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International Journal of Engineering and Science Invention (IJESI) is an international journal intended for professionals and researchers in all fields of computer science and electronics. IJESI publishes research articles and reviews within the whole field Engineering Science and Technology, new teaching methods, assessment, validation and the impact of new technologies and it will continue to provide information on the latest trends and developments in this ever-expanding subject. The publications of papers are selected through double peer reviewed to ensure originality, relevance, and readability. The articles published in our journal can be accessed online.

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  1. 1. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 – 6734, ISSN (Print): 2319 – 6726 www.ijesi.org Volume 3 Issue 4 ǁ April 2014 ǁ PP.47-53 www.ijesi.org 47 | Page Principal Component Analysis of Alkaline Peroxide Pulping On The Mechanical Properties Of Elaeis guineensis– AppTm Fronds Rachis 1, Arniza Ghazali , 2, Owolabi FAT, 3, WD Wan Rosli School of Technology Industry, Universiti Sains Malaysia.11800 PINANG ABSTRACT: In a multivariante operation like pulp and paper processing, principal component analysis is a method used to extract the main variation in a set of data into a few latent variables. Multivariate data analysis and Fourier transmission Infrared FTIR spectrometry were used to determine the effect of the alkaline peroxide charge at different liquor concentrations on the mechanical properties of oil palm frond rachis vascular bundles OPFB. Tensile, burst and Tear indexes were the mechanical properties covered in this literature. The study revealed that the there was a statistically significant interactions between alkaline peroxide and the three mechanical indices while the multivariate data analysis reveals statistical relationships between handsheet properties and the properties of the independent variables. The spectra obtained revealed that alkaline peroxide pulping was able to effectively remove the hemicelluloses content of the raw sample while the lignin content was drastically reduced with increase in the cooking liquor concentrations. The significant differences among the treatments were observed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Tests (DMRT), which revealed that the cooking time was not statistically significant at 95% probability. KEY WORDS: Fourier transmission Infrared FTIR; Multivariate analysis; Alkaline peroxide pulping, oil palm frond rachis vascular bundles I. INTRODUCTION Despite the era of computer revolution, pulp and paper sector is still facing the challenge of meeting demand as a result of ever depleting forest resources. The irony of the development is that as the demand for paper and paper board continue to increases, the proliferation of the industries keep growing globally. Non wood has been the major source of paper making fibres in Asia, Africa, and Latin America[1]. With an annual growth rate estimated to 2.8%, the global demand for the paper and paper board will gulp 40 million tons by the year 2020[2, 3].The use of non-wood as raw materials has been receiving global attention to arrest the imminent deficiencies of wood inadequacies in meeting the alarming consumption of the paper and paper board. However the global increasing consumption of non-wood has risen to 2.5 billion tons due to the expansion of the paper industry [4, 5]. This has reflected in the increasing consumption rate of non-wood in Asian countries from 6.7 % to 10.9% out of the annual global production of 73% non-wood[6].In Malaysia oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is one major crop that belongs to the group of nonwood fibres, with great potential as a papermaking raw material[7]. A total of RM62 billion was reported realized by Malaysian government from palm oil export alone[8], hence the continue justification for its sustainability. The generation of agro waste from the oil palm plantation annually was put at 83 million tons per annum as at 2009[9]. The pulp and paper potential of the oil palm biomass has been investigated and reported by earlier researchers [10]. Apart from the availability of raw materials for Pulp and paper production, its products is characterized with very complex morphological and physicochemical properties which demands proper monitoring of its process variables in order to achieve quality product. The normal routine quality control exercise is not only time consuming, it is very laborious usually not economical. In order to overcome this tedious mission, principal component analysis PCA has been used in a number of different pulp and paper sector as a veritable tool to analyse, monitor and predict the effect of the cooking variables on the various pulp responses [11-13]. In pulp and paper, data analysis is very crucial and it involves most of the time, two or more parameters that are of paramount importance to the productivity of the adopted pulping method and the expected product end use. This trend has found good performance with the exploitation of the principal component analysis. To this end during in the designing of the experiment, multivariate analysis provides a useful channel for assessing possible causes and effect of observed variations. Among the properties that influence the various paper grade is the mechanical of the fibres which connect the arrangement and the interactions of the polymers within the cell wall[14]. Careful selection of the choice of pulping methods couple with the environmental friendliness is very
