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Protect the Thresher Shark Briefing #PHSayYes #WorldSayYes

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Let us join the petition asking the Philippines delegation to CITES to vote YES in protecting the endangered thresher shark - pushing for its inclusion in the "Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora" appendix II. You can join the appeal at https://www.change.org/p/philippines-vote-yes-for-threshers

This briefing was given by AA Yaptinchay of Marine Wildlife Watch of the Philippines (https://www.facebook.com/marinewildlifewatchofthephilippines/) last September 2 at the Bloggers Advocacy Briefing organized by Janette Toral.

Published in: Environment

Protect the Thresher Shark Briefing #PHSayYes #WorldSayYes

  1. 1. PROTECTING PREDATORS by AA Yaptinchay Marine Wildlife Watch of the PhilippinesMarine Wildlife Watch of the Philippines 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  2. 2. I. PHILIPPINE SHARKS 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  3. 3. 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod FISH OR MAMMAL?
  4. 4. Fishes Marine Mammals Difference between • Warm-blooded • Breathes through blowholes or nostrils • Swim by moving tail up and down • Live birth and nurtured with milk • Primarily cold-blooded • Breathes through gills • Swim by moving tail side by side • Primarily egg-laying 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod 4
  5. 5. Chondrichthyes Bony fishes Osteichthyes Difference between • Bony skeleton • Covered gills (operculum) • Scales • Teeth attach to bone • Has gas bladder • External fertilization (usually) • Cartilaginous skeleton • 5-7 slits of uncovered gills • Denticles instead of scales • Teeth attach to gum • No gas bladder • Internal fertilization (Male: claspers) 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod 5
  6. 6. Shark skin Fish scalesShark denticles 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod 6 Most elasmobranchs have rough, abrasive skin. Some may even have tiny spikes called denticles.
  7. 7. Sharks Batoid Fishes (skates & rays) Elasmobranchs • cylindrical in shape • 5 external gill openings • Pectoral fins never attached to head in front of gill openings • Mostly flattened • 5 ventrally-located external gill openings • Pectoral fins attached to the head in front of the gill openings 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod 7
  8. 8. Skeletal system Cartilage instead of skeleton.82 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  9. 9. Anatomy Males have a pair of claspers attached near the pelvic fins 92 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  10. 10. Diet Most sharks have sharp teeth for holding and cutting prey (fish, squid, octopus, marine mammals & birds). Filter feeders have teeth but they don’t use them for eating. They use gill rakers to filter zooplankton. 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod 10 Photo by JAT Utzurrum Photo by Steve de Neef
  11. 11. Ecology 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  12. 12. Ecology 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  13. 13. Philippine Sharks The Philippines is among the TOP 5 countries in the world with high shark diversity.diversity. 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod Download the PDF for free www.mwwphilippines.org
  14. 14. 70 Philippine Shark Species Sharks 50Batoids 70 In year 2000, 120 species were listed in the Checklist of Philippine Chondrichthyes 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod 14 Sharks 50Batoids
  15. 15. 94 Philippine Shark Species Sharks 66Batoids In year 2005, 160 species were listed in the Checklist of Philippine Chondrichthyes 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod 15 Sharks Batoids • 59% confirmed present • 41% unconfirmed, but with likelihood for occurrence based on distributional information • At least 23% are new records or still undescribed • 16% are possible endemic species or unique only to the Philippines
  16. 16. 200+ Philippine Shark Species Sharks Batoids 200+ 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod 16 Sharks Batoids
  17. 17. 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod 17 Photo from SU-IEMS Photo Catalogue. Use with permission.
  18. 18. Elasmobranchs are found throughout the Philippine Seas Places of interest: • Donsol, Sorsogon – Whale shark feeding aggregation Philippine Seas • Manta Bowl, Ticao Pass – Manta ray cleaning station • Cagayan de Oro – Highest concentration of Megamouth shark strandings • Malapascua Island, Cebu – Thresher shark cleaning station 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod 18
  19. 19. II. THRESHER FIN FACTS 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  20. 20. Thresher Sharks VULNERABLE 202 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  21. 21. Pelagic Thresher Shark Alopias pelagicus 212 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  22. 22. Big-eye Thresher Shark Alopias superciliosus 222 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod The big-eye thresher shark can be distinguished by its very large eyes and indented forehead
  23. 23. Common Thresher Shark Alopias vulpinus 232 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod The common thresher shark can be distinguished by their white mottled abdomen and relatively small eyes.
  24. 24. Thresher Shark Dive Encounter The Philippines is the only place in the world where you can dive with thresher sharks! 242 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod with thresher sharks!
