Published on

Published in: Art & Photos, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Photography 101 Composition
  2. 2. Classic Compositional Rules <ul><li>There are many ways to compose a subject, and one way isn ’t necessarily better than another </li></ul><ul><li>Compositional rules are really only guidelines and once understood, should be thought of as suggestions, without limiting your imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Allow yourself to break these rules if it works for your subject </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rule of Thirds <ul><li>Taken from painters in the 19th century, this common compositional formula is popular among photographers of all disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>It is often applied subconsciously by the photographer once they have familiarized themselves with the concept </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rule of Thirds <ul><li>The rule of thirds states that the picture should be divided into thirds horizontally and vertically. </li></ul><ul><li>The center of the picture ’s interest should be placed at one of the intersections of the vertical and horizontal lines </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rule of Thirds viewfinder
  6. 6. Rule of Thirds
  7. 7. Rule of Thirds
  8. 8. Filling the picture frame <ul><li>Successful pictures are pictures simplified to a single idea or theme and are organized without clutter </li></ul><ul><li>Many amateur photographers end up with too many points of interest and cause confusion for the viewer </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is your photograph about? <ul><li>Before taking the shot, stop, think, and decide what it is in the scene you really want to show </li></ul><ul><li>Take a picture of the whole scene, then go in for some details </li></ul>
  10. 10. Filling the picture frame
  11. 11. Get close to your subject <ul><li>Eliminates distracting objects and simplifies the content of your picture </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces the confusion of busy backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses attention on the main subject </li></ul><ul><li>Lets you see expression on faces </li></ul>
  12. 12. Look through your viewfinder as if your looking at the print <ul><li>Look at all the space within the viewfinder, does it work for the subject? </li></ul><ul><li>If not, try another angle, move around to eliminate distracting elements </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at the scene this way can help to achieve the results you are seeking </li></ul>
  13. 13. Vertical vs. Horizontal <ul><li>It is common practice for beginners to shoot in the horizontal position for the majority of their photographs </li></ul><ul><li>This is because the camera is naturally held in this position and is designed for comfort when held in this manner </li></ul>
  14. 14. Vertical vs. Horizontal <ul><li>A good rule of thumb is to shoot horizontally for horizontal subjects ( a person laying down, a car, etc…) and to shoot vertical for vertical subjects (a person standing, a tall building, etc…) </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise you are likely to create empty space which adds nothing to the picture </li></ul>
  15. 15. Vertical vs. Horizontal <ul><li>Often, subjects can be well composed in either position </li></ul><ul><li>The mood may be affected by which one you choose, so think about what you want to convey to the viewer </li></ul><ul><li>Try shooting both ways and decide later which worked the best for you </li></ul>
  16. 16. Vertical vs. Horizontal
  17. 17. Visual Elements <ul><li>Line </li></ul><ul><li>Shape / Form </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul>
  18. 18. Visual Elements <ul><li>Every photograph contains at least one of these elements, often times more than one, and these elements have great symbolic value </li></ul><ul><li>It is the use of these elements that creates the mood or feeling in a photograph </li></ul><ul><li>Hard, soft, friendly, hostile, strong, weak, light, heavy, aggressive, or passive </li></ul>
  19. 19. Visual Elements Lines <ul><li>Photographically speaking, lines within a photograph do not necessarily need to be actual lines, but can also be implied lines </li></ul><ul><li>Someone looking into the distance could be a perceived line </li></ul><ul><li>Lines draw the viewer through the photograph and can lead the eye to the subject </li></ul>
  20. 20. Visual Elements Lines <ul><li>It is better to have the lines lead into the image rather than out of the frame. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea is to keep the viewer looking at the photograph, and to hold their attention </li></ul><ul><li>If the lines lead out, so too does there attention </li></ul>
  21. 21. Visual Elements Lines <ul><li>Horizontal lines imply tranquility and are considered stable (a calm ocean) </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical lines represent strength and firmness (stand tall and firm) </li></ul><ul><li>Diagonal lines imply movement, speed or restlessness </li></ul>
  22. 22. Lines
  23. 25. Visual Elements Shape and form <ul><li>In photographs, shape is always two dimensional, but the tonal changes across an object can give the illusion of depth. </li></ul><ul><li>Any object standing alone will draw attention to its shape, however if there are multiple objects of equal importance and they are separated, they can cause the eye to move back and forth </li></ul>
  24. 26. Visual Elements Shape and form <ul><li>Multiple objects grouped closely together can give the impression of a single shape or unit </li></ul><ul><li>This is one reason why portrait photographers group families close together and even have ones hands on another ’s shoulder, emphasizing unity </li></ul>
  25. 27. Shape and form
  26. 28. Shape and form
  27. 29. Visual Elements Texture <ul><li>Texture, the way a surface feels, is a powerful way to evoke response from the viewer </li></ul><ul><li>We have all used texture since infanthood to determine the qualities of everything around us and those feelings are still with us today </li></ul>
  28. 30. Visual Elements Texture <ul><li>The way we show texture in our photographs is in our use of light, mainly it ’s direction </li></ul><ul><li>Side lighting is the best way to emphasize texture on an object, conversely front lighting will give little shadow areas and therefore less texture detail </li></ul>
  29. 31. Visual Elements Texture <ul><li>An example of using texture in a photograph would be to get down low on a beach, with a wide angle lens and fill the foreground with pebbles </li></ul><ul><li>This would invoke the sense of touch in the viewer, maybe thinking of the feeling of walking along the beach, or running their hand through it </li></ul>
  30. 32. Visual Elements Texture <ul><li>Filling the frame with broken glass would again evoke feelings, but very different ones than that of the beach </li></ul><ul><li>So how we use texture can dramatically affect the final mood of the image </li></ul>
  31. 33. Texture
  32. 34. Texture
  33. 35. Visual Elements Patterns <ul><li>When lines, shapes, forms, or textures are repeated over and over in more or less regular intervals, a pattern is created </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns amplify the symbolic value of their components </li></ul><ul><li>Just as patterns in music (melody) and poetry (rhythm of verse) hold the viewers attention, we are also attracted to visual patterns </li></ul>
  34. 36. Visual Elements Patterns <ul><li>If developing a pattern is your sole intent, then you must fill the entire frame with it. </li></ul><ul><li>A macro or telephoto lens would work well to cut down on the amount of scene inside the frame, eliminating objects outside of the pattern </li></ul>
  35. 37. Patterns
  36. 38. Patterns
  37. 39. Visual Elements Color <ul><li>Pay attention to color </li></ul><ul><li>Are there strong color relationships? </li></ul><ul><li>Colors are considered warm or cold because of our association with various elements in our surroundings </li></ul>
  38. 40. Visual Elements Color <ul><li>Red, and orange are considered warm colors whereas blue and green are considered cool </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow and violet can vary depending on the other colors in the photograph </li></ul>
  39. 41. Visual Elements Color <ul><li>Warm colors can evoke excitement, strength and warmth </li></ul><ul><li>Cool colors evoke peace and calmness </li></ul><ul><li>Pastels can invoke the feeling of innocence and purity </li></ul>
  40. 42. Visual Elements Color <ul><li>Cool colors appear to recede into the distance and warm colors seem to advance forward towards the viewer </li></ul>
  41. 43. Color
  42. 44. Color
  43. 45. Color
  44. 46. Other Compositional Rules
  45. 50. Composition Summary <ul><li>The decisions we make (consciously or unconsciously) every time we take a photograph will all contribute to the overall feeling or tone of the image </li></ul><ul><li>Did you take a photograph or did you make a photograph? </li></ul>
  46. 51. <ul><li>The End </li></ul>