  2. 2. Principal Component Analysisof Alkaline... www.ijesi.org 48 | Page important in pulp and paper production to forestall environmental pollution and guarantee uninterrupted production. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is an extension of analysis of variance used for more than one related dependent variable which can be used in one-way, two-way and higher-order factorial designs (with multiple independent variables)[15].The knowledge of the mechanical properties of paper reveals the basic chemistry, morphology, and configuration of the individual fibres arrangement in paper [16]. Since the report of the Alkaline peroxide pulping of empty fruit bunches of oil palm biomass EFB[17], there has not been any report in the literature on the use of FTIR and principal component analysis to investigate the dominant variables in alkaline peroxide pulping. The studies investigated the use of multivariate analysis and FTIR in determining the effect of the underlying factors in alkaline peroxide pulping on the pulp and paper with the aim of identifying the synergistic effect or otherwise of the underlying “underlying variables,” in the determination of the mechanical strength of the paper during the pulping protocol with the aim to maximize the pulping process. II. MATERIALS AND METHOD The Oil palm frond supplied from the plantation in BalikPulau. Malaysia was processed in order to extract the rachis. This was then air dried and kept for later use. 70g of the dried oil palm biomass was pre- treated according to the literature[18].The pre-treated biomass was impregnated using alkaline peroxide at various concentrations ranging from Low (1.0: 1.5; NaOH: H2O2), medium (2.0: 2.5; NaOH: H2O2) and high (4.0: 5.0; NaOH : H2O2) concentrations. The three pulping chemical charged ratios were used at pulping durations of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min while keeping the reaction at constant temperature of 700 C. The pulp biomass was pressed at 15 psi, before defibration. The impregnated material was defibrated using Sprout Bauer refiner, and then the pulp was screened and dried. The screen yield was calculated. Paper Characterization The morphological properties of the paper which include kappa number (T236-om 99), Tensile strength (T204 - 95), Burst strength (T403 –om 02), Basic weight (T401 - om), Thickness (T411 – om 89), Hand sheet preparation (T205 – om95), Tear strength, was determined as described in TAAPI standard method [19]. FTIR spectra FTIR spectra of the raw and pulped OPFB with respect to the pulp obtained at different chemical charges (Low; Medium and High) materials were obtained at a resolution of 8cm-1 . The samples, were incorporated into KBr (spectroscopic grade)and pressed intoa1mmpellet. Spectra were recorded in the absorbance mode from 4000to 400 cm-1 using a Nicolet Magna-IR 550. Mixture of pure powdered potassium bromide (KBr) was mixed thoroughly with the powdered-fibres of OPFB in KBr for the spectrum. Diffuse reflectance was used with the FTIR for transfer of infrared radiation. Biometric Statistical analysis Multivariate data analysis was performed to study statistical relationships between mechanical properties of the hand sheet and the effect of the independent variables in alkaline peroxide pulping using the SPSS version 21. Duncan’s multiple range tests was carried out to compare the mean differences. These parameters were compared between the independent and the dependent variables, while the significant differences were set at P≤0.05. III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Effect of alkaline peroxide pulping on the mechanical properties of hand sheet. Alkaline peroxide pulping is characterized by the generation of some intermediate anions and radicals due to their instability in the absence of stabilizing agents. Among the intermediate generated in the course of the reaction are-perhydroxyl acid, hydroxide ions, super oxides that are very reactive. During the decomposition of H2O2, products such as the hydroxyl radicals and superoxide anion radicals (O2͞’ 1 ) are thought to cause the oxidation of lignin structures which leads to the introduction of hydrophilic (carboxyl) groups, resulting in the dissolution of lignin even though they also may participate in the bleaching mechanism, at least to a small extent (Dence, 1996). H2O2 reacts readily with a variety of lignin model compounds and lignocelluloses substrate at the alkaline PH producing low molecular weight degradation products (Gould, 1984, 1985).Table 1 shows the multivatiant analysis between subject effect of the cooking chemicals. It has been reported that the factors determining the mechanical properties of paper include the fibre strength, the bonding degree of the fibre network and the strength of the bonds[20].
