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Investigating RINA as an Alternative to TCP/IP 
Future Network Architectures Recursive Internet Architecture (RINA) 
Dimitri Staessens – Ghent Uni. iMinds (BE) 
Francesco Salvestrini – Nextworks s.r.l. (IT) 
Miquel Tarzan – Fundació i2CAT (ES) 
1
Challenges faced by (Inter)network engineers 
•explosion in the complexity of the overall system (hundreds of protocols and thousands of standards documents) 
•weak security 
•scalability issues with the routing system 
–(IPv6/BGP multihoming) 
–Mobile end-users 
•no QoS support 
2
The Internet is a live environment 
•ever growing customer base 
•ever growing number of devices 
•new and more demanding services 
•RAD of services 
•fast deployment 
•“whac-a-mole” approach to problemsolving 
3
RINA 
A brief introduction to the Recursive Internet Architecture 
4
Mgt. Tasks 
Application Process 
Components 
•Application specific tasks 
•Management tasks 
Application Specific Tasks 
Rendering 
Game engine 
Memory mgt 
Task scheduling 
Mechanism 
•Static, invariant parts 
Policy 
•Dynamic, variant parts 
•occurs in pairs 
–Sender 
–Receiver 
IPC 
RIB 
5
Distributed Application 
X 
Y 
X 
X 
Y 
X 
X 
X 
Processing system: hardware and software capable of executing programs as Application Processes that can coordinate via shared memory (“test and set”) 
Computing system: a collection of processing systems under the same management domain with no restrictions on connectivity 
6
Mgt. Tasks 
Application Process 
Components 
•Application specific tasks 
•Management tasks 
•IPC Management tasks 
–DIF Allocator: Finds remote application processes 
–IRM: manages DA requests 
–Multiplexing: SDU’s from different tasks 
–SDU protection: Integrity and security 
IPC Resource Manager 
DIF Allocator 
SDU Protection 
Multiplexing 
IPC Mgt. Tasks 
Application Specific Tasks 
Rendering 
Game engine 
Memory mgt 
Task scheduling 
IPC 
RIB 
7
Distributed Applications Provide IPC services 
host 
host 
Edge router 
Edge router 
Internal AS router 
X 
Y 
Common Distributed Application Protocol 
8
Common Distributed Application Protocol (CDAP) 
•Perform operations on RIB objects 
–Create/Delete 
–Read/Write 
–Start/Stop 
•But what about different applications? 
–The objects they manipulate 
–Control and sequencing of operations 
–… 
10
Distributed Applications Provide IPC services 
host 
host 
Edge router 
Edge router 
Internal AS router 
X 
Y 
A1 
A2 
B1 
B2 
C2 
C1 
E1 
E2 
F1 
F2 
F3 
F4 
D1 
D3 
D2 
11
Effectively extending the IPC model 
12
IPC API 
•APs communicate using a port, identified by a portId 
•6 operations: 
–int _registerApp(appName, List<difName>) 
–portId _allocateFlow(destAppName, List<QoSParams>) 
–int _write(portId, sdu) 
–sdu _read(portId) 
–int _deallocate(portId) 
–int _unregisterApp(appName, List<difName>) 
•QoSParams are defined in a technology-agnostic way 
–Bandwidth-related, delay, jitter, in-order-delivery, loss rates, … 
13
The IPC process 
IPC Process 
IPC API 
Data Transfer 
Data Transfer Control 
Layer Management 
SDU Delimiting 
Data Transfer 
Relaying and Multiplexing 
SDU Protection 
Transmission Control 
Retransmission Control 
Flow Control 
RIB Daemon 
RIB 
CDAP Parser/Generator 
CACEP 
Enrollment 
Flow Allocation 
Resource Allocation 
Forwarding Table Generator 
Authentication 
State Vector 
State Vector 
State Vector 
Data Transfer 
Data Transfer 
Transmission Control 
Transmission Control 
Retransmission Control 
Retransmission Control 
Flow Control 
Flow Control 
Appl. 
Process 
IPC Resource Mgt. 
DIF Allocator 
SDU Protection 
Multiplexing 
IPC Mgt. Tasks 
Other Mgt. Tasks 
Application Specific Tasks 
•Authentication of all processes 
•RIB Daemon manages state objects 
•EFCP protocol performs SDU transport 
14
Error and Flow Control Protocol 
•DTP 
–Fragmentation 
–Reassembly 
–Sequencing 
–Concatenation 
–Separation 
•DTCP 
–Transmission control 
–Retransmission control 
–Flow control 
•Loosely coupled by a state vector 
•Based on Delta-t 
15
Delta-t (Watson, 1981) 
•Developed at L.Livermore labs, unique approach. 
