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HTML5 & CSS3 refresher for mobile apps

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Anatomy of a web app
HTML5
CSS3

This presentation has been developed in the context of the Mobile Applications Development course, DISIM, University of L'Aquila (Italy), Spring 2015.

http://www.ivanomalavolta.com

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HTML5 & CSS3 refresher for mobile apps

  1. 1. Gran Sasso Science Institute Ivano Malavolta HTML5 & CSS3 refresher
  2. 2. Roadmap Anatomy of a web app HTML5 CSS3
  3. 3. What is a Web App? A software built with web technologies that is accessible via a mobile browser The browser may be either the standard device browser or an embedded browser (Hybrid app)
  4. 4. Anatomy of a Web App
  5. 5. Data Usually mobile apps do not talk directly with the database à do not even think about JDBC, drivers, etc! à They pass through an application server and communicate via: •  standard HTTP requests for HTML content (eg PHP) •  REST-full services (XML, JSON, etc.) •  SOAP
  6. 6. Roadmap Anatomy of a web app HTML5 CSS3
  7. 7. HTML 5 •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Canvas & SVG
  8. 8. HTML 5 HTML5 will be the new standard for HTML HTML5 is still a work in progress W3C final recomendation: 2020 Top browsers support many (not all) of the new HTML5 elements http://mobilehtml5.org http://caniuse.com
  9. 9. What is HTML5? HTML5 Markup JavaScript CSS3Multimedia
  10. 10. The minimal HTML5 page <!DOCTYPE  html>   <html>    <head>    <title>Title</title>   </head>    <body>   …   </body>   </html>  
  11. 11. Roadmap •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Canvas & SVG
  12. 12. New Structural Tags Main Goal: separate presentation from content •  Poor accessibility •  Unnecessary complexity •  Larger document size Most of the presentational features from earlier versions of HTML are no longer supported
  13. 13. New Structural Tags <header> header region of a page or section <footer> footer region of a page or section <nav> navigation region of a page or section <section> logical region of a page <article> a complete piece of content <aside> secondary or related content
  14. 14. New Structural Tags http://bit.ly/JCnuQJ
  15. 15. Other Structural Tags <command> a command button that a user can invoke <details> additional details that the user can view or hide <summary> a visible heading for a <details> element <meter> an amount within a range <progress> shows real-time progress towards a goal <figure> self-contained content, like illustrations, diagrams, photos, code listings, etc. <figcaption> caption of a figure <mark> marked/highlighted text <time> a date/time <wbr>Defines a possible line-break
  16. 16. Custom Data Attributes Can be used to add metadata about any element within an HTML5 page They are ignored by the validator for HTML5 documents They all start with the data- pattern They can be read by any browser using JavaScript via the getAttribute() method
  17. 17. Roadmap •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Canvas & SVG
  18. 18. Forms Main Goal: reduce the Javascript for validation and format management Example:
  19. 19. Form Input Types Form input types degrade gracefully à Unknown input types are treated as text-type http://bit.ly/I65jai
  20. 20. Form Input Types <input type="search"> for search boxes <input type="number"> for spinboxes <input type="range"> for sliders <input type="color"> for color pickers <input type="tel"> for telephone numbers <input type="url"> for web addresses <input type="email"> for email addresses <input type="date"> for calendar date pickers <input type="month"> for months <input type="week"> for weeks <input type="time"> for timestamps <input type="datetime"> for precise timestamps <input type="datetime-local"> for local dates and times
  21. 21. Form Field Attributes Autofocus –  Support for placing the focus on a specific form element <input type="text“ autofocus> Placeholder –  Support for placing placeholder text inside a form field <input type="text“ placeholder=“your name”>
  22. 22. Roadmap •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Server-Sent Events •  Canvas & SVG
  23. 23. Audio <audio> : a standard way to embed an audio file on a web page <audio controls> <source src="song.ogg" type="audio/ogg" /> <source src="song.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" /> Not Supported </audio> Multiple sources à the browser will use the first recognized format
  24. 24. Audio Attributes
  25. 25. Audio JavaScript API HTML5 provides a set of JavaScript APIs for interacting with an audio element For example: play() pause() load() currentTime ended volume… à http://www.w3.org/wiki/HTML/Elements/audio
