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Html5 CSS3 jQuery Basic


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Html5 CSS3 jQuery Basics

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Html5 CSS3 jQuery Basic

  1. 1. INNOPARK Mobile Team HTML5, CSS3, js, jQuery - Tools, Technologies and Projects Ravi Yelluripati May'2013 Head Mobile Gaming Ravi Yelluripati
  2. 2. HTML5 2 Ravi Yelluripati
  3. 3. HTML5 whats new ? New Elements New Attributes Full CSS3 Support Video and Audio 2D/3D Graphics Local Storage Local SQL Database Web Applications New features should be based on HTML, CSS, DOM, and JavaScript Reduce the need for external plugins (like Flash) Better error handling More markup to replace scripting HTML5 should be device independent The development process should be visible to the public But why...? 3 Ravi Yelluripati
  4. 4. HTML5 – new features Some of the most interesting new features in HTML5: The <canvas> element for 2D drawing ● The <video> and <audio> elements for media playback ● Support for local storage ● New content-specific elements, like <article>, <footer>, <header>, <nav>, <section> ● New form controls, like calendar, date, time, email, url, search ● 4 Ravi Yelluripati
  5. 5. HTML5 – new tags The New <canvas> Element <canvas> Used to draw graphics, on the fly, via scripting (usually JavaScript) New Media Elements <audio> Defines sound content <video> Defines a video or movie <source> Defines multiple media resources for <video> and <audio> <embed> Defines a container for an external application or interactive content (a plug-in) <track> Defines text tracks for <video> and <audio> New Form Elements <datalist> Specifies a list of pre-defined options for input controls <keygen> Defines a key-pair generator field (for forms) <output> Defines the result of a calculation 5 Ravi Yelluripati
  6. 6. HTML5 – New Semantic/Structural Elements HTML5 offers new elements for better structure: <article> Defines an article <aside> Defines content aside from the page content <bdi> Isolates a part of text that might be formatted in a different direction from other text outside it <command> Defines a command button that a user can invoke <details> Defines additional details that the user can view or hide <dialog> Defines a dialog box or window <summary> Defines a visible heading for a <details> element <figure> Specifies self-contained content, like illustrations, diagrams, photos, code listings, etc. <figcaption> Defines a caption for a <figure> element <footer> Defines a footer for a document or section <header> Defines a header for a document or section <hgroup> Groups a set of <h1> to <h6> elements when a heading has multiple levels <mark> Defines marked/highlighted text <meter> Defines a scalar measurement within a known range (a gauge) <nav> Defines navigation links <progress> Represents the progress of a task <ruby> Defines a ruby annotation (for East Asian typography) <rt> Defines an explanation/pronunciation of characters (for East Asian typography) <rp> Defines what to show in browsers that do not support ruby annotations <section> Defines a section in a document <time> Defines a date/time <wbr> Defines a possible line-break 6 Ravi Yelluripati
  7. 7. HTML5 – Removed Elements HTML 4.01 elements are removed from HTML5: <acronym> <applet> <basefont> <big> <center> <dir> <font> <frame> <frameset> <noframes> <strike> <tt> 7 Ravi Yelluripati
  8. 8. HTML5 - Canvas The <canvas> element is used to draw graphics, on the fly, on a web page. Its a container for graphics. We should use a scripting language to create objects We can draw a red rectangle, a gradient rectangle, a multicolor rectangle, and some multicolor text onto the canvas, for example 8 Ravi Yelluripati
  9. 9. HTML5 – Canvas Example <canvas id="myCanvas" width="200" height="100" style="border:1px solid #c3c3c3;"> Your browser does not support the HTML5 canvas tag. </canvas> <script> var c=document.getElementById("myCanvas"); var ctx=c.getContext("2d"); ctx.fillStyle="#FF0000"; ctx.fillRect(0,0,150,75); </script> 9 Ravi Yelluripati
  10. 10. HTML5 - SVG What is SVG? SVG stands for Scalable Vector Graphics SVG is used to define vector-based graphics for the Web SVG defines the graphics in XML format SVG graphics do NOT lose any quality if they are zoomed or resized Every element and every attribute in SVG files can be animated SVG is a W3C recommendation Advantages of using SVG over other image formats (like JPEG and GIF) are: SVG images can be created and edited with any text editor SVG images can be searched, indexed, scripted, and compressed SVG images are scalable SVG images can be printed with high quality at any resolution SVG images are zoomable (and the image can be zoomed without degradation) 10 Ravi Yelluripati