–Assumes all connections exist all the time. 
–keep caches of state on ones with recent activity 
•Watson proves that the conditions for distributed synchronization are met if and only if 3 timers are bounded: 
–Maximum Packet Lifetime: MPL 
–Maximum number of Retries: R 
–Maximum time before Ack: A 
•That no explicit state synchronization, i.e. hard state, is necessary. 
–SYNs, FINs are unnecessary 
•1981:Watson shows that TCP has all three timers and more. 
16
RMT 
17
Shims 
•Wrap a technology with the IPC API 
–Physical medium 
–Legacy technology 
•Ethernet 
•IP 
–Hypervisors 
•Not required to add functionality 
•So it’s an “incomplete” DIF 
18
Basic concept of RINA 
19
Bootstrapping a RINA network 
host 
host 
Edge router 
Edge router 
Internal AS router 
X 
Y 
A1 
A2 
B1 
B2 
C2 
C1 
D2 
D1 
D3 
E1 
E2 
F1 
F2 
F3 
F4 
20
Architectural Model 
DIF 
System (Host) 
IPC Process 
Shim IPC Process 
Mgmt 
Agemt 
System 
(Router) 
Shim IPC Process 
Shim IPC Process 
IPC Process 
Mgmt 
Agemt 
System 
(Host) 
IPC Process 
Shim IPC Process 
Mgmt 
Agemt 
Appl. 
Process 
Shim DIF 
over TCP/UDP 
Shim DIF 
over Ethernet 
Appl. 
Process 
IPC API 
Data Transfer 
Data Transfer Control 
Layer Management 
SDU Delimiting 
Data Transfer 
Relaying and Multiplexing 
SDU Protection 
Transmission Control 
Retransmission Control 
Flow Control 
RIB Daemon 
RIB 
CDAP Parser/Generator 
CACEP 
Enrollment 
Flow Allocation 
Resource Allocation 
Forwarding Table Generator 
Authentication 
State Vector 
State Vector 
State Vector 
Data Transfer 
Data Transfer 
Transmission Control 
Transmission Control 
Retransmission Control 
Retransmission Control 
Flow Control 
Flow Control 
IPC Resource Mgt. 
DIF Allocator 
SDU Protection 
Multiplexing 
IPC Mgt. Tasks 
Other Mgt. Tasks 
Application Specific Tasks 
Increasing timescale (functions performed less often) and complexity 
21
PROTOTYPES 
22
Pre-existing prototypes 
•The first RINA prototype dates back in 2012 
•This first implementation was a joint development of BU, i2CAT and WIT-TSSG 
–Targeting the validation of the theory and specs 
–Java based, user-space 
•TRIA LLC (US) built another (closed-source) prototype (C based, user-space) 
•Later: 
–EC funded FP7 IRATI and PRISTINE projects to advance the research on RINA 
–GEANT showed interest in RINA as well, funding the IRINA project 
23
FP7 IRATI – OVERVIEW 
24
IRATI - Introduction 
•FP7 Project – Jan 2013 to Dec 2014 (2 years) 
•4 partners 
–[Research] Fundació Privada i2CAT (Spain) 
–[Research] iMinds VZW(Belgium) 
–[SME] Nextworks s.r.l. (Italy) 
–[Industry] Interoute (UK/Italy) 
–[Academia] Boston University (US) 
25
IRATI – Objectives 
•IRATI’ objectives: 
1.Enhancement of the RINA architecture reference model and specifications, focusing on DIFs over Ethernet 
2.RINA open source prototype over Ethernet for a UNIX-like OS 
3.Experimental validation of RINA and comparison against TCP/IP 
4.RINA prototype for Hypervisors 
5.Interoperability with the PSOC RINA prototype over UDP/IP 
6.Provide feedback to OFELIA in regards to the prototyping of a clean slate architecture 
•The project targets the design and implementation of core functionalities at processing system level: 
–IPC Process / IPC Manager daemons 
–Transport and management layer 
•Software-wise, the project: 
–Built a RINA SW prototype from scratch [ready] 
–Release it as FOSS [end of October] 
–tries to build up an Open Source community around the prototype 
26
IRATI - Design decisions & fast/slow paths 
•We split the RINA architecture in different “lanes” 
–Stringent timings → Fast-path → kernel-space [TRANSPORT LAYERS] 
–loose timings → Slow-path → user-space [MANAGEMENT LAYERS] 
•Placing SW components on different lanes, depending on their timing requirements 
User 
Kernel 
User 
Kernel 
1 
IPC Process Daemon 
IPC Process 
Daemon 
Application 
Application 
Application 
Application 
N 
M 
User Kernel 
1 
IPC Manager 
Daemon 
Kernel 
Application 
IPC Process 
Daemon 
27
FP7 IRATI – KERNEL SPACE (THE TRANSPORT LAYERS) 
28
The kernel-space HL SW arch 
API Mux/Demux 
KIPCM 
IPCP Factories 
KFA 
EFCP 
RMT 
PFT 
Normal IPC P. 