  26. 26. Video <video> : a standard way to embed a video file on a web page <video width="320" height="240" controls> <source src="movie.mp4" type="video/mp4" /> <source src="movie.ogg" type="video/ogg" /> Not Supported </video> Multiple sources à the browser will use the first recognized format
  27. 27. Video attributes
  28. 28. Video JavaScript API HTML5 provides a set of Javascript APIs for interacting with a video element For example: play() pause() load() currentTime ended volume… à http://www.w3.org/wiki/HTML/Elements/video
  29. 29. A note on YouTube videos <video> works only if you have a direct link to the MP4 file of the YouTube video If you have just a link to the YouTube page of your video, simply embed it in your page <iframe width="560" height="315" src="http:// www.youtube.com/embed/Wp20Sc8qPeo" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>
  30. 30. Roadmap •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Canvas & SVG
  31. 31. Offline Data LocalStorage stores data in key/value pairs it is tied to a specific domain/app persists across browser sessions SessionStorage stores data in key/value pairs it is tied to a specific domain/app data is erased when a browser session ends
  32. 32. Offline Data WebSQL Database relational DB support for tables creation, insert, update, … transactional tied to a specific domain/app persists across browser sessions Its evolution is called IndexedDB, but it is actually not fully supported yet in iOS
  33. 33. Offline data Mobile browsers compatibility matrix We will have a dedicated lecture to offline data storage on mobile devices
  34. 34. Roadmap •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Canvas & SVG
  35. 35. Geolocalization Gets Latitude and Longitude from the user’s browser There is also a watchPosition method wich calls a JS function every time the user moves We will have a dedicated lecture to geolocalization on mobile devices
  36. 36. Example function getLocation() { if(navigator.geolocation) { navigator.geolocation.getCurrentPosition(showPosition); } else { console.log(‘no geolocalization’); } } function showPosition(position) { console.log(position.coords.latitude); console.log(position.coords.longitude); }
  37. 37. getCurrentPosition()
  38. 38. Roadmap •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Canvas & SVG
  39. 39. WebSockets Bidirectional, full-duplex communication between devices and server Specifically suited for chat, videogames, drawings sharing, real-time info Requires a Web Socket Server to handle the protocol
  40. 40. Alternative - Polling via AJAX + Near real-time updates (not purely real-time) + easy to implement + no new technologies needed -  they are requested from the client and cause increased network traffic -  AJAX requests generally have a small payload and relatively high amount of http headers (wasted bandwith)
  41. 41. Roadmap •  Intro •  New Structural Tags and Attributes •  Forms •  Audio & Video •  Offline Data •  Geolocalization •  Web Sockets •  Canvas & SVG
  42. 42. Canvas & SVG Canvas & SVG allow you to create graphics inside the browser http://bit.ly/Ie4HKu
  43. 43. Canvas & SVG Canvas draws 2D graphics, on the fly you use JavaScript to draw on the canvas   rendered pixel by pixel SVG describes 2D graphics in XML every element is available within the SVG DOM JavaScript event handlers for an element
  44. 44. Roadmap Anatomy of a web app HTML5 CSS3
  45. 45. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  46. 46. Intro Let’s imagine Flipboard without CSS3
  47. 47. CSS3 Main Drivers Simplicity –  less images –  less markup –  less JavaScript –  no Flash Better performance –  fewer HTTP requests Better Search Engine Placement –  text as real text, not images or Flash contents –  speed
  48. 48. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  49. 49. Basics Generic Syntax: selector { property: value; property2: value2, value3; ... }
  50. 50. Inheritance If an HTML element B is nested into another element A à B inherits the style of A unless B has an explicit style definition body { background-color: red; } div { background-color: green; }
  51. 51. Combining Selectors Selectors can be combined h1, h2, h3 { background-color: red; }
  52. 52. Lists div { list-style-image: url(image.png); list-style-position: inside; list-style-style: circle; } Position inside | outside Style disc | circle square | decimal lower-roman | upper-roman | lower-alpha | upper-alpha | none
  53. 53. Backgrounds You can style a background of any element div { background:url(img.png), url(img2.png); background-size:80px 60px; background-repeat:no-repeat; background-origin:content-box; } repeat no-repeat | repeat repeat-x | repeat-y origin top left | top center | top right | center left | border-box | content-box etc.
