History of people 148–149 How plants work 226–227 Changing states 80–81 World of history 150–151 Fungi 228–229 Amazing atoms 82–83 Early people 152–153 Micro life 230–231 Molecules 84–85 Ancient Egypt 154–155 Food chains 232–233 Reactions and 86–87 Ancient Greece changes 88–89 The Romans Ecosystems and habitats 234–235 What is energy? 90–91 The Vikings 156–157 Ecosystems 236–237 Electricity 92–93 Aztecs, Incas, and 158–159 Polar regions 238–239 Light Mayas 160–161 Deciduous forests 240–241 Sound 94–95 Knights and castles 162–163 Rainforests 242–243 Forces and motion 96–97 20th century 164–165 A sea of grass 244–245 Machines 166–167 Life in a meadowHuman body 168–169 At the water hole Planet Earth 98–99 Your amazing body 170–171 Desert regions 246–247 Our planet 100–101 What makes you 172–173 Life in thin air 248–249 Earth’s structure you? 174–175 Cool caves 250–251 Rocks and 102–103 Building blocks 176–177 The flowing current minerals 104–105 Organizing the 178–179 Still waters 252–253 Shaping the land body 180–181 Survival in the sea 254–255 Soil 106–107 Bones and muscles 256–257 Resources in the 108–109 Brain and senses Age of the dinosaurs ground 110–111 Breathing 182–183 Age of the 258–259 Fresh and salt 112–113 All about skin dinosaurs water 114–115 Body defences 184–185 What is a 260–261 The water cycle 116–117 Eating and dinosaur? 262–263 The atmosphere digestion 186–187 A hip question 264–265 Weather 118–119 Making a baby 188–189 Find a friend 266–267 The energy crisis 120–121 Amazing facts 190–191 Eggstraordinary about YOU! eggs The universe 192–193 Sauropods 268–269 What is space?The living world 194–195 Cretaceous cows 270–271 Where does space 122–123 The living world 196–197 Horns and frills begin? 124–125 What is an animal? 198–199 T. Rex 272–273 Our place in space 126–127 Types of animal 200–201 Big and bold 274–275 The Milky Way 128–129 The world of 202–203 Meet the raptors 276–277 Rockets mammals 204–205 Monsters of the 278–279 Moon journey 130–131 Marsupials deep 280–281 Men on the moon 132–133 Water mammals 206–207 How was it made? 282–283 Space shuttle 134–135 The world of birds 208–209 What happened? 284–285 Working in space 136–137 The world of 210–211 Living dinosaurs 286–287 Exploring Mars reptiles 288–289 The Sun 138–139 The world of Science and technology 290–291 A star is born amphibians 212–213 What is science? 292–293 The Big Bang 140–141 The world of 214–217 Advances in science insects 218–219 Being a scientist Reference section 142–143 The world of 220–221 Science and 294–297 Glossary non-insects everyday life 298–303 Index 144–145 The world of fish 222–223 All living things 304 Acknowledgements 146–147 What is a plant? 224–225 Properties of matter 3
IntroductionUsing this book The First Children’s Encyclopedia is divided into ten colour-coded chapters so you can see what you areIn these pages you can find a country looking for at a glance:and discover its major features, look at Our worldculture and history, and observe wildlife People and societyand ecosystems. You can also explore the History of peopleworld of science – from how technology Human bodyworks to what’s going on inside the The living world Ecosystems and habitatshuman body. Enjoy a thrilling journey! Age of the dinosaurs Science and technology What’s what on a page? Planet Earth The universe The pages have special features that show you how to get your hands The Curiosity quiz will get on as much information as possible! you searching through each section to find the pictures. Look out for these: The living world The living world Curiosity quiz The living world Insects such as Look through The living world pages and Our amazing world is filled with millions butterflies are invertebrates. see if you can identify Snake of species, or types, of living thing. They the pictures below. can be as big as an elephant or so Plants small you have to look through Plants cannot move Spider around like animals. To a microscope to see them. Dragonfly survive and grow, they Micro-organisms have to make their own Animals Micro-organisms are very food. In turn, plants The animal kingdom is tiny – they are made up of a single cell. provide food for many made up of vertebrates This amoeba is animals and fungi. (animals with a backbone) magnified more and invertebrates (animals than 100 times. Signs of life without a backbone). Living things share some characteristics. They all Mammals, birds, Sunflower need food and oxygen. They reptiles, amphibians, also grow, reproduce, and Coral reef and fish are vertebrates. adapt to their environment. Fungi Tree frog Fungi (like toadstools, mushrooms, and moulds) Deer are neither plants nor animals, but they’re more like plants than animals. Fungi Become an expert 126-127 Types of animals 148-149 How plants work 122 Invertebrates – they make up 97 per cent of all animal species. 123 Which group of animals has the most members? Become an expert tells you where to look for more information on related subjects.4 There is a question at the bottom of each page.