Framework 
RNL 
Netlink 
syscalls 
User space 
shim-eth-vlan 
RINA-ARP 
shim-dummy 
kernel 
IPCP Instances 
29
KIPCM & KFA 
Normal 
IPCP 
EFCP 
RMT 
OUT 
IN 
KIPCM KFA 
PDU-FWD-T 
User space 
syscalls 
Netlink 
Shim 
IPCP 
•The KIPCM 
–Manages the lifecycle the IPC Processes and KFA 
–Abstract IPC Process instances 
•Same API for all the IPC Processes 
•Regardless the type 
•maps: ipc-process-id → ipc-process-instance 
•The KFA 
–Manages ports and flows 
–Ports 
•Flow handler 
•Port ID Manager 
–Flows 
•maps: port-id → ipc-process-instance 
•KIPCM + KFA 
•Decouple user-interface from IPC Processes 
•Are the Initial point where “recursion” is transformed into “iteration” 
30
IPC Process Instances & Factories 
•There are two “major” types of IPC Processes: 
–Normal (EFCP + RMT …) 
–Shims 
•The interface is the same regardless of their type 
•Each IPC Process implements its “core” details: 
–Normal IPC Processes: 
•The stack provides the implementation for all of them 
–Shim IPC Processes: 
•Each Shim IPC Processes provide its implementation 
•IPC Process instances are created via “templates”, instantiated by IPC Process Factories (OOD/OOP) 
31
IRATI – The Shims IPCs 
•The shims are the “lowest” components in the stack 
•They have one interface: 
–North-Bound: The IPC API (as all the other IPC Processes) 
•They wrap the underlying technology (e.g. 802.1Q) 
•There are currently 4 shims available: 
–shim-eth-vlan: 
•As defined in the spec, runs over 802.1Q 
–shim-hv: 
•Targets hypervisor-based environments (KVM/Qemu and Xen) 
•Allows removing unnecessary layering commonly used in traditional VM/HV environments (e.g. bridges, virtual-NICs), such layers ease the adoption BUT: 
–Reduce performances 
–Increase maintenance costs 
–shim-tcp-udp 
•Targets RINA over TCP/UDP 
–shim-dummy: 
•Not a “real” shim, it’s for debugging/testing purposes 
•It’s a sort of “loopback” shim (i.e. confined into a single host) 
32
Normal IPC Process - instance 
EFCP Container - instance 
(S|P)DUs workflows 
NetlinkSession 
EFCP Instance 
RMT - instance 
PDU-FWD-T 
Core 
O 
I 
Shim IPC Process 
instance 
Normal IPC Process - instance 
EFCP Container - instance 
NetlinkSession 
EFCP Instance 
RMT - instance 
PDU-FWD-T 
Core 
I 
O 
Shim IPC Process 
instance 
KIPCM / KFA 
User space 
User space 
Queue 
Queue 
Queue 
Queue 
Queue 
Queue 
DTP 
DTCP 
DT 
DTP 
DTCP 
DT 
KIPCM / KFA 
33
FP7 IRATI – USER SPACE (LAYER MANAGEMENT) 
34
IPC Process & IPC Manager daemons 
•IPC Manager Daemon (as an OS process) 
–Manages the IPC Processes lifecycle 
–Broker between applications and IPC Processes 
–Local management agent 
–DIF Allocator client (to search for applications not available through local DIFs) 
•IPC Process Daemon (as an OS process) 
–Layer Management components of the IPC Process 
•RIB Daemon, RIB 
•CDAP parsers/generators 
•CACEP 
•Enrollment 
•Flow Allocation 
•Resource Allocation 
•PDU Forwarding Table Generation 
•Security Management 
•These daemons: 
–Run as separate OS processes 
–Rely on a common framework (librina) 
35
User space HL SW arch 
Application A 
Application A 
Normal IPC Process (Layer Management) 
Kernel 
User space 
Netlink 
sockets 
IPC Process 
Daemon 
RIB & RIB Daemon 
librina 
Resource allocation 
Flow allocation 
Enrollment 
PDU Forwarding Table Generation 
System calls 
Netlink 
sockets 
Sysfs 
IPC Manager 
Daemon 
RIB & RIB Daemon 
librina 
Mgmt 
agent 
DIF Allocator 
Main logic 
System calls 
Netlink sockets 
Sysfs 
Application A 
librina 
Application logic 
System 
calls 
Netlink sockets 
1 
N 
M 
36
Prototype’ performances 
37
FP7 PRISTINE – OVERVIEW 
38
PRISTINE - Intro 
•FP7 Project 
–Starts Jan 2014, ends Dec 2016 (3 years) 
–15 Partners (Research, SMEs and Industry) 
39
PRISTINE - Objectives 
•Design and implement the innovative internals of the RINA architecture that include the programmable functions for: 
•security of content and application processes, 
•supporting QoS and congestion control in aggregated levels, providing protection and resilience, facilitating more efficient topological routing 
•multi-layer management for handling configuration, performance and security. 
