Make it! Here’s what’s in the book...From trash to treasure 6-7 Plastic party 36-37The 3 “Rs” to recycling 8-9 Plastic wrappers 38-39PAPER 10-27 METAL 40-49Magic folds 12-13 Mysterious metal 42-43Scrap paper pots 14-15 Metal mix-up 44-45How to make scrap pots 16-17 Mirror mobiles 46-47Junk mail mâché 18-19 Metal models 48-49How to make mâché 20-21 FABRIC 50-63Junk mail jewels 22-23 Making friends 52-53Paper weaving 24-25 Hold onto your hats! 54-55Paper portraits 26-27 Rag mats 56-57PLASTIC 28-39 Pocket purses 58-59Rainbow frame 30-31 How to make a glam bag 60-61Bottle bank 32-33 Comfy cushions 62-63Bottle top art 34-35 Index 63
From Trash... Looking for materials? These come FREE to you every day—so don’t dump valuable stuff. Use it to make something new—RECYCLE IT, and help the planet, too!Throw away?NO WAY!Did you know? Don’t throw me Most of our away. I’m plastic garbage gets so I’ll last a buried in the lifetime! ground... STARVE Don’t fork out for new materials—you ...or burned. YOUR get me for FREE! USE ME AGAIN and GARBAGE again and again... CAN All this stuff Recycle! costs money to If all this make and costs the Earth, too. trash gets buried, it really will be “buried It’s crazy! treasure.” Don’t bury garbage. It doesn’t go away!6
...to TREASURE Make something NEW So DON’T TRASH it—treasure it! 7
Recycle The 3 “Rs” to recycling It’s not all garbage—about half the stuff we throw in the trash can be recycled. Remember the three “Rs” and help to keep garbage out of landfill sites and incinerators. Why should you do the 3 “Rs”? Watch how much garbage your family throws out each week—it Reduce Means finding ways to cut down on will surprise you. All that garbage garbage. Don’t accept plastic bags has to go somewhere and that from stores—take your own bag. somewhere is an incinerator where it is burned, or a landfill site where it is buried. A lot of what we put in landfill sites, such as plastic, will remain there for hundreds of Close the years. There is a famous landfill in circle Reuse New York City called Fresh Kills Try to buy more that is now so big, it has become products made the largest man-made structure from recycled Recycle in the world. Means finding material to help to ways to use close the circle. things again and What if you don’t? Means taking again and again If we continue to throw away as something old without throwing much garbage as we do now, landfill and turning it into them away. sites will get bigger and bigger, and something new. burning garbage causes air pollution and toxic ashes. We all need clean air and water to survive, and if we don’t reduce, reuse, and recycle, we will damage our world. Help our planet be a healthy place to live, not just for people, but for animals and plants ! Askout, you may need some Watch an ADULT as well. help along the way in this book. YOU can help • Buy items with little or no • Use both sides of a sheet packaging. This will reduce of paper before recycling it. your garbage. Here are ideas • Get the family involved— for things you • Refill your water bottles recycling only works if can do to help. and keep reusing them. everyone joins in. • Buy, sell, or donate your • Find out about recycling things. Don’t throw them in your area, then use your away—help a charity. local recycling center.
Sort Paper your Newspapers Wrapping paper stuff Magazines Envelopes Comics Cardboard boxesIn this book the Cartonsmaterials are divided Plasticinto four sections—paper, plastic, metal, and fabric. Drink bottles StrawsKnow your stuff Bottle tops Carrier bagsTo help you understand Toyswhy it’s important torecycle materials, ithelps to know somefacts about them.Look for the “Knowyour stuff” circles thatappear in this book. Metal Foil wrap KNOW Foil food trays YOUR STUFF Food cans Facts about a Paper clips material. They Safety pins appear throughout Soft-drink cans the book. Paper fasteners WireStart recycling• Use different containersfor each material. Fabric• Some packaging is T-shirtsmade of more than one Cotton skirtsmaterial, so make sure Denim jeans Woolen socks and glovesyou separate materials Nylon tightsbefore you recycle. Ribbon• Before you tossanything, make sureyou can’t reuse it first.