Using this book Text gives you information Hands on about a subject. Want to try Materials science Properties of matter something for yourself? of matter Properties Safety glass Compressibility Gases can be squashed, or Then look atthey are... Some materials are hardflexible. What a brittle, while others are There are many different and compressed, by squeezing more into the same “Hands on” tip. properties of matter. Some materials are colourful, while others are transparent. These kinds Boiling point is the hottest a liquid can get Brittleness space. This is what happens when you pump up a tyre. Foot pump before becoming a gas. of features are called “properties”. Some materials, such as glass, are Gas can be compressed very brittle and will break when because its particles are far Freezing point is the apart. A bicycle pump pushes temperature at which A cork floats on oil. pushed out of shape. Safety glass is the particles closer together. a liquid becomes a solid. Oil floats on water. designed to crack rather than break. Diamond is the hardest Gas particles Plasticity is how well Hardness mineral. Does it float? A scientist called Friedrich Mohs created a 9 a solid can be reshaped. Corundum It’s easy to learn about scale of ten minerals to compare how hard they some properties, such are. Many materials are graded on this scale.Hands on tells you Conductivity is how well a material lets electricity as the ability to float. The amount of matter 5 Apatite 10 Diamond 6 7 8how to get stuck in or heat travel through it. Malleability is how well in a certain volume of an object is called its 2 4 Fluorite Feldspar Quartz Topaz density. Objects and Gypsum 3and try an experiment a solid can be shaped without breaking. liquids float on liquids 1 Talc Calcite of a higher density andfor yourself. Tensile strength is how much a material can sink through liquids of a lower density. Softest mineral Photographs stretch without breaking. Flammability is how A plastic building brick sinks H a n ds o n show you easily and quickly a through oil but floats on water. Collect some substance will catch fire. Reflectivity is how well An onion sinks through oil and water, but floats on syrup. different pebbles and put them in order of information Syrup sinks below water.Buttons contain mini a material reflects light. Water reflects well. hardness. A pebble is harder than another if it scratches it. about a subject. This is how Mohs worked Transparency is howfacts: quick information well a material will let light pass through it. A good insulator Heat cannot easily pass out his scale.at your fingertips. Flexibility is how easily through some materials. These are known as A smooth flow Quick quiz a material can be bent. Some liquids flow more insulators. For example, easily than others. It depends Solubility is how well aerogel can completely block the heat of a flame. on their “stickiness”, or viscosity. questions are a substance will dissolve, But don’t try this at home! Hot lava from a volcano flows such as salt in water. slowly because it is sticky. at the bottom 224 Yes, a diamond is the hardest mineral of all. It will scratch quartz. 225 Is a diamond harder than quartz? of each page. The universe Men on the moon Here comes Earth Men on the moon Instead of the moon rising, the astronauts saw Earth rising over the How did they talk? There’s no air in space, so Colour coding On 20 July 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first moon’s horizon – it sound has nothing to travel identifies each through. Lunar astronauts person to walk on the surface of the moon. He was looked four times use radio equipment in joined by Buzz Aldrin. A third astronaut, bigger than the moon looks their helmets. chapter at d o r wha Mike Collins, remained in orbit with the ei r from Earth. a glance. W t? command and service modules. The lunar module computer on Apollo 11 had just 71K of memory. Some Neil calculators can Armstrong now store more than 500K. We have transport! The lunar What did they do? Three later Apollo missions This dish module was Armstrong and Aldrin each carried a small electric car, antennae nicknamed the Eagle. spent almost 22 hours a lunar rover, which allowed the allowed the astronauts to explore away from astronauts to on the moon. About send pictures 2.5 hours of this the lander. These were left on the to Earth. was spent outside moon when the astronauts left. the Eagle, collecting rock and soil samples, setting up experiments, and taking pictures. d or what One lunar rover reached a top What was it like? ir speed of 22 km/h Buzz Aldrin described (13.5 mph). We the moon’s surface Splashdown as like nothing on Earth. He said it consisted of a fine, talcum-powder-like The astronauts returned to Earth in the Apollo 11 command module. This fell through the atmosphere and landed in the ? dust, strewn with Pacific Ocean. A ringed float pebbles and rocks. helped to keep it stable. Want to know 280 281 Why is there no blue sky on the moon? Because the moon has no atmosphere. something surprising? Every page is Then look at a “Weird or colour coded to what?” tip. show you which Weird or what? are chapter it’s in. packed with extra weird or wonderful facts. Check here for the answer. 5