•Demonstrate the applicability and benefits of this approach and its built-in functions in three use-cases 
•Datacenter, Distributed cloud, Carrier network 
40
PRISTINE – (SW) Outcomes 
•PRISTINE will be: 
–Developing a Software Development Kit (SDK): 
•From the IRATI prototype sources-base 
•Enable to customize the behaviour of the DIFs 
•Allow to plug-in/out policies dynamically 
–Policies in the transport layer 
–Policies in the management layers 
–Developing innovative policies 
•New policies, defined in the project will be: developed, tested and integrated 
–Developing the first DIF Management System (DMS) 
•Manages the DIFs in multiple Processing Systems (same administrative domain) 
–IPC Process and IPC Manager daemons enhancements 
•Management Agent 
–Coordinates the loading/installation/removal/unloading of policies in the Processing System 
•Reliability aspects 
•Measurements 
•Performances 
•… 
41
GEANT3+ IRINA – OVERVIEW 
42
IRINA - Intro 
•Investigating RINA as the next generation GEANT and NREN network architecture (IRINA) 
•GEANT3+ project 
–Starts Oct 2013, ends March 2015 (18 months) 
•4 Partners: 
–[Research] iMinds VZW(Belgium) 
–[Research] Fundació Privada i2CAT (Spain) 
–[Research] Waterford Institute of Technology – Telecommunications Software & Systems Group (Ireland) 
–[SME] Nextworks s.r.l. (Italy) 
43
IRINA - Objectives 
•Proposes to study RINA as the foundation of the next generation NREN and GEANT network architectures. 
•Targets the following goals: 
–Make a comparative study of RINA vs. the current networking SoTA and the most relevant clean-slate architectures under research. 
–Perform a use-case study of how RINA could be better used in the NREN scenario 
•considering different deployment options, and illustrating the benefits that RINA can bring in terms of multi-homing, mobility, quality of service, programmability, virtualization and network management. 
–Showcase a lab trial of the use-case study 
•Utilizing a customized version of the FP7 IRATI stack, and the experimental facilities contributed by the project partners. 
–Involve the NREN and GEANT community in the different steps of the project, in order to discuss the project approach, the findings and to get valuable feedback. 
•The organization of a network architectures workshop in cooperation with GN3+ JRA1 will be a key instrument to achieve this objective. 
44
IRINA – Overview/Objectives 
45
STANDARDISATION 
46
ISO and RINA 
•RINA addresses concerns identified by FN: 
“Even though the current Internet is such an essential infrastructure, we see that there are many concerns about the following technical aspects of the current Internet, including IP based networks: scalability, ubiquity, security, robustness, mobility, heterogeneity, Quality of Service (QoS), re-configurability, context-awareness, manageability, economics, etc.” 