  3. 3. Principal Component Analysisof Alkaline... www.ijesi.org 49 | Page alkaline peroxide and the three dependent variables while the cooking time does not show any statistical significant at P>0.05. This is because the general reaction is alkaline dependent [21]. Although preliminary time will be needed to start the reaction but the reaction continues as long as the intermediate generated species remain in the system. A one-way between-groups multivariate analysis ofvariance was performed to investigate the interactive effect of the alkaline peroxide on the mechanical properties of the hand sheet formed Table 1.To this effect, three dependent variables were considered namely: the tensile, the tear and the burst indices were evaluated. The independent variables were pulping time, concentration of hydrogen peroxide and the concentration of the sodium hydroxide. Preliminary assumption testing was conducted to check for normality, linearity, univariate and multivariate outliers, homogeneity of variance- covariance matrices, and multi-collinearity, with no serious violations noted. There was a statistically significant interaction between Table 1: Tests between subject effect Source Dependent Variable Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Partial Eta Squared Corrected Model TENSILE INDEX 3528.791a 12 294.066 10.760 .017 .970 TEAR INDEX 13.316b 12 1.110 4.247 .087 .927 BURST INDEX 11.600c 12 .967 .981 .564 .746 Intercept TENSILE INDEX 5604.931 1 5604.931 205.079 .000 .981 TEAR INDEX 92.122 1 92.122 352.600 .000 .989 BURST INDEX 209.288 1 209.288 212.430 .000 .982 TIME TENSILE INDEX 14.988 1 14.988 .548 .500 .121 TEAR INDEX .027 1 .027 .103 .765 .025 BURST INDEX 3.305E-005 1 3.305E-005 .000 .996 .000 H2O2 TENSILE INDEX 1.209 1 1.209 .044 .844 .011 TEAR INDEX .045 1 .045 .174 .698 .042 BURST INDEX .350 1 .350 .355 .583 .082 NaOH TENSILE INDEX 3094.484 1 3094.484 113.224 .000 .966 TEAR INDEX 8.185 1 8.185 31.330 .005 .887 BURST INDEX 6.734 1 6.734 6.836 .059 .631 TIME * H2O2 TENSILE INDEX 149.573 1 149.573 5.473 .079 .578 TEAR INDEX .016 1 .016 .061 .817 .015 BURST INDEX .001 1 .001 .001 .981 .000 TIME * NaOH TENSILE INDEX 1.756 1 1.756 .064 .812 .016 TEAR INDEX .114 1 .114 .435 .546 .098 BURST INDEX .016 1 .016 .017 .904 .004 H2O2 * NaOH TENSILE INDEX 26.266 1 26.266 .961 .382 .194 TEAR INDEX .005 1 .005 .018 .899 .005 BURST INDEX .115 1 .115 .117 .750 .028 TIME * H2O2 * NaOH TENSILE INDEX .000 0 . . . .000 TEAR INDEX .000 0 . . . .000 BURST INDEX .000 0 . . . .000 Error TENSILE INDEX 109.322 4 27.331 TEAR INDEX 1.045 4 .261 BURST INDEX 3.941 4 .985 Total TENSILE INDEX 9546.248 17 TEAR INDEX 138.776 17 BURST INDEX 285.479 17 Corrected Total TENSILE INDEX 3638.114 16 TEAR INDEX 14.361 16 BURST INDEX 15.540 16 a. R Squared = .970 (Adjusted R Squared = .880) b. R Squared = .927 (Adjusted R Squared = .709) c. R Squared = .746 (Adjusted R Squared = -.014)
  4. 4. Principal Component Analysisof Alkaline... www.ijesi.org 50 | Page Means with similar letter are not significant different while Means within a column with different letters are significantly different at P>0.05The relationship between the independent and the dependent variables was further investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient from SPSS version 21. Preliminary analyses were performed to ensure no violation of the assumptions of normality, linearity and homoscedasticity (property of having equal statistical variances).Correlation result from Table 3 shows a strong positive correlation between the three dependent variables:- the tensile, the tear and the burst indexes. While the independent variable sodium hydroxide has high synergistic correlations with the three dependent variables, the hydrogen peroxide has very weak antagonistic correlation with the dependent variables. According to the literature, the mechanical and strength properties of paper reflect the intrinsic chemistry, morphology, and structure of the individual fibres as well as the network structure of the paper.