Our worldOur worldLand covers a third ofplanet Earth, and waterand ice cover the rest.We divide the land into Northseven main chunks called Americacontinents. The sea isdivided into five major Atlanticareas called oceans. Pacific Ocean Ocean Inside the Earth South The core of the Earth is made America of metal – solid in the middle and molten all around it. We live on a thin, solid crust, a bit like the crust of a pie. Where people live This picture of Earth at night was taken by a satellite in space. The bright bits are made by lights on the surface. They show where the world’s big cities and towns are.6 How long would a trip around the Equator take at walking speed?
Arctic Ocean Our world Europe Asia Pacific Africa Ocean Equator The Equator is an imaginary line Indian around the middle of the world. Ocean Australia n hern Ocea runs all the utThe So wa y around Antar ctica . Southern Ocean Can you find... The smallest continent? The continent of Australia is Antarctica also the world’s biggest island.Seven continents The most crowded continent? About 3,500North America, South America, Europe, million people live in Asia.Asia, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica are The biggest ocean? TheEarth’s continents. Sometimes people call Pacific Ocean is as big as allEurope and Asia one continent (Eurasia). other oceans put together. About a year (without stopping for a rest). 7
The ArcticThe Arctic An imaginary line called the Arctic Circle marks the outer edge of theAt the top of the world is the North Arctic region. SA) a (UPole, and around this is an area sk la Prudhoe Bay Acalled the Arctic. The Arctic is mostly a Seocean. In its centre is a gigantic lump o rt ufof floating ice that never completely a Bemelts. Further out are the northerntips of the continents and the hugeisland of Greenland. MooseArctic people Queen Arctic tern Elizabeth CanadaArctic people live in the icy lands Islandsaround the Arctic Ocean. Theweather is too cold for growingcrops, so Arctic people get all their Ellesme re Isla ndfood from animals. They surviveby fishing, herding reindeer, and Ptarmigan Qaanaaqhunting seals and whales. G ee r Polar bear nl an d8 Who was the first person to reach the North Pole?
The Arctic The Arctic tern catches small fish and shrimps by swooping across the surface of the sea.Chukchi Sea Walrus R us Seal A rc Pole to pole si ti The Arctic tern spends an Arctic c most of its life flying. Laptev Ci It breeds in the Arctic Fed Ocean Sea during the northern rcl summer. Then it flies erat e all the way to the Antarctic, where it stays during the ion southern summer. Arctic wolf Noril’sk The North Pole Kara Keeping warm Sea Arctic animals Franz have to endure Josef bitterly cold Novay Land weather. Walruses Musk ox have a layer of a Ze blubber (fat) to keep ml them warm. Polar y Svalbard a Reindeer bears and reindeer have thick coats of fur. an d Sea Barents re enl Iceberg Sea G Killer whale Murmansk Tromsø Norwegian Sea An American called Robert Peary, in 1909. 9
The Americas Canada and Alaska Ellesmere Canada is the second-largest country in the Island world, and Alaska is the largest of all the US states. Despite their huge size, both places have small populations because much of the land Queen Elizabeth is covered in thick forest Islands Caribou or frozen for most Oil drilling Banks Island of the year. it ra Prudhoe Bay Victoria Island t in gS Huskies Ber pulling sled a Se Musk ox g Alaska (USA) Great BearBerin Mount McKinley Ma Lake (Denali) cke 6,194m (20,320ft) Yukon nzie C Anchorage Territory Northwest Territories Mo Yellowknife Walrus un Valdez Whitehorse t ain Moose s Fur seal Mountie Juneau (policeman) British Columbia Grizzly Saskatc Salmon bear Ro ck The Trans-Alaskan Pipeline hewan y M Alberta Totem pole ou Pa The USA’s largest oil-drilling area is nt in Alaska. A huge overground pipeline, ai Edmonton ns cif 1,287 km (800 miles) long, carries the oil Timber Regina ic O from Prudhoe Bay to the port of Valdez. Vancouver Vancouver Island Calgary cean Victoria Canadian Calgary skyline U S A10 What is the tallest mountain in North America, at 6,194 m (20,320 ft) high?