  25. 25. Thresher Shark Dive Encounter 252 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  26. 26. Thresher Shark Dive Encounter Apart from Monad Shoal in Malapascua, SCUBA divers have also encountered thresher sharks around: • Apo Reef, Sablayan, Occidental Mindoro 262 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod • Apo Reef, Sablayan, Occidental Mindoro • Burias Pass • Tubbataha Reef • Moalboal, Cebu • Apo Island, Dauin, Negros Oriental
  27. 27. Monad Shoal: Cleaning station Pelagic thresher sharks regularly visit Monad Shoal to get cleaned of parasites by cleaner and moon wrasses. 272 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  28. 28. Monad Shoal: Pupping ground 282 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod Aside from being a cleaning station, Monad Shoal shows evidence of being a pupping ground as well.
  29. 29. Pescador Island: Feeding ground 29 Thresher sharks use their tails as whips, which effectively kills or stuns their prey. Unique Fins 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  30. 30. III. PROTECTING SHARKS 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  31. 31. Why protect sharks? 312 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod ENDANGERED
  32. 32. Threats Photo by JAT Utzurrum 322 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  33. 33. Life History Characteristics • Slow-growing • Long-lived • Low natural mortality 332 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod • Late sexual maturity • Low Fecundity = LOW REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL = LOW CAPACITY FOR POPULATION INCREASE
  34. 34. Shark Protection in the Philippines Domestic Policies I. Republic Act 8550, The Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998 a. Section 97. Fishing or Taking of Rare, Threatened or Endangered Species “It shall be unlawful to take rare, threatened or endangered species as listed in the CITES and as determined by the Department (DA-BFAR).” II. Republic Act 10654, An Act to Prevent, Deter andII. Republic Act 10654, An Act to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing a. Section 102. Fishing or Taking of Rare, Threatened or Endangered Species III. Fisheries Administrative Order No. 193, S. 1998 Ban on the taking, catching, selling, purchasing and possessing, transporting and exporting of Whale Sharks of Manta Rays (Manta birostris) 342 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  35. 35. Shark Protection in the Philippines Domestic Policies Relevant Laws and Policies • Fisheries Administrative Orders – FAO 193 (1998) Whale Sharks and Manta Ray – FAO 208 (2001) Rare, threatened and endangered species – FAO 233 (2010) Aquatic wildlife conservation– FAO 233 (2010) Aquatic wildlife conservation – FAO 233-1 (2011) Export, import and re-export of aquatic wildlife – FAO 233-2 (2012) Amended for fees • Tourism Local Ordinances – Donsol: Whale Shark Sanctuary and interaction guidelines – Oslob: Whale Shark tourism – Southern Leyte: Whale Shark tourism 352 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  36. 36. Shark Protection in the Philippines Domestic Policies IV. Local Ordinances a. City of Batangas • Ordinance No. 9 s. 2008 – “An Ordinance for the Protection of Threatened Marine and their Critical Habitats within the Jurisdiction of Batangas City ” • Marine species known to be present: whales, dolphins, thresher sharks, whale shark, marine turtles, some species of sea snake, humphead wrasse, mouse grouper, corals, mangroves, giant clams, chambered nautilus, and other shell species b. Province of Cebu • Cebu Provincial Board Ordinance No. 2014-15, penalizing the catching, possession, and trading of all shark and ray species in Cebu. 362 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  37. 37. Shark Protection in the Philippines Domestic Policies c. Municipality of Daanbantayan, Cebu • Executive Order 16-2015, designated Monad Shoal and Gato Island as a shark and ray sanctuary, prohibiting catching and trading of all shark and ray species • Rare species such as thresher sharks, whitetip sharks, manta rays and devil rays can be found in these areasdevil rays can be found in these areas d. Municipality of Panglao • Panglao Municipal Ordinance No. 02, Series of 2015 • Includes: thresher sharks, oceanic whitetip, hammerhead sharks, bamboo shark, blacktip shark, reef and giant manta rays, stingray Myliobatoidei, spotted eagle ray, ribbontail stingray 372 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  38. 38. Shark Protection in the Philippines Domestic Policies e. Palawan Province – Palawan Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD) • PCSD Resolution No. 15-521, s. 2015, which approves the updated list of threatened terrestrial and marine wildlife in Palawan and their categories, pursuant to RA 9147 or the Wildlife Act • Sharks and rays listed are sawfishes, hammerhead sharks, pelagic• Sharks and rays listed are sawfishes, hammerhead sharks, pelagic thresher shark, oceanic white tip, reticulate whip ray, porcupine ray, tawny nurse shark, bull0head shark, manta ray, reef manta ray, whale shark, bow mouth guitarfish, white-spotted guitarfish, smooth hammerhead and the leopard/zebra shark. 382 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  39. 