  54. 54. Background & Colors div { background-color: blue; background-color: rgba(0, 0, 255, 0.2); } RGBA = RGB + opacity
  55. 55. Gradients They can be used in every place you can use an image div { background: -webkit-gradient(linear, right top, left bottom, from(red), green)); } linear à the type of gradient (also radial, or repeating-linear) right-top à start of the gradient left-bottom à end of the gradient from à starting color to à final color
  56. 56. Text p { color: grey; letter-spacing: 5px; text-align: center; text-decoration: underline; text-indent: 10px; text-transform: capitalize; word-spacing: 10px; } text-align left | right center | justify Text-decoration none underline overline line throughtext-transform none | capitalize | lowercase | uppercase
  57. 57. Text Effects p { text-shadow: 2px 10px 5px #FF0000; text-overflow: ellipsis; word-wrap:break-word; } 2px à horizontal shadow 10px à vertical shadow 5px à blur distance #FF0000 à color
  58. 58. Other Text Properties
  59. 59. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  60. 60. Selectors Classical ways to select elements in CSS2: •  by type a { color: red; } •  by id #redLink { color: red; } •  by class .redLink { color: red; }
  61. 61. Other Selectors from CSS1 & CSS2 •  div p à all <p> elements inside a <div> •  div>p à all <p> elements where the parent is a <div> •  div+p à all <p> elements that are placed immediately after <div> •  [target] à all elements with a target attribute •  [target=_blank] à all elements with target= "_blank“ •  p:first-child à every <p> element that is the first child of its parent
  62. 62. Some selectors introduced in CSS3 •  a[src^="https"] à every <a> element whose src attribute value begins with "https” •  a[src$=".pdf"] à every <a> element whose src attribute value ends with ".pdf” •  a[src*=“mobile"] à every <a> element whose src attribute value contains the substring “mobile“ •  p:nth-child(2) à every <p> element that is the second child of its parent •  p:nth-last-child(2) à every <p> element that is the second child of its parent, counting from the last child •  :not(p) à every element that is not a <p> element
  63. 63. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  64. 64. The Box Model http://www.adamkaplan.me/grid/
  65. 65. http://www.adamkaplan.me/grid/ Tip Tells the browser not to include borders and padding in the width of your content à  you have more control on the layout of your app
  66. 66. http://www.adamkaplan.me/grid/ Tip
  67. 67. Borders & dimensions div { width: 100px; height: 40px; padding: 10px; border: 5px solid gray; margin: 10px; border-radius: 10px; box-shadow: 10px 10px 5px red; }
  68. 68. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  69. 69. The Display Property It specifies if and how an element is displayed div { display: none; } The element will be hidden, and the page will be displayed as if the element is not there
  70. 70. The Display Property Other usual values: block •  a block element is an element that takes up the full width available, and has a line break before and after it inline •  an inline element only takes up as much width as necessary •  it can contain only other inline elements inline-block •  the element is placed as an inline element (on the same line as adjacent content), but it behaves as a block element –  you can set width and height, top and bottom margins and paddings
  71. 71. The visibility Property It specifies if an element should be visible or hidden div.hidden { visibility: hidden; } The element will be hidden, but still affect the layout It can also be set to visible, collapse (only for tables), inherit
  72. 72. Flex Box It helps in styling elements to be arranged horizontally or vertically box: •  a new value for the display property •  a new property box-orient #div { display: box; box-orient: horizontal; }
  73. 73. Flex Box main elements display: box opts an element and its immediate children into the flexible box model box-orient Values: horizontal | vertical | inherit How should the box's children be aligned box-direction Values: normal | reverse | inherit sets the order in which the elements will be displayed
  74. 74. Flex Box main elements box-pack Values: start | end | center | justify Sets the alignment of the box along the box-orient axis box-orient: horizontal; box-pack: end;
  75. 75. Flex Box main elements box-align Values: start | end | center | baseline | stretch Sets how the box's children are aligned in the box box-orient: horizontal; box-align: center;
  76. 76. Flex Box Children by default child elements are not flexible à their dimension is set according to their width box-flex can be set to any integer It sets how a child element occupy the box’s space #box1 { width: 100px; } #box2 { box-flex: 1; } #box3 { box-flex: 2; }
  77. 77. Positioning •  Static •  Relative •  Absolute •  Fixed
  78. 78. Static Positioning Elements will stack one on top of the next http://bit.ly/I8cEaF
  79. 79. Relative Positioning Elements behave exactly the same way as statically positioned elements we can adjust a relatively positioned element with offset properties:  top, right, bottom, and left http://bit.ly/I8cEaF
  80. 80. Relative Positioning It is possible to create a coordinate system for child elements http://bit.ly/I8cEaF
  81. 81. Absolute Positioning an absolutely positioned element is removed from the normal flow it won’t affect or be affected by any other element in the flow http://bit.ly/I8cEaF