47
RINA specifications status (I) 
•RINA IPC Specification Reference Model 
–Basic concept of distributed systems 
–Distributed applications 
–Distributed InterProcess Communication (IPC API) 
•DAF Base Specifications 
–Common Application Establishment Phase 
–Common Distributed Application Protocol 
–IPC Resource Manager Specification 
–DIF Allocator Specification 
48
RINA specifications status (II) 
•DIF Base Specifications 
–Data Transfer Service Definition 
–Specification template for a Generic DIF Delimiting module 
–Error and Flow Control Protocol Specification (DTP + DTCP) 
–Relaying and Multiplexing Task Specification 
–Specification Template for a DIF SDU Protection Module 
–Specification Template for a Generic DIF SDU Protection Module 
–Basic Enrollment Specification 
–Flow Allocator Specification 
49
RINA specifications status (and III) 
•Policy Specifications 
–CRC 16 SDU protection module 
–DIF HDLC like SDU protection 
–DIF TCP UDP like SDU protection module 
–Retransmission timer expiry policy for a TCP like DIF 
–Round Trip Time (RTT) estimator policy for a TCP like DIF 
–Delimiting module for operating over the public Internet 
–Delimiting module for demo DIF 
•Pro-forma for policy specifications 
–No need to standardise everything 
50
Shims 
•Shim-eth-vlan 
•Shim-tcp-udp 
•Shim-hv 
51
Upcoming workshops 
•Globecom Workshop “Alternatives to TCP/IP” 
–8-12 December, Austin TX US 
•RINA workshop 
–28-29 January 2015, Ghent Belgium 
•TERENA TNC 2015 
–15-18 June, Porto, Portugal 
•Summer school ~ August 2015 
52

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RINA overview and ongoing research in EC-funded projects, ISO SC6 WG7

  • 1. Investigating RINA as an Alternative to TCP/IP Future Network Architectures Recursive Internet Architecture (RINA) Dimitri Staessens – Ghent Uni. iMinds (BE) Francesco Salvestrini – Nextworks s.r.l. (IT) Miquel Tarzan – Fundació i2CAT (ES) 1
  • 2. Challenges faced by (Inter)network engineers •explosion in the complexity of the overall system (hundreds of protocols and thousands of standards documents) •weak security •scalability issues with the routing system –(IPv6/BGP multihoming) –Mobile end-users •no QoS support 2
  • 3. The Internet is a live environment •ever growing customer base •ever growing number of devices •new and more demanding services •RAD of services •fast deployment •“whac-a-mole” approach to problemsolving 3
  • 4. RINA A brief introduction to the Recursive Internet Architecture 4
  • 5. Mgt. Tasks Application Process Components •Application specific tasks •Management tasks Application Specific Tasks Rendering Game engine Memory mgt Task scheduling Mechanism •Static, invariant parts Policy •Dynamic, variant parts •occurs in pairs –Sender –Receiver IPC RIB 5
  • 6. Distributed Application X Y X X Y X X X Processing system: hardware and software capable of executing programs as Application Processes that can coordinate via shared memory (“test and set”) Computing system: a collection of processing systems under the same management domain with no restrictions on connectivity 6
  • 7. Mgt. Tasks Application Process Components •Application specific tasks •Management tasks •IPC Management tasks –DIF Allocator: Finds remote application processes –IRM: manages DA requests –Multiplexing: SDU’s from different tasks –SDU protection: Integrity and security IPC Resource Manager DIF Allocator SDU Protection Multiplexing IPC Mgt. Tasks Application Specific Tasks Rendering Game engine Memory mgt Task scheduling IPC RIB 7
  • 8. Distributed Applications Provide IPC services host host Edge router Edge router Internal AS router X Y Common Distributed Application Protocol 8
  • 9. Common Distributed Application Protocol (CDAP) •Perform operations on RIB objects –Create/Delete –Read/Write –Start/Stop •But what about different applications? –The objects they manipulate –Control and sequencing of operations –… 10
  • 10. Distributed Applications Provide IPC services host host Edge router Edge router Internal AS router X Y A1 A2 B1 B2 C2 C1 E1 E2 F1 F2 F3 F4 D1 D3 D2 11
  • 12. IPC API •APs communicate using a port, identified by a portId •6 operations: –int _registerApp(appName, List<difName>) –portId _allocateFlow(destAppName, List<QoSParams>) –int _write(portId, sdu) –sdu _read(portId) –int _deallocate(portId) –int _unregisterApp(appName, List<difName>) •QoSParams are defined in a technology-agnostic way –Bandwidth-related, delay, jitter, in-order-delivery, loss rates, … 13