[22].Alkaline solutions of hydrogen peroxide has been reported to partially delignify lignocelluloses and that the delignification reaction is strongly dependent upon the alkaline pH of the reaction mixture[21], Apart from the above, internal and external fibrillations, cogenerated fines and hydrogen bonding contribute to the strength properties of paper. [23], IV. FTIR ANALYSIS Changes in chemical composition due to alkaline peroxide pulping were evaluated by FTIR spectroscopy. Figure 1 and Figure 2 shows pectra of the raw OPFB and the combined spectra of the raw and the pulp samples at different concentrations respectively. The difference between the FTIR spectra of the raw OPFB and OPFB fibres at different concentrations, illustrated in figs. 1 and 2, is remarkable. All samples had two main regions of absorbance, at low (500–1,800 cm-1) and at high wavenumbers (1,900–3,500 cm-1), in agreement with the report by [24]. The band at 3409cm ̄ 1 , 3381cm ̄ 1 , 3405cm ̄ 1 and 3401cm ̄ 1 is attributed to the O-H stretching vibration [25]. The bands at the 2904-21cm ̄ 1 and 1426-27cm ̄ 1 are characteristics of C-H stretching and bending of CH2 groups respectively, whereas the peaks at 1637-40cm ̄ 1 and 897cm ̄ 1 are attributed to the H- O-H stretching vibration of the absorbed water in the carbohydrates and the C 1-H deformation vibrations of cellulose, respectively. The absorption bands in the region of 1734.01cm ̄ 1 in the raw sample which later shift to 1733.84cm ̄ 1 at low concentrations may arise from the carbonyl (C=O) linkage in acetyl ester groups in hemicelluloses and carbonyl aldehyde in lignin and [26]. This later disappears at both the medium and high concentration of the charged liquor , indicating the removal of the hemicelluloses and reduction in the lignin content of the pulp . However the peak at 1505cm ̄ 1 , 1504cm ̄ 1 ,1509cm ̄ 1 , 1503cm ̄ 1 in the spectra of both the raw and the pulp fibres, which is attributed to C=C stretching vibration in the aromatic lignin remain as residual lignin sample[27-29].. This fact indicated that hemicelluloses and lignin were to a large degree removed after pulping while the original molecular structure of the cellulose was maintained after the pulping.
  5. 5. Principal Component Analysisof Alkaline... www.ijesi.org 51 | Page Fig. 1. FTIR spectra in the 4000 – 400 cm ̄ 1 region of OPFB raw Sample Fig. 2. FTIR spectra in the 4000 – 400 cm ̄ 1 region of OPFB pulp at different concentrations Sample
  6. 6. Principal Component Analysisof Alkaline... www.ijesi.org 52 | Page Table 3 : Summary of the FTIR Spectra result Raw sample (cm ̄ 1) Low conc .( cm ̄ 1) Medium conc .( cm ̄ 1) High Conc. (cm ̄ 1) 3409.98 3381.45 3405.26 3401.45 2921.77 2903.79 2904.20 2911 .40 2362.37 2361.31 2135.98 2138.61 1734.01 1733.84 1637.32 1640.25 1637.75 1636.98 1608.27 1598.74 1505.97 1504.88 1509.91 1503.86 1461.63 1460.64 1426.48 1427.36 1426.18 1427.50 1378.30 1376.62 1374.75 1377.04 1322.04 1321.92 1320.73 1321.90 1247.24 1246.68 1246.21 1246.25 1160.35 1164.48 1164.75 1163.77 1114.47 1113.49 1112.61 1034.63 1055.21 1054.98 1056.36 897.65 897.21 897.52 664.61 660.03 664.96 613.31 617.46 614.82 536.97 560.22 469.67 V. CONCLUSION The study revealed that apart from the time taken for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, the pulping time is statistically not significant at 95% confidence. The increase in the mechanical properties as revealed from the Duncan Multiple range test is a reflection of the synergistic effect of sodium hydroxide on the retting of the fibre to aid the penetration of the cooking chemicals. FTIR spectroscopy as a suitable tool for characterising important chemical variations after pulping as shown in the article The spectra result further support the possibility of achieving the same pulp quality by using the eco-friendly alkaline peroxide pulping APP without the usual multiple impregnation that is characteristic of the alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping APMP. FTIR spectroscopy shows the appearance and disappearance of some functional groups and also a decrease of acetyl groups and aryl-ether groups as well as an increase of newly formed carbonyl groups.
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