  11. 11. HTML5 – Inline SVG <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> <svg xmlns="" version="1.1" height="190"> <polygon points="100,10 40,180 190,60 10,60 160,180" style="fill:lime;stroke:purple;stroke-width :5;fill-rule:evenodd;"> </svg> </body> </html> 11 Ravi Yelluripati
  12. 12. HTML5 – SVG vs Canvas SVG is a language for describing 2D graphics in XML. Canvas draws 2D graphics, on the fly (with a JavaScript). SVG is XML based, which means that every element is available within the SVG DOM. You can attach JavaScript event handlers for an element. In SVG, each drawn shape is remembered as an object. If attributes of an SVG object are changed, the browser can automatically re-render the shape. Canvas is rendered pixel by pixel. In canvas, once the graphic is drawn, it is forgotten by the browser. If its position should be changed, the entire scene needs to be redrawn, including any objects that might have been covered by the graphic. 12 Ravi Yelluripati
  13. 13. HTML5 – Canvas vs SVG Canvas SVG Resolution dependent No support for event handlers Poor text rendering capabilities You can save the resulting image as .png or .jpg Well suited for graphic-intensive games Resolution independent Support for event handlers Best suited for applications with large rendering areas (Google Maps) Slow rendering if complex (anything that uses the DOM a lot will be slow) Not suited for game applications 13 Ravi Yelluripati
  14. 14. HTML5 – drag and drop! In HTML5, drag and drop is part of the standard, and any element can be draggable! <script> function allowDrop(ev) { ev.preventDefault(); } function drag(ev) { ev.dataTransfer.setData("Text",; } function drop(ev) { ev.preventDefault(); var data=ev.dataTransfer.getData("Text");; } </script> 14 Ravi Yelluripati
  15. 15. HTML5 - Geolocation The HTML5 Geolocation API is used to get the geographical position of a user. Since this can compromise user privacy, the position is not available unless the user approves it. <script> var x=document.getElementById("demo"); function getLocation() { if (navigator.geolocation) { navigator.geolocation.getCurrentPosition(showPosition); } else{x.innerHTML="Geolocation is not supported by this browser.";} } function showPosition(position) { x.innerHTML="Latitude: " + position.coords.latitude + "<br>Longitude: " + position.coords.longitude; } </script> 15 Ravi Yelluripati
  16. 16. HTML5 - video HTML5 defines a new element which specifies a standard way to embed a video/movie on a web page: the <video> element. <video width="320" height="240" controls> <source src="movie.mp4" type="video/mp4"> <source src="movie.ogg" type="video/ogg"> Your browser does not support the video tag. </video> 16 Ravi Yelluripati
  17. 17. HTML5 - audio HTML5 defines a new element which specifies a standard way to embed an audio file on a web page: the <audio> element.. <audio controls> <source src="horse.ogg" type="audio/ogg"> <source src="horse.mp3" type="audio/mpeg"> Your browser does not support the audio element. </audio> 17 Ravi Yelluripati
  18. 18. HTML5 – new input types HTML5 has several new input types for forms. These new features allow better input control and validation. Color date Datetime datetime-local Email month number range search tel time url week <form action="demo_form.asp"> Select your favorite color: <input type="color" name="favcolor"><br> <input type="submit"> </form> 18 Ravi Yelluripati
  19. 19. HTML5 –datalist The <datalist> element specifies a list of pre-defined options for an <input> element. The <datalist> element is used to provide an "autocomplete" feature on <input> elements. Users will see a drop-down list of pre-defined options as they input data. <form action="demo_form.asp" method="get"> <input list="browsers" name="browser"> <datalist id="browsers"> <option value="Internet Explorer"> <option value="Firefox"> <option value="Chrome"> <option value="Opera"> <option value="Safari"> </datalist> <input type="submit"> </form> 19 Ravi Yelluripati
  20. 20. HTML5 – keygen The purpose of the <keygen> element is to provide a secure way to authenticate users. The <keygen> tag specifies a key-pair generator field in a form. When the form is submitted, two keys are generated, one private and one public. The private key is stored locally, and the public key is sent to the server. The public key could be used to generate a client certificate to authenticate the user in the future. <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> <form action="demo_keygen.asp" method="get"> Username: <input type="text" name="usr_name"> Encryption: <keygen name="security"> <input type="submit"> </form> </body> </html> 20 Ravi Yelluripati