  • 13. The IPC process IPC Process IPC API Data Transfer Data Transfer Control Layer Management SDU Delimiting Data Transfer Relaying and Multiplexing SDU Protection Transmission Control Retransmission Control Flow Control RIB Daemon RIB CDAP Parser/Generator CACEP Enrollment Flow Allocation Resource Allocation Forwarding Table Generator Authentication State Vector State Vector State Vector Data Transfer Data Transfer Transmission Control Transmission Control Retransmission Control Retransmission Control Flow Control Flow Control Appl. Process IPC Resource Mgt. DIF Allocator SDU Protection Multiplexing IPC Mgt. Tasks Other Mgt. Tasks Application Specific Tasks •Authentication of all processes •RIB Daemon manages state objects •EFCP protocol performs SDU transport 14
  • 14. Error and Flow Control Protocol •DTP –Fragmentation –Reassembly –Sequencing –Concatenation –Separation •DTCP –Transmission control –Retransmission control –Flow control •Loosely coupled by a state vector •Based on Delta-t 15
  • 15. Delta-t (Watson, 1981) •Developed at L.Livermore labs, unique approach. –Assumes all connections exist all the time. –keep caches of state on ones with recent activity •Watson proves that the conditions for distributed synchronization are met if and only if 3 timers are bounded: –Maximum Packet Lifetime: MPL –Maximum number of Retries: R –Maximum time before Ack: A •That no explicit state synchronization, i.e. hard state, is necessary. –SYNs, FINs are unnecessary •1981:Watson shows that TCP has all three timers and more. 16
  • 17. Shims •Wrap a technology with the IPC API –Physical medium –Legacy technology •Ethernet •IP –Hypervisors •Not required to add functionality •So it’s an “incomplete” DIF 18
  • 18. Basic concept of RINA 19
  • 19. Bootstrapping a RINA network host host Edge router Edge router Internal AS router X Y A1 A2 B1 B2 C2 C1 D2 D1 D3 E1 E2 F1 F2 F3 F4 20
  • 20. Architectural Model DIF System (Host) IPC Process Shim IPC Process Mgmt Agemt System (Router) Shim IPC Process Shim IPC Process IPC Process Mgmt Agemt System (Host) IPC Process Shim IPC Process Mgmt Agemt Appl. Process Shim DIF over TCP/UDP Shim DIF over Ethernet Appl. Process IPC API Data Transfer Data Transfer Control Layer Management SDU Delimiting Data Transfer Relaying and Multiplexing SDU Protection Transmission Control Retransmission Control Flow Control RIB Daemon RIB CDAP Parser/Generator CACEP Enrollment Flow Allocation Resource Allocation Forwarding Table Generator Authentication State Vector State Vector State Vector Data Transfer Data Transfer Transmission Control Transmission Control Retransmission Control Retransmission Control Flow Control Flow Control IPC Resource Mgt. DIF Allocator SDU Protection Multiplexing IPC Mgt. Tasks Other Mgt. Tasks Application Specific Tasks Increasing timescale (functions performed less often) and complexity 21
  • 22. Pre-existing prototypes •The first RINA prototype dates back in 2012 •This first implementation was a joint development of BU, i2CAT and WIT-TSSG –Targeting the validation of the theory and specs –Java based, user-space •TRIA LLC (US) built another (closed-source) prototype (C based, user-space) •Later: –EC funded FP7 IRATI and PRISTINE projects to advance the research on RINA –GEANT showed interest in RINA as well, funding the IRINA project 23
  • 23. FP7 IRATI – OVERVIEW 24
  • 24. IRATI - Introduction •FP7 Project – Jan 2013 to Dec 2014 (2 years) •4 partners –[Research] Fundació Privada i2CAT (Spain) –[Research] iMinds VZW(Belgium) –[SME] Nextworks s.r.l. (Italy) –[Industry] Interoute (UK/Italy) –[Academia] Boston University (US) 25
  • 25. IRATI – Objectives •IRATI’ objectives: 1.Enhancement of the RINA architecture reference model and specifications, focusing on DIFs over Ethernet 2.RINA open source prototype over Ethernet for a UNIX-like OS 3.Experimental validation of RINA and comparison against TCP/IP 4.RINA prototype for Hypervisors 5.Interoperability with the PSOC RINA prototype over UDP/IP 6.Provide feedback to OFELIA in regards to the prototyping of a clean slate architecture •The project targets the design and implementation of core functionalities at processing system level: –IPC Process / IPC Manager daemons –Transport and management layer •Software-wise, the project: –Built a RINA SW prototype from scratch [ready] –Release it as FOSS [end of October] –tries to build up an Open Source community around the prototype 26