Try recycling your paper to make these scrap pots. Paper—the best invention in the world! We paint on it, we read and write on it, we can fold it into shapes, we can wrap presents in it, and much, much more.10
PaperImagine our world What iswithout paper—that paper madewould mean no letters, from? Most of the paper we use isno cardboard packaging, made from trees. Billions ofno newspapers, no wrapping pine trees are cut down every year to makepaper, and no toilet paper! our paper. When waspaper invented?Paper has been around for thousands of years. Theancient Egyptians made it How is from the papyrus plant. paper made? That’s where we got the word paper. The trees are chopped up into little pieces called chips. They are then made into a mushy pulp and a lot of chemicals and water are added. The pulp Paper is then rolled flat into paper. gets thrown awaymore than any other material. Think about how many newspapers are made every day that end up as trash. Paper uses Recycled We use paper all the time. paper Count how many times you come Recycled paper contains fewer across paper in one day. You’ll be Look for chemicals and bleaches than brand-new surprised by how much there is out the symbol paper, and it saves trees, too. A piece of there. Now imagine how many trees Try to buy recycled paper can’t be recycled forever, have been cut down to make it. paper—look for this however, because the fibers will symbol; you’ll find it start to break down. High-grade on anything from cartons paper can be remade into newspapers and stationery to and magazines and these can go toilet-paper rolls. on to become egg cartons. 11
Paper Magic folds How can you turn a flat, flimsy piece of paper into a strong box? Can you make paper fly? Try your hand at some paper-folding magic. Try different paper sizes for big or Try out small boxes. newspaper, comics, and colored paper. This paper is amazing stuff. KNOW YOUR STUFF Newspaper can be recycled up to seven times—so don’t toss it! 12
Perform some PAPER magic Watch paper fly! Fold and hold—just a few folds and tucks and a flat Paper plane—a few simplepiece of paper becomes a sturdy box. That’s paper magic! folds and it flies!Fold a Take arectangle rectangle ofof paper paper andin half, fold it inand half half.again fourtimes, tomake 16squares. Pinch eachThen corner fromunfold it. top to bottom to help form the shape Turn down of the box. one corner, as shown.Bring thetop andbottomflaps Fold theinto the samecenter. Cut a thick corner strip of down paper for again.Fold a handle.each Now foldcorner the topdown part downtwo-thirds to maketo the a wing.center. Now make the other wingFold up Staple thethe two handle toflaps so the each side.corners are Try using patterned paper ortucked in. paint a piece yourself. Repeat the folds on the other half of the paper.Hold thecenter of thetwo sides andpull themapart. Open out the wings turn the plane over, and whizz it across the room! 13
Paper Pumpkin pot Scrap paper pots Paper is everywhere. Just think about how much is thrown away each day. Why Look for scraps of the same not turn your scraps into color for a solid look. funky paper pots. Tree frog pot Magazine scraps make colorful pots. The frog pot is made of lots of pictures of trees from magazines. KNOW YOUR STUFF Recycled magazines and comics can be molded into paper products like egg cartons. 14
The insidesof envelopesmake up this scrap pot. Envelope pot Candy wrappers give this pot a shiny look. Tissue pot Candy pot ComicTorn tissue paper pot gives a great ragged effect. Tear up favorite comic strips for a cartoon pot. 15
Paper Make a newspaper pot Homemade paste Use your homemade paste. You will also need This simple homemade paste works petroleum jelly, a plastic bowl, and lots of old torn-up really well with your paper projects, newspaper. For your pot and lid, make two bowls and the good news is it’s completely which you can decorate when they are dry. eco-friendly. Your projects can be recycled afterward because the ingredients are natural. This paste works best when it’s Grease a bowl with Petroleum Tear up lots and lots of petroleum jelly to jelly newspaper strips, about fresh so make a new batch for each project. stop the paper from 1 x 2 in (2 x 4 cm). You will need: sticking to it. + 1. 2. 1 cup 3 cups flour water ! to help heat up the saucepan. Ask an ADULT Put one cup of1. water and one Place a layer of paper directly onto Brush on a cup of flour into the greased bowl. layer of paste. a saucepan. 3. 4. Stir with a wooden spoon until the mixture is smooth.2. Add the rest of the water Add another Keep adding the paste and paper and bring the layer of paper. until you have about six layers. mixture to the boil, stirring Keep stirring! all the time. Then turn off 5. 6. the heat.3. ! Pour into a bowl and allow to cool. Homemade paste NOW IT’S READY TO Leave the bowl to Remove the bowl and USE! dry out completely. trim off the rough edge.