  21. 21. HTML5 – output The <output> element represents the result of a calculation (like one performed by a script). <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> <form oninput="x.value=parseInt(a.value)+parseInt(b.value)">0 <input type="range" id="a" value="50">100 + <input type="number" id="b" value="50">= <output name="x" for="a b"></output> </form> </body> </html> 21 Ravi Yelluripati
  22. 22. HTML5 – semantic elements A semantic element clearly describes its meaning to both the browser and the developer. Examples of non-semantic elements: <div> and <span> - Tells nothing about its content. Examples of semantic elements: <form>, <table>, and <img> - Clearly defines its content. HTML5 offers new semantic elements to clearly define different parts of a web page: <header> Other elements ... <nav> <section> <article> <article> <hgroup> <aside> <mark> <figcaption> <time> <figure> <footer> 22 Ravi Yelluripati
  23. 23. HTML5 – Web Storage 1/3 ....a better local storage than cookies With HTML5, web pages can store data locally within the user's browser. Earlier, this was done with cookies. However, Web Storage is more secure and faster. The data is not included with every server request, but used ONLY when asked for. It is also possible to store large amounts of data, without affecting the website's performance. The data is stored in key/value pairs, and a web page can only access data stored by itself. There are two new objects for storing data on the client: localStorage - stores data with no expiration date sessionStorage - stores data for one session 23 Ravi Yelluripati
  24. 24. HTML5 – Web Storage 2/3 The localStorage Object >> stores the data with no expiration date. The data will not be deleted when the browser is closed, and will be available the next day, week, or year. Example: localStorage.lastname="Bunty"; document.getElementById("result").innerHTML="Last name: " + localStorage.lastname; Example explained: Create a localStorage key/value pair with key="lastname" and value="Smith" Retrieve the value of the "lastname" key and insert it into the element with id="result" if (localStorage.clickcount) //one more example { localStorage.clickcount=Number(localStorage.clickcount)+1; } else { localStorage.clickcount=1; } document.getElementById("result").innerHTML="You have clicked the button " + localStorage.clickcount + " time(s)."; 24 Ravi Yelluripati
  25. 25. HTML5 – Web Storage 3/3 The sessionStorage object is equal to the localStorage object, except that it stores the data for only one session. The data is deleted when the user closes the browser window. if (sessionStorage.clickcount) { sessionStorage.clickcount=Number(sessionStorage.clickcount)+1; } else { sessionStorage.clickcount=1; } document.getElementById("result").innerHTML="You have clicked the button " + sessionStorage.clickcount + " time(s) in this session."; 25 Ravi Yelluripati
  26. 26. HTML5 – Application Cache 1/5 HTML5 introduces application cache, which means that a web application is cached, and accessible without an internet connection. Application cache gives an application three advantages: 1. Offline browsing - users can use the application when they're offline 2. Speed - cached resources load faster 3. Reduced server load - the browser will only download updated/changed resources from the server <!DOCTYPE HTML> <html manifest="demo.appcache"> <body> The content of the document...... </body> </html> 26 Ravi Yelluripati
  27. 27. HTML5 – Application Cache 2/5 The Manifest File It is a simple text file, which tells the browser what to cache (and what to never cache). The manifest file has three sections: CACHE MANIFEST - Files listed under this header will be cached after they are downloaded for the first time NETWORK - Files listed under this header require a connection to the server, and will never be cached FALLBACK - Files listed under this header specifies fallback pages if a page is inaccessible 27 Ravi Yelluripati
  28. 28. HTML5 – Application Cache 3/5 CACHE MANIFEST /theme.css /logo.gif /main.js NETWORK: login.asp -------------NETWORK: * FALLBACK: /html/ /offline.html 28 Ravi Yelluripati
  29. 29. HTML5 – Application Cache 4/5 The complete manifest file CACHE MANIFEST # 2012-02-21 v1.0.0 /theme.css /logo.gif /main.js NETWORK: login.asp FALLBACK: /html/ /offline.html 29 Ravi Yelluripati
  30. 30. HTML5 – Application Cache 5/5 Updating the Cache Once an application is cached, it remains cached until one of the following happens: The user clears the browser's cache ● The manifest file is modified (see tip below) ● The application cache is programmatically updated ● 30 Ravi Yelluripati