  • 26. IRATI - Design decisions & fast/slow paths •We split the RINA architecture in different “lanes” –Stringent timings → Fast-path → kernel-space [TRANSPORT LAYERS] –loose timings → Slow-path → user-space [MANAGEMENT LAYERS] •Placing SW components on different lanes, depending on their timing requirements User Kernel User Kernel 1 IPC Process Daemon IPC Process Daemon Application Application Application Application N M User Kernel 1 IPC Manager Daemon Kernel Application IPC Process Daemon 27
  • 27. FP7 IRATI – KERNEL SPACE (THE TRANSPORT LAYERS) 28
  • 28. The kernel-space HL SW arch API Mux/Demux KIPCM IPCP Factories KFA EFCP RMT PFT Normal IPC P. Framework RNL Netlink syscalls User space shim-eth-vlan RINA-ARP shim-dummy kernel IPCP Instances 29
  • 29. KIPCM & KFA Normal IPCP EFCP RMT OUT IN KIPCM KFA PDU-FWD-T User space syscalls Netlink Shim IPCP •The KIPCM –Manages the lifecycle the IPC Processes and KFA –Abstract IPC Process instances •Same API for all the IPC Processes •Regardless the type •maps: ipc-process-id → ipc-process-instance •The KFA –Manages ports and flows –Ports •Flow handler •Port ID Manager –Flows •maps: port-id → ipc-process-instance •KIPCM + KFA •Decouple user-interface from IPC Processes •Are the Initial point where “recursion” is transformed into “iteration” 30
  • 30. IPC Process Instances & Factories •There are two “major” types of IPC Processes: –Normal (EFCP + RMT …) –Shims •The interface is the same regardless of their type •Each IPC Process implements its “core” details: –Normal IPC Processes: •The stack provides the implementation for all of them –Shim IPC Processes: •Each Shim IPC Processes provide its implementation •IPC Process instances are created via “templates”, instantiated by IPC Process Factories (OOD/OOP) 31
  • 31. IRATI – The Shims IPCs •The shims are the “lowest” components in the stack •They have one interface: –North-Bound: The IPC API (as all the other IPC Processes) •They wrap the underlying technology (e.g. 802.1Q) •There are currently 4 shims available: –shim-eth-vlan: •As defined in the spec, runs over 802.1Q –shim-hv: •Targets hypervisor-based environments (KVM/Qemu and Xen) •Allows removing unnecessary layering commonly used in traditional VM/HV environments (e.g. bridges, virtual-NICs), such layers ease the adoption BUT: –Reduce performances –Increase maintenance costs –shim-tcp-udp •Targets RINA over TCP/UDP –shim-dummy: •Not a “real” shim, it’s for debugging/testing purposes •It’s a sort of “loopback” shim (i.e. confined into a single host) 32
  • 32. Normal IPC Process - instance EFCP Container - instance (S|P)DUs workflows NetlinkSession EFCP Instance RMT - instance PDU-FWD-T Core O I Shim IPC Process instance Normal IPC Process - instance EFCP Container - instance NetlinkSession EFCP Instance RMT - instance PDU-FWD-T Core I O Shim IPC Process instance KIPCM / KFA User space User space Queue Queue Queue Queue Queue Queue DTP DTCP DT DTP DTCP DT KIPCM / KFA 33
  • 33. FP7 IRATI – USER SPACE (LAYER MANAGEMENT) 34
  • 34. IPC Process & IPC Manager daemons •IPC Manager Daemon (as an OS process) –Manages the IPC Processes lifecycle –Broker between applications and IPC Processes –Local management agent –DIF Allocator client (to search for applications not available through local DIFs) •IPC Process Daemon (as an OS process) –Layer Management components of the IPC Process •RIB Daemon, RIB •CDAP parsers/generators •CACEP •Enrollment •Flow Allocation •Resource Allocation •PDU Forwarding Table Generation •Security Management •These daemons: –Run as separate OS processes –Rely on a common framework (librina) 35
  • 35. User space HL SW arch Application A Application A Normal IPC Process (Layer Management) Kernel User space Netlink sockets IPC Process Daemon RIB & RIB Daemon librina Resource allocation Flow allocation Enrollment PDU Forwarding Table Generation System calls Netlink sockets Sysfs IPC Manager Daemon RIB & RIB Daemon librina Mgmt agent DIF Allocator Main logic System calls Netlink sockets Sysfs Application A librina Application logic System calls Netlink sockets 1 N M 36
  • 37. FP7 PRISTINE – OVERVIEW 38
  • 38. PRISTINE - Intro •FP7 Project –Starts Jan 2014, ends Dec 2016 (3 years) –15 Partners (Research, SMEs and Industry) 39