Decorate your scrap pots When your two bowls are dry, start decorating. One bowl will be the base and the other will be the lid. Use the homemade Paste the paste to stick on any outside and inside. colorful strips of paper. Experiment with different types of paper. Tear up pieces of colored paper and cover your pot with them. Tear out circles to make a frog face. Paste them ! Ask anyou make to help ADULT in place. a slit in the lid. Make a handle To add a handle, ask an adult to make a slit in the lid. Cut out a strip of thickMake a paper, about 3 x 1 intissue bowl (7 x 2 cm), and fold it inMake a tissue bowl the same the middle. Push it throughway as the newspaper bowl— the lid and tape it in placejust use tissue paper instead. on the inside. Leave to dry completely before removing the bowl. Tear up pieces of Grease Add a layer of tissue paper, then using 17 tissue paper. the bowl. the paste, build up about 10–12 layers.
Paper Envelopes Junk mail Fliers mâché Brown paper Paper is delivered to your door every day—for free! Don’t just chuck it, save it up and make some junk mail mâché. Gift wrap Advertisements Free Magazines Magazines Little bits of junk mail KNOW YOUR STUFF If you don’t use your junk mail, make sure you recycle it. 18
Envelopes Think before you throw away envelopes. Greeting cards come in all kinds of colored ones. Junk mail Sort through Paperyour junk mail boy and keep the bright pieces. Remember to recycle the rest! Pots as = presents Color pots Sort your scraps into colors and you can make single color pots. 19
Paper How to make junk mail mâché Tearing and mulching The great thing about junk mail mâché is that it gets really messy! So roll up your sleeves and dive in. Start by tearing lots of paper into tiny pieces. You can sort them into colors or mix them up. 1. 2. Fill a plastic bowl with your paper pieces. ! Ask an ADULT Make sure the hot Pour in hot water. to help with the hot water. water covers the paper. 3. 4. Leave the paper for three hours. Then drain away the water through a strainer. Spoon some eco paste (see page 16) into your mixture, then mix it with your 20 Squeeze the paper as dry as you can. hands until it’s a gluey mulch. Tear up the paper some more as you work.
How to make mâché bowls Now it’s time to spread the mulch around a plastic bowl. Do it bit by bit instead of putting the whole bunch in at once. Rub some petroleum jelly all over the inside of a plastic bowl. This will stop the mulch from sticking. 1.2.Press yourmulch hardto the insideof the bowl.3.Don’t worry ifyou leave holeshere and there;this adds to thecharacter! 4. Leave it to dry overnight or until it is really hard and dry. Use a knife to loosen carefully around the edge of the bowl. 5. Lift it out and fill it up with goodies! 21
Paper Junk mail jewels Your junk mail mâché can also Cookie be made into fantastic jewels. cutters Cookie-cutter shapes Place a cookie cutter on a piece of plastic to keep it from sticking. Take a small amount of damp mâché and press it into the cutter. Push the shape out onto a sheet of paper towel. Then make a hole for some string, and leave to dry. Press the mâché firmly inside the cookie shape. Make the hole with a toothpick. Push out Paper onto the towel paper. Piece of plastic 22
Thread the beads or the cookie- cutter shapes onto a piece of string.1. Paper jewels 2. Paper towel Paper scrolls Tear or cut a piece of paper into a long triangle. Wrap it around a pencil and stick it in place with glue. Try all differentPaper beads 3. kinds of paper.Squeeze somepaper mâché 1. 2. Glue the end 3. Rollaround a knitting of the paper. paper tightly.needle and squeezeit into a ball shape.Leave the beads to Glue stickdry then slide themoff the needle.Grease the needlewith petroleumjelly—it keeps thebeads from sticking. The paper triangles should be about 3 in (7 cm) long. 23
Paper Paper weaving Under, over, under, over. Don’t throw paper away, turn it into art. Weave pictures and turn them into cards or stick them on the wall.1. Take an envelope and cut along the short sides and one long side. Cut off the flap too.2. Now when you open it out you should have a large sheet of paper, like this. Cut wiggly lines up the sheet for a wavy look.3. KNOW YOUR STUFF In a landfill site, a ton of paper fills the space that’s about the size of a car—so recycle! Fold the paper in half again and draw evenly spaced lines 5. Under, over, under, over, down the sheet. Open the until you get to the end. sheet out. Remember to start the next strip in the opposite way— over, under, over, under. 4. Cut the strips from the folded edge but STOP before you get to the top. Cut lots of strips of paper to fit 24 across the width of the sheet.