  82. 82. Fixed Positioning shares all the rules of an absolutely positioned element a fixed element does not scroll with the document http://bit.ly/I8cEaF
  83. 83. Float A floated element will move as far to the left or right as it can Elements are floated only horizontally The float CSS property can accept one of 4 values:  left, right, none, and inherit
  84. 84. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  85. 85. Fonts Before CSS3, web designers had to use fonts that were already installed on the user's device With CSS3, web designers can use whatever font they like @font-face { font-family: NAME; src: url(Dimbo.ttf); font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; } font-style normal italic oblique font-weight normal bold 100 200 …
  86. 86. Fonts Usage To use the font for an HTML element, refer to the name of the font (NAME) through the font-family property div { font-family: NAME; }
  87. 87. Some Fonts Sources... www.dafont.com www.urbanfonts.com www.losttype.com
  88. 88. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  89. 89. Visual Effects Three main mechanisms: 1.  Transforms (both 2D and 3D) 2.  Transitions 3.  Animations
  90. 90. Transforms A transform is an effect that lets an element change shape, size, position, … You can transform your elements using 2D or 3D transformations http://bit.ly/IroJ7S
  91. 91. Transforms http://bit.ly/IrpUnX
  92. 92. Transforms http://bit.ly/IrpUnX
  93. 93. Transitions They are used to add an effect when changing from one style to another The effect can be gradual The effect will start when the specified CSS property changes value
  94. 94. Transition syntax A transition contains 4 properties: •  property –  the name of the CSS property the transition effect is for (can be all) •  duration –  how many seconds (or milliseconds) the transition effect takes to complete •  timing-function –  linear, ease, ease-in, ease-out, ease-in-out •  delay –  when the transition effect will start
  95. 95. Example .imageThumbnail { width; 200px; transition: all ease-in 3s; } .zoomed { position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 0px; width: 100%; } $(‘.imageThumbnail’).addClass(‘zoomed’);
  96. 96. Animations An animation is an effect that lets an element gradually change from one style to another You can change style in loop, repeating, etc. To bind an animation to an element, you have to specify at least: 1.  Name of the animation 2.  Duration of the animation div { animation: test 5s ease-in; }
  97. 97. Animation Definition An animation is defined in a keyframe It splits the animation into parts, and assign a specific style to each part The various steps within an animation are given as percentuals 0% à beginning of the animation (from) 100% à end of the animation (to)
  98. 98. Example @keyframes test{ 0% {background: red; left:0px; top:0px;} 25% {background: yellow; left:200px; top:0px;} 50% {background: blue; left:200px; top:200px;} 75% {background: green; left:0px; top:200px;} 100% {background: red; left:0px; top:0px;} } result in http://goo.gl/kFZrLs
  99. 99. Animation Properties http://bit.ly/IrpUnX
  100. 100. Transitions VS Animations •  Trigger –  Transitions must be bound to a CSS property change –  Animations start autonomously •  States –  Transitions have start and end states –  Animations can have multiple states •  Repeats –  Transitions can be perfomed once for each activation –  Animations can be looped
  101. 101. Roadmap •  Intro •  Basics •  Selectors •  Box Model •  Positioning & Floats •  Fonts •  Visual Effects •  Media Queries
  102. 102. Media Types Media Queries are based on Media Types A media type is a specification of the actual media that is being used to access the page Examples of media types include •  screen: computer screens •  print: printed document •  braille: for Braille-based devices •  tv: for television devices
  103. 103. Media Types There are two main ways to specify a media type: •  <link> in the HTML page <link rel=“stylesheet” href=“style.css” media=“screen” /> •  @media within the CSS file @media screen { div { color: red; } }
  104. 104. Media Queries They allow you to to change style based on specific conditions For example, they can be about •  device’s display size •  orientation of the device •  Resolution of the display •  ...
  105. 105. Example http://bit.ly/I5mR1u
  106. 106. Media Queries A media query is a boolean expression The CSS associated with the media query expression is applied only if it evaluates to true A media query consists of 1.  a media type 2.  a set of media features @media screen and orientation: portrait
  107. 107. The Full Media Feature List http://slidesha.re/I5oFHZ
  108. 108. The AND operator You can combine multiple expressions by using the and operator @media screen and (max-device-width: 480px){ /* your style */ }
  109. 109. The COMMA operator The comma keyword acts as an or operator @media screen and (color), handheld and (color) { /* your style */ }
  110. 110. The NOT operator You can explicitly ignore a specific type of device by using the not operator @media not (width:480px) { /* your style */ }
  111. 111. Examples Retina Displays @media only screen and -webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2 iPad in landscape orientation @media only screen and (device-width: 768px) and (orientation: landscape) iPhone and Android devices @media only screen and (min-device-width: 320px) and (max-device-width: 480px)
  112. 112. References http://www.w3schools.com https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS

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