Canada and Alaska N Industries E Here are some of the main industries in the region. Timber from trees is used W as building material or for S making furniture. Oil is used to make fuels Hooded seal like petrol, and chemicals such as plastics. Baf Wheat is grown in the centre fin Isla of Canada on prairies, which nd are huge, flat fields. Metals such as zinc, Right whales aluminium, gold, and silver Iqaluit (whale watching is are mined in Canada. a popular activity) Inuit Canada goose childrenNunavut Black bear Newfoundland a n a d a and Labrador Newfoundland dog Huds St. John’s on Ba Beluga whale and calf y Mining Gannet Prince Québec Edward Island an New Charlottetown Brunswick Nova Scotia Halifax c e Maple leaf Québec Fredericton O tic Beaver Montreal Manitoba an Ontario Snowboarding CN Tower, OTTAWA Lake Toronto Atl Winnipeg S uperior Lake HuronToronto Lake Ontario Michigan Lake Niagara Fallsprairies Erie ke La Harbour porpoises Mount McKinley (Denali). 11
The AmericasUnited States of AmericaThe United States Technology industryof America is an Seattleenormous country Olympia Grizzly bearmade up of 50 states. olu Washington (brown bear) C mb Bison MissouriThere are mountains, Salem River ia Helena Montanadeserts, forests, Mount Rushmore Roc National Memorialwetlands, and Oregon ky Boise Skiing in thevast plains in Idaho M Rockies outhe USA. Golden Gate Gre n t a i Wyoming Bridge ns at Salt Lak Carson City Cheyenne Pacific O e Mountain lion Salt Lake City Wheat harvesting Nevada Ca San Francisco Utah Denver lif Colorado or ni a ce an Hollywood Hills do Ri ver Monument Valley Los Angeles Santa Fe Death Valley National Monument Arizona New Mexico Road runner C o l o raHawaii One of the USA’s 50 states Sonoran is a group of eight volcanic Phoenix islands in the Pacific Ocean. Kauai This state is called Hawaii. DesertNiihau Honolulu Socorro space telescope Oahu Molokai Gila monster Lanai Maui N Ri o Gr an Hawaii de W Mount Kilauea, on the main island of Hawaii, is the world’s E most active volcano. S M e x i c o12 Which is the only US state not shown on this map?
United States of America This map shows 48 of the 50 states C a n a d a of the USA. The other two states are thousands of kilometres away. Alaska is northwest of Canada, and Hawaii is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Blueberries Superior Augusta La ke Maine Verm New pshire Ham Bismarck La North Minnesota on t keRiv Dakota tario er H Wisconsin On Lake ichigan Boston uro e Massachusetts k n Rhode La Pierre M New York Island Connecticut South Dairy farming Michigan ie Statue of Liberty Er Great Dakota Detroit New York ke Pennsylvania Iowa La Harrisburg New Jersey Chicago Ohio Nebraska Indiana Delaware Maryland Lincoln WASHINGTON DC Raccoon Sears Tower, Chicago West s American football Virginia ain Illinois io Riv er Virginia an Topeka The Capitol building, Oh Missouri St. Louis nt Washington, DC e ou ck y Kansas American Kentu c M Raleigh O bald eagle Plains an e ssee North Carolina tic Tenn hi ac South Atlan al Oklahoma Arkansas pp Carolina r i Rive ipp City Country music A Mississ “Tornado Alley” Little Rock Mississippi Atlanta Oklahoma Alabama Georgia Dallas Montgomery Kennedy Space Center Paddle steamer Oil wells Tallahassee Texas Louisiana Baton Rouge Florida New Orleans The Evergla Jazz music de s Dolphin- watching Cowboy Miami xico f Me lf o American alligator Gu Alaska (see page 10-11). 13