Under, over, under, over, weave, weave, weave Picture weave Try using a picture from a magazine as your backing sheet, then weave plain strips along it.Weave artExperiment withyour weaving byusing pictures orpatterns as well asplain paper. Use anypaper you can find. Turn your weaves into colorful cards.Try patterned stripsand a plain background. This weave uses the inside of envelopes. 25
Paper Use the piece of cardboard you cutPaper 1. out of the box as your picture. portraits Tear strips of blue paper as Picture in a box a sea background and glue them on. It doesn’t have to Turn old pictures into new ones— Glue look neat. Try different shades of blue for a stormy effect. stick then frame them in a box. 2. Glue scraps roughly for a 3-D effect. KNOW YOUR STUFF Recycling a 3 ft (1 m) stack of flattened boxes can save one tree. Box frames Stop your family from throwing away old food boxes. Now cut or tear pieces of paper— keeping the shape of some objects but tearing others roughly to create a textured edge. You will Attach a few shapes using a need: card strip so they stand away from the picture and looks 3-D. • A cereal box • Lots of pictures, postcards, junk 3. mail, and colorful patterns from old magazines. Draw a line around the edge of the front of the When you have glued your box leaving a picture, you may want to make a border around the edge with Slip your picture inside your 1 in (2 cm) rim. extra pieces of torn paper. box and glue it to the back. Then cut it out. 26
Take a closer look— can you tell what the pictures used to be? Corn fieldBluetowel Rubber glovesChocolatehair GrassCarpetfaceCarbonnet NumbershirtLetters Red towel Coffee beans Pizza Apples Let the tissue paper flap 27 over for a wavy plant look.
Reuse your plastic odds and ends and have yourself a plastic party! Plastic—it’s fantastic! It can be shiny, smooth, rough, tough, hard, or soft. It can be any color, AND it can be molded into any shape.28
PlasticImagine our world withoutplastic—there would be no What is plastic made from?plastic toys, plastic packaging, or Like paper, plastic comes from trees. Some smartplastic telephones. Plastic is easy scientists got a substanceto make BUT it’s not so easy to called cellulose out of wood pulp and thatget rid of. made plastic. When was it invented? In 1862 a British chemist called Alexander Parkes wasexperimenting with cellulose. He heated it, molded it, Plastic and found that when it cooled, it kept its shape. today Plastic was born. After pulping wood to get plastic, chemists started creating it in laboratories. They use chemicals to make plastics such as polyethylene Plastic and polystyrene. problem DID YOU KNOW?If you lined up all the foam plastic cups made in a day, they would reach around the Earth. Recycling Plastic uses Take a look around your plastic bedroom—you can PETE 1 probably spot at least PETE 1 plastic, which is found Look for in most drink bottles, can be 10 pieces of plastic. Perhaps you have the symbols recycled easily. It can be turned into a CD player— Most plastic items you buy clothing, stuffing for sleeping bags, and what about have a symbol on them. stuffed toys, rulers, and lots, lots more. all your pens The PETE 1 symbol is the So make sure you recycle all your and toy one to watch for. water and soft-drink bottles. animals? 29
Plastic Rainbow frame Plastic comes in so many great colors—so gather all those tiny plastic bits and pieces and make one of these fantastic plastic frames. Now they look as pretty as a picture. KNOW YOUR STUFF Don’t bury your plastic—it’ll be there for hundreds of years. 30
1. Tidy up your toys Sort your plastic odds and ends into rainbow colors. Things look neat already!2. 3. Make a frame Cover it with all your plastic. Use cardboard from an old box. Glue the pieces in their !to help cut out a color groups. Ask an ADULT frame shape. Glue the pieces 31