  31. 31. HTML5 – Web Worker 1/2 What is a Web Worker? A web worker is a JavaScript running in the background, without affecting the performance of the page. A web worker is a JavaScript that runs in the background, independently of other scripts, without affecting the performance of the page. You can continue to do whatever you want: clicking, selecting things, etc., while the web worker runs in the background. 31 Ravi Yelluripati
  32. 32. HTML5 – Web Worker 2/2 Example .... <p>Count numbers: <output id="result"></output></p> <button onclick="startWorker()">Start Worker</button> <button onclick="stopWorker()">Stop Worker</button> <br><br> <script> var w; function startWorker() { if(typeof(Worker)!=="undefined") { if(typeof(w)=="undefined") { w=new Worker("demo_workers.js"); } w.onmessage = function (event) { document.getElementById("result").innerHTML=e; }; } else { document.getElementById("result").innerHTML=" Sorry, your browser does not support Web Workers..."; } } function stopWorker() { w.terminate(); } </script> 32 Ravi Yelluripati
  33. 33. HTML5 – Server-Sent Event A server-sent event is when a web page automatically gets updates from a server. var source=new EventSource("demo_sse.php"); source.onmessage=function(event) { document.getElementById("result") + "<br>"; }; 33 Ravi Yelluripati
  34. 34. HTML5 – playing youtube videos <iframe width="420" height="345" src=""> </iframe> //using iframe <embed width="420" height="345" src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash"> </embed> //embedded video 34 Ravi Yelluripati
  35. 35. HTML5 – do it yourself /html/html_examples.asp 35 Ravi Yelluripati
  36. 36. CSS 36 Ravi Yelluripati
  37. 37. CSS Cascading Style Sheets .... and CSS3 37 Ravi Yelluripati
  38. 38. What is CSS? Styles define how to display HTML elements Styles were added to HTML 4.0 to solve a problem External Style Sheets can save a lot of work External Style Sheets are stored in CSS files 38 Ravi Yelluripati
  39. 39. What is CSS? Styles define how to display HTML elements Styles were added to HTML 4.0 to solve a problem External Style Sheets can save a lot of work External Style Sheets are stored in CSS files 39 Ravi Yelluripati
  40. 40. CSS Syntax A CSS rule has two main parts: a selector, and one or more declarations: Source: 40 Ravi Yelluripati
  41. 41. CSS Comments /*This is a comment*/ p { text-align:center; /*This is another comment*/ color:black; font-family:arial; } 41 Ravi Yelluripati
  42. 42. CSS Id and Class The id selector is used to specify a style for a single, unique element. The class selector is used to specify a style for a group of elements. 42 Ravi Yelluripati
  43. 43. CSS – How to insert? External Style Sheet <head> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="mystyle.css"> </head> Internal Style Sheet <head> <style> hr {color:sienna;} p {margin-left:20px;} body {background-image:url("images/back40.gif");} </style> </head> Inline Style Sheet <p style="color:sienna;margin-left:20px">This is a paragraph.</p> 43 Ravi Yelluripati
  44. 44. CSS – Multiple Styles - priority all the styles will "cascade" into a new "virtual" style sheet by the following rules, where number four has the highest priority: Browser default External style sheet Internal style sheet (in the head section) Inline style (inside an HTML element) 44 Ravi Yelluripati
  45. 45. CSS – backgrounds CSS properties used for background effects: Background-color {background-color:#b0c4de;} Background-image {background-image:url('paper.gif');} Background-repeat {background-repeat:repeat-x;} Background-attachment {background image is fixed or scrolls with the rest of the page.} Background-position {background-repeat:no-repeat; background-position:right top;} 45 Ravi Yelluripati
  46. 46. CSS – text 1/2 Many settings are possible: {color:blue;} //#00ff00, rgb(255,0,0) {text-align:center;} //right, justify {text-decoration:none;} //remove underlines from URL//overline, line-through,underline {text-indent:50px;} {direction:rtl;} //Specifies the text direction/writing direction {letter-spacing:2px;} //-3px, Increases or decreases the space between characters in a text {line-height:70%;} // Sets the line height Text-shadow // Specifies the shadow effect added to text {text-transform:uppercase;} //capitalize, lowercase; {vertical-align:text-top;} // Sets the vertical alignment of an element {word-spacing:30px;} //try filename=playcss_word-spacing&preval=10px 46 Ravi Yelluripati
  47. 47. CSS – text – whitespace property 2/2 normal >> Sequences of whitespace will collapse into a single whitespace. Text will wrap when necessary. This is default nowrap