  • 39. PRISTINE - Objectives •Design and implement the innovative internals of the RINA architecture that include the programmable functions for: •security of content and application processes, •supporting QoS and congestion control in aggregated levels, providing protection and resilience, facilitating more efficient topological routing •multi-layer management for handling configuration, performance and security. •Demonstrate the applicability and benefits of this approach and its built-in functions in three use-cases •Datacenter, Distributed cloud, Carrier network 40
  • 40. PRISTINE – (SW) Outcomes •PRISTINE will be: –Developing a Software Development Kit (SDK): •From the IRATI prototype sources-base •Enable to customize the behaviour of the DIFs •Allow to plug-in/out policies dynamically –Policies in the transport layer –Policies in the management layers –Developing innovative policies •New policies, defined in the project will be: developed, tested and integrated –Developing the first DIF Management System (DMS) •Manages the DIFs in multiple Processing Systems (same administrative domain) –IPC Process and IPC Manager daemons enhancements •Management Agent –Coordinates the loading/installation/removal/unloading of policies in the Processing System •Reliability aspects •Measurements •Performances •… 41
  • 41. GEANT3+ IRINA – OVERVIEW 42
  • 42. IRINA - Intro •Investigating RINA as the next generation GEANT and NREN network architecture (IRINA) •GEANT3+ project –Starts Oct 2013, ends March 2015 (18 months) •4 Partners: –[Research] iMinds VZW(Belgium) –[Research] Fundació Privada i2CAT (Spain) –[Research] Waterford Institute of Technology – Telecommunications Software & Systems Group (Ireland) –[SME] Nextworks s.r.l. (Italy) 43
  • 43. IRINA - Objectives •Proposes to study RINA as the foundation of the next generation NREN and GEANT network architectures. •Targets the following goals: –Make a comparative study of RINA vs. the current networking SoTA and the most relevant clean-slate architectures under research. –Perform a use-case study of how RINA could be better used in the NREN scenario •considering different deployment options, and illustrating the benefits that RINA can bring in terms of multi-homing, mobility, quality of service, programmability, virtualization and network management. –Showcase a lab trial of the use-case study •Utilizing a customized version of the FP7 IRATI stack, and the experimental facilities contributed by the project partners. –Involve the NREN and GEANT community in the different steps of the project, in order to discuss the project approach, the findings and to get valuable feedback. •The organization of a network architectures workshop in cooperation with GN3+ JRA1 will be a key instrument to achieve this objective. 44
  • 46. ISO and RINA •RINA addresses concerns identified by FN: “Even though the current Internet is such an essential infrastructure, we see that there are many concerns about the following technical aspects of the current Internet, including IP based networks: scalability, ubiquity, security, robustness, mobility, heterogeneity, Quality of Service (QoS), re-configurability, context-awareness, manageability, economics, etc.” 47
  • 47. RINA specifications status (I) •RINA IPC Specification Reference Model –Basic concept of distributed systems –Distributed applications –Distributed InterProcess Communication (IPC API) •DAF Base Specifications –Common Application Establishment Phase –Common Distributed Application Protocol –IPC Resource Manager Specification –DIF Allocator Specification 48
  • 48. RINA specifications status (II) •DIF Base Specifications –Data Transfer Service Definition –Specification template for a Generic DIF Delimiting module –Error and Flow Control Protocol Specification (DTP + DTCP) –Relaying and Multiplexing Task Specification –Specification Template for a DIF SDU Protection Module –Specification Template for a Generic DIF SDU Protection Module –Basic Enrollment Specification –Flow Allocator Specification 49
  • 49. RINA specifications status (and III) •Policy Specifications –CRC 16 SDU protection module –DIF HDLC like SDU protection –DIF TCP UDP like SDU protection module –Retransmission timer expiry policy for a TCP like DIF –Round Trip Time (RTT) estimator policy for a TCP like DIF –Delimiting module for operating over the public Internet –Delimiting module for demo DIF •Pro-forma for policy specifications –No need to standardise everything 50
  • 51. Upcoming workshops •Globecom Workshop “Alternatives to TCP/IP” –8-12 December, Austin TX US •RINA workshop –28-29 January 2015, Ghent Belgium •TERENA TNC 2015 –15-18 June, Porto, Portugal •Summer school ~ August 2015 52