Plastic Refill KNOW Refill YOUR STUFF Refill Recycle your bottles— 12 of them can be Crazy ice turned into a new Cut the bottoms off plastic fleece top. bottles, fill them with water, and freeze. For picnics refill bottles with your own homemade drinks. Color the water with food coloring. Set up 10 bottles and knock them down. Bowling Bottle game A ball of screwed-up bank paper will Plastic bottles work too. will last for hundreds of years, so it’s crazy to Mini plant only use them once. cover Here are some ways to reuse them. Make the most of me! Half a plastic bottle placed ! Ask an ADULT to help you cut over your seedlings will the bottles. keep them warm and Plastic can be tough. help them grow. 32
Put a length Bird of string through the feeder Try any plastic Toy Cut a hole in bottle neck pieces you can boat and tie the find to decorate the side end to the lid. your boat. of the bottle. Make sure you keep the lids on the bottles so they will float. Put seed in the bottom of your bird feeder and hang it up for Pull the the birds to string so the snack on. lid sits in the neck. Use a plastic foam tray as the base. Tie the bottles to it. Sun catcher Hang your bottle in ...cut the the sun and watch bottom off it sparkle. a bottle, cut To make strips up its a fancy length, and edge... roll them up. Rain catcher Cut a bottle in half, turn the top upside down, and place it back in the Use a bottle bottom half. Now sit bottom as a it outdoors to catch pencil holder the rain.Handy or even a flower vase.holder Cut strips down the bottle and roll each one. 33
Plastic Bottle top art Lots of bottles means lots of lids. You’ll be amazed 1. how they pile up. Use a plastic foam sheet, like a pizza base or foam packaging. 2. Use strong glue to stick Start the tops to from the the base. center. Keep adding to your 3. pattern. Bottle top patterns Careful—I Collect lots of pretty could lose colored lids and make my head! patterns with them. You can hang them on a wall or even use them as place mats or 34 colorful coasters.
Try different designs KNOW YOUR STUFF TOPS OFF when you recycle your plastic bottles. The tops are made of a different plastic, which isn’t as easy to recycle. Bottle-top badges Collect up your bottle tops and fill them with Adhesive lots of tiny plastic labels beads, buttons, and toys. Make sure you Safety pins clean the lids. 1. 2. 3. Attach a safety pin to the back of the badge using an adhesive label. Use strong glue to keep Try matching everything the colors so in place.each badge has a theme. 35
Plastic KNOW YOUR STUFF Don’t drop litter! If you throw your garbage in the street you could be harming wildlife.Tie and hangTie each end ofthe streamerssecurely so they Who knewdon’t come undone, plastic could bethen hang them up. so much fun! Plastic party Bottle banners and pen-top streamers brighten up any party. And you don’t have to buy decorations at all— just reuse and recycle! What to use Next time you are at a party, gather up the used party popper bottles—they’re great for streamers. Keep an eye out for pen and 36 bottle lids, clothes pins, and straws, too.
Bottle fan 1. Cut the bottom off a bottle. 2. Cut strips up toward the top. 3. Fan out the strips. Pen lids Thread your fan onto some string then a 4. lid on top. Clothes 5. pins Used party poppers ! Ask an ADULT to help you cut the Bottle lids plastic and make holes if necessary. Straw streamers Thread a straw between each plastic object to spread them out. Cut the straws if you String streamers want smaller gaps.1. Tie a knot in the end of a 2. Thread it with piece of string. plastic things. Plastic string Use a needle and thread instead of string if the holes are small. 37
Plastic Plastic wrappers Decide how big you want your cushion to be and cut a rectangle Brighten up your room. Turn double that size out of bubble wrap. plastic wrappers into a colorful cushion or shiny screen. Fold the bubble wrap in half and tape up two of the open sides with adhesive tape. Stuff the bubble wrap Bubble-wrap cushions are easy to make, but the real art is in the stuffing. Bubble wrap is see-through, so make sure you stuff it with lots of colorful plastic odds and ends. When you have finished stuffing, tape up the open side. This will make you comfortable. KNOW YOUR STUFF Candy wrappers and potato chip bags make up a huge proportion of what you throw away.
