • Procedures 4 • Teacher role 5 • Student role 6 • Settings Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 7
  8. 8. 1 Goals Goal type Example establish and maintain interpersonal relations andCommunicative through this to exchange information, ideas, opinions, attitudes and feelings and to get things done have some understanding of the everyday lifeSociocultural patterns of their contemporary age group in the target language speech community; this will cover their life at home, at school and at leisure to negotiate and plan their work over a certain timeLearning-how-to- span, and learn how to set themselves realisticlearn objectives and how to devise the means to attain them to have some understanding of the systematic natureLanguage and of language and the way it workscultural awareness (Clark, 1987, cited in Nunan, 2004) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 8
  9. 9. 2 Input articles from newspapers, magazines and journals radio and television scripts and documentaries comic books for entertainment publicity brochures and posters short stories, poems and plays shopping lists business cards postcards picture stories street map(Hover, 986, and Morris & Stewart-Dore,1984, cited in Nunan, 2004) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 9
  10. 10. 3 ProceduresProcedures specify what learners actually do with theinput. According criteria for the task, teachersconsider the authority of learning procedures andinput. Another point of criteria for task selectioninvolves activation rather than a rehearsal rationale.Moreover, analyzing procedures should be based onthe focus or skills required to achieve the goal. (Nunan, 2004) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 10
  11. 11. 4 Teacher role 5 Student role Approach RolesOral Situational learner listens to teacher and repeats; no control over content or methodsAudiolingual learner has little control; reacts to teacher direction; passive, reactive roleCommunicative learner has an active, negotiative role; should contribute as well as receiveTotal Physical learner is a listener and performer; littleResponse influence over content and none over methodology Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 11
  12. 12. 4 Teacher role 5 Student role (cont.) Approach RolesThe Silent Way learners learn through systematic analysis; must become independent and autonomousCommunity learners are members of a social group or community; move from dependence toLanguage Learning autonomy as learning progressesThe Natural learners play an active role and have a relatively high degree of control over content languageApproach productionSuggestopedia learners are passive, have little control over content or methods (Richards & Rodgers,1986, cited in Nunan, 2004) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 12
  13. 13. 6 Setting (Wright, 1987, cited in Nunan, 2004) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 13
  14. 14. Task Types Six Task Types Willis Pattison Seven Task Task Types Types SixTask Types Jost Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 14
  15. 15. Six Task Types by Willis Listing Ordering & Sorting Comparing Problem solving Sharing personal experiences Projects and creative tasks Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 15
  16. 16. Six Task Types by Jost Type of Task Examples Details Brainstorming, fact A party list, memory challenge,Listing finding qualities for a jobOrdering and Sequencing, ranking Jigsaw activities, best way tosorting do something Finding similarities, Listening to TV programs,Comparing finding differences spotting differences between pictures Giving advice, Responding to an adviceProblem solving planning column, planning a dinner Finding something Learning about theDiscovery new Pyramids Debating how to How best to save the earthDebating protect something Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 16
  17. 17. Seven Task Types by PattisonQuestions and answers Dialogues and role plays Matching activities Communication strategies Pictures and picture stories Puzzles and problems Discussions and decisions Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 17
  18. 18. Seven Task Types by PattisonQuestions and answers Dialogues and role plays Matching activities Communication strategies Pictures and picture stories Puzzles and problems Discussions and decisions Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 18
  19. 19. Examples for Task TypesListing & Discussion (Nunan, 2000, cited in Nunan, 2004) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 19
  20. 20. Examples for Task Types (cont.)Ordering (Nunan, 2004) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 20
  21. 21. Examples for Task Types (cont.)Ordering (Harmer, 1998) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 21
  22. 22. Examples for Task Types (cont.)Matching activity (Nunan, 2001, cited in Nunan, 2004) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 22
  23. 23. Examples for Task Types (cont.) Student 1 looks at the picture on this page, and Student 2 looks at the picture on page 96. Ask and answer questions to find the differences between the pictures. Use the questions in the box. Comparing (Nunan, 2003, cited in Nunan, 2004) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 23
  24. 24. Examples for Task Types (cont.)Communicative activity (Nunan, 1995, cited in Nunan, 2004) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 24
  25. 25. Examples for Task Types (cont.)Puzzle Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 25
  26. 26. Examples for Task Types (cont.)Role Play (Richards et al., 1997, cited in Nunan, 2004) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 26
  27. 27. The Framework of TBI PRE-TASK Introduction to topic and task TASK CYCLE Task, Planning, Report LANGUAGE FOCUS Analysis, Practice Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 27
  28. 28. 1 Pre-task The teacher - introduces and defines the topic - uses activities to help students recall/ learn useful words and phrases - ensure students understand task instructions - may play a recording of others doing the same or a similar task The students- note down useful words and phrases from the pre-task activities and/ or the recording- may spend a few minutes preparing for the task individually Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 28
  29. 29. 2 Task cycle Task Planning ReportStudents do the Students prepare Some groupstask, in pairs or to report to the present theirsmall groups. whole class (orally reports to theTeacher monitors or in writing) how class, orfrom a distance. they did the exchange written task, what they reports, and decided or compare results. discovered. Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 29
  30. 30. 3 Language Focus . Analysis PracticeStudents examine and Teacher conductsdiscuss specific features practice of new words,of the text or transcript phrases and patternof the recording occurring in the data, either during or after the analysis. Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 30
  31. 31. Comparing TBI and 3Ps TBI Task-Based Instruction Versus PPP Presentation-Practice- Production Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 31
  32. 32. TBI TBI Pre-taskExposure Introduction to topic and task Instruction Task cycleExposure Task Use (spontaneous)Exposure Planning Instruction (as needed)Exposure (planned) Report Use (planned)Exposure Students hear task recording or read text Language focus InstructionExposure Analysis and practice: Use (restricted)Exposure Review and repeat task Use (spontaneous) PPP PPP PresentationExposure (restricted) of single ‘new’ item Instruction PracticeExposure (restricted) of new item: Instruction Use (restricted) drills, exercises, dialogue practice ProductionExposure Activity, role play or task to Use (free or partly encourage ‘free’ use of language restricted) Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 32
  33. 33. Advantages1. TBL is applicable and suitable for students of all ages and background.2. Students will have a much more varied exposure to language with TBL.3. Students are free to use whatever vocabulary and grammar they know, rather than just the task language of the lesson.4. Allows meaningful communication.5. Students will be exposed to a whole range of lexical phrases, collocations and patterns as well as language forms.6. Encourages students to be more ambitious in the language. Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 33
  34. 34. Disadvantages1. TBI requires a high level of creativity and initiative on the part of the task.2. TBI requires resources beyond the textbooks and related materials usually found in language classrooms.3. TBI is not teacher-centered and it requires individual and group responsibility and commit mention the part of students.4. There is a risk for learners to achieve fluency at the expense of accuracy. Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 34
  35. 35. Conclusion1. Task-based teaching offers the opportunity for ‘natural’ learning inside the classroom.2. It encourages child-centered learning.3. It helps learners develop individual differences and support learning autonomy.4. It helps learners use language in a communicative process through authentic experience while engaging the target language. Task-Based Instruction (TBI) 35
  36. 36. ReferencesEllis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Harmer, J. (1998). How to teach English: An introduction to the practice of English teaching. Essex : Addison Wesley Longman Limited.Nunan, D. (2004). Task-based language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Jost, N. (2003). Issues in Task-based Language Instruction. JALT Conference Proceedings. Tokyo : Association for Language Teaching.Willis, J. (1996). A framework for task-based learning. Essex : Addison Wesley Longman Limited.