39. Shark Protection in the Philippines International Policies I. Conservation of Migratory Sharks (CMS) The Philippines is a signatory to the CMS Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), which protects the following: – Shortfin Mako shark, Basking shark, Whale shark, Longfin Mako shark, Great White shark, Porbeagle shark and Spiny Dogfish II. Regional Fisheries Management OrganizationsII. Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs) RFMO - an international body made up of countries sharing a practical/financial interest in managing and conserving fish stocks in a particular region III. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) 392 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  40. 40. IV. CITES 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  41. 41. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora • An agreement between governments (known as Parties)• An agreement between governments (known as Parties) to ensure that wild fauna and flora in international trade are not exploited unsustainably • The Philippines signed the Agreement on 18 August 1981 and came into force on 18 November 1981 • Meets every 3 years to approve or disapprove proposals 412 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  42. 42. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora 422 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  43. 43. Shark Protection in the Philippines International Policies Species subject to CITES regulation are divided among three Appendices: • Appendix I Includes species threatened with extinction International commercial trade is generally prohibited • Appendix II• Appendix II Includes species not necessarily threatened with extinction, but trade must be controlled to avoid becoming threatened Includes species that resemble those included in Appendix I or II International trade is permitted but controlled • Appendix III Includes species for which a country is asking Parties to help with its protection International trade is permitted but controlled 432 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  44. 44. Shark Protection in the Philippines International Policies Shark and Ray species currently listed under CITES Species Appendix Philippines Whale Shark, Rhincodon typus II (2003) Yes Basking Shark, Cetorhinus maximus II (2003) Unconfirmed Great White Shark, Carcharodon carcharias II (2005) Yes 442 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod Great White Shark, Carcharodon carcharias II (2005) Yes Oceanic Whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus II (2013) Yes Scalloped Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna lewini II (2013) Yes Great Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna mokarran II (2013) Yes Smooth Hammerhead Shark, Sphyrna zygaena II (2013) Yes Porbeagle or Mackerel Shark, Lamna nasus II (2013) No All Sawfish species, Pristidae spp. I (2007/2013) 3 species Giant or Oceanic Manta, Manta birostris II (2013) Yes Reef Manta, Manta alfredi II (2013) Yes
  45. 45. Shark Protection in the Philippines International Policies 452 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  46. 46. V. #PHsayYES 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  47. 47. Treasured Thresher Sharks The presence of thresher sharks fuels the local dive and tourism industries in Daanbantayan, which accounts for 80% of the municipal economy. 472 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  48. 48. Treasured Thresher Sharks The presence of thresher sharks ensures the livelihood of locals in Daanbantayan and neighboring communities. 482 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  49. 49. Treasured Thresher Sharks Walay iho, walay piso. 492 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  50. 50. Treasured Sharks at Risk There is no national or international law that protects thresher sharks in the Philippines. 50
  51. 51. Treasured Sharks at Risk 512 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  52. 52. Treasured Sharks at Risk 522 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  53. 53. Thresher Shark Fisheries 53
  54. 54. Thresher Shark Fisheries 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  55. 55. CITES Appendix II Listing Sri Lanka, formerly one of the world’s leading thresher shark fishers, submitted a proposal to list all three species of thresher sharks in Appendix II.Appendix II. The listing will be voted on during the CITES 17th Conference of Parties (CoP) from 24 September to 5 October 2016. SCHEDULED FOR 29 SEPTEMBER. 552 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  56. 56. #PHsayYes 562 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod
  57. 57. #PHsayYES Appeal to the Philippine Delegation to the 17th CoP to vote YES to list all three species of thresher sharks 57
  58. 58. 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod 58
  59. 59. 2 September 2016 at BSpot Eton Cyberpod 59
  60. 60. #SaveThresherTala Part of the Shark Stanley Campaign by PEW Charitable Trust in 2013 for elasmobranch CITES listing 60
  61. 61. #SaveThresherTala 61
  62. 62. Municipal Resolution 62 The representatives of the people of Daanbantayan have spoken!#DBsaidYes in a unanimous vote to ask the Philippine Delegate o #CoP17at #CITES to #PHsayYES in order to #SaveThreaherTala and to#ProtectTheThreshers.
  63. 63. DRT Megamall 9-11 Sept 63
  64. 64. How you can help • Raise public awareness • Get government to support the cause • Get everyone to sign the petition 64 • Get everyone to sign the petition
  65. 65. Thresher Sharks help Malapascua Island recover after Typhoon Yolanda

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