How to makea candy-wrap screenTake a length of nettingmaterial and cut a pole tohang it from. Fold the topof the net over the pole andglue it down. Collect lots ofplastic candy wrappers andbuttons and start decorating. Cut the pole long enough to poke out on each side of the net. Use glue to stick the netting down and to attach the decorations. Cellophane candy wrappers Nylon netting material You can use an old net curtain Plastic buttons for the screen, or the type of netting on a ballet tutu. 39
Wow, metal’s amazing! It’s in everything from paper clips to spaceships. Metal—is magical! It can be shiny and cold, strong, wiry, smooth, or sharp. It’s magnetic, can carry electricity, and it’s valuable stuff, too.40
MetalImagine our world withoutmetal—We wouldn’t have COPPER TIN What is GOLDany money, jewelry, skyscraper metal? ALUMINUM All metal comes from SILVERbuildings, and we would have rocks in the ground. Rock is broken upa very difficult time cooking NICKEL IRON and heated to get the metal out. STEELwithout any metal. When wasmetal discovered?As far back as 11,000 years ago How isearly people were making tools and jewelry out of metal. foil made? The foil wrap we use Today, we make things like in cooking is made of watches, wire, and ALUMINUM, which comes even spaceships! from a rock called bauxite. To turn it into foil a block of aluminum is squashed through rollers again and again until it’s a long flat sheet. Who invented the CAN? A Frenchman, NicholasAppert, invented the STEEL can in 1810 to preserve food for Napoleon’s army. Test your metal Metal uses Hold a magnet near some cans, So many things around you are you’ll find some will stick; these are made from metal or have metal in made of STEEL. STEEL cans are 100% them. Look around your kitchen—ovens, Recycle metal recyclable. Most soft-drink cans are saucepans, cutlery are all made of metal. made of ALUMINUM, which can be Every time you recycle That’s because it is strong recycled and made into and easy to clean. metal you are saving the just about anything, from Earth from being dug up. cars to brand-new cans, Rock that contains metal SO RECYCLE! can’t grow back. Once it’s dug up, that’s it! 41
Metal Mysterious metal Test your metal Find out which metals are magnetic by touching a magnet onto various objects—if it sticks, they’re magnetic. Fishing game Cut fish shapes out of paper and fasten a Moving metal— paper clip or paper fastener onto them. Tie a Metals are attracted to magnets— magnet onto a piece of string, tie the string to a KNOW that’s the magic of metal—so dig pencil, then race your friends to pick up the fish. YOUR STUFF out those magnets. Here’s how to STEEL is 100% recyclable and keeps its make metal work for you. quality, so make sure it gets recycled. Can do! Tin cans are great to reuse as storage, and because they are metal, you can decorate them with magnets. You can even spell out what is in them with letter magnets. ! cut the top off the can. to Ask an ADULT Make sure they clean it and check it for sharp edges. Homemade fridge magnets Glue a magnet to Cover a Magnets lid with the top of a jar or foil. bottle lid, then glue a small toy to the other side. Stick Reuse lids from jars. Strong them on the fridge glue or your storage cans. Small toys
Make a moving picture 1. Crazy Cat —make him dance! Make a base by cutting out a piece Paper clip Decorate the whiskers of thin background. cardboard— try using the back of a cereal box. To make the picture2. work, hold a magnet toCut out cat Paper the back of the cardboardshapes from fastener and move it around. Thisthin cardboard. will attract the metal on your picture and the character will jump around.Cut outseparatehandsand feet.3. Paper fastener 4.Take a paper fastener and push itthrough the face to make the cat’snose. Then push it through the body. Hold the magnet Magnet at the back of the cardboard BACK OF PICTURE and gently move it around. I’m not magnetic Attach the cat to the because I’m cardboard by pressing plastic. the paper fastener Now make four chains of four paper clips through the back each. Attach these to the cat’s hands and of the cardboard. feet and then to its body. 43
Metal Metal Mix-up Shiny shapes. Washers Collect lots of shiny metal and eyelets objects and let them hang, swing, and dangle. Watch the metal Coiled wire from glisten and a notebook sparkle. Key A chain of safety pins Foil dish Foil candy wrapper 44
Food bag ties have metal inside. Chains Old keys Paper clips Hang tough To make your metal dangle, take a wire coathanger and pull it into a diamond shape. Wind Pull it into a pieces of wire around the diamond shape hanger—this makes a frame to hang all your metal objects on. Attach some things onto Wire coat the wire and hang hanger others on chains of paper clips and safety pins. Paper Use baggie fastener ties to fasten things in place Wind pieces of wire around the coat hanger. Safety pins Metal Tie things to fork the frame Use a paper clip as a hook Small strainer Any metal will work; see what you KNOW can find at home YOUR STUFFIt takes 80 to 100 years for a tin can to break down and disappear Cookie Foil in a landfill. cutter dishes Wire from a notebook 45
Metal Make a Mobile Reuse clean foil dishes and decorate them with candy wrappers and other shiny metal things. Attach paper clips and chains to hang them up. Glue foil candy wrappers to the foil dishes. Strong glue All these trays are made of ALUMINUM. KNOW YOUR STUFF Scrunch a candy wrapper into a ball. If it’s made of metal foil, it will stay in a ball. 46
Link paper clipsMirror together to make a chain.mobilesReflect the light with these simple mobiles. Hang them in a sunny window to shimmer and shine. Glue different- sized dishes together. Link dishes together with a paper clip. 47
Pipe cleaners are Metal made of metal too!Metal models Space age. Build metal robots, rockets, and aliens and create a shiny, lunar landscape. Foil dish hat 4. Foil tube Glue head them together. Make a model Foil food trays are a good start for the robot body. Cut down cardboard tubes for the legs and head, and wrap them in aluminum foil. Then use odds and ends for your metal man’s features. 1. Use strong glue to Toilet or paper-towel attach his roll tubes can be face and Pipe covered in foil. buttons. cleaner arms. Wrap them up tightly. 2. 3. Tape the Tape the arms on to tube legs the tray. to the tray. 48 48
Space rocket Tape a foil dish to the base. You can make a metal cone with shiny cardboard or Wrap a soft- by wrapping plain drink can in foil. cardboard in foil.Lunar landscapeLay down lots of foil candywrappers to make a colorfullunar surface. Then buildyour own metal robots. Dothey look like the ones onthis page? Metal washers KNOWPipe cleaners YOUR STUFFcan be bent Recycling oneinto all sorts aluminum can savesof shapes. enough energy to run a TV for 3 hours. Paper clips Aha! Foiled again. 49
Somebody make me some clothes! Fabric—it’s in the clothes we wear! It can be soft, furry, scratchy, strong, or stretchy. Yarns can be woven or knitted to make all kinds of garments.50
FabricImagine our worldwithout fabric—we would What is fabric madeprobably catch a cold, since our from? WOOL comes from sheep,clothes are made from it. Furniture SILK from silk worms,is covered in fabric so it’s soft and COTTON from cotton plants, LINEN from flax plants.comfortable to sit on. These are all natural products. When was fabric invented? The Egyptians first wove cotton into cloth about 14,000 years ago. The How is Romans built the first wool factory 1,500 fabric made? Fabric is usually woven from years ago. yarns like wool and cotton. Wool is sheared off the sheep (like a haircut), then spun into woolen yarn. Yarn can Lycra, nylon, be woven into fabric—see and polyester page 56 to try weaving Fabrics like these are called for yourself. synthetic because they are man-made. They are madein laboratories and are more like plastics than fabric. How your fabric can help Recycling others fabric Take the clothes you’ve grown out of Remake clothes and fabric into to thrift shops. They will not only be Look for something else. See the projects used by someone else, but they will also make money for charity, too. labels in this fabric section for some good ideas. If the fabric is falling Many clothes and other apart, it can be made into filling fabrics can be reused for mattresses and insulation. or recycled. Look at So recycle your old towels, bed the labels—this one tells sheets, tablecloths, you the fabric and curtains. is wool. 51
Fabric Making friends They’re woolly, they’re soft, they’re your fuzzy hat and glove KNOW YOUR STUFF friends! Have you grown out Sweaters and other items made of wool can be of your winter warmers? respun—the fibers are used again to make Then transform them new clothes. into cuddly creatures. 1. How to make Turn an woolly friends old glove inside out. Take a glove and decide what shape you want it to be. Turn to page 54 to find out how to do a back stitch, which will help you when you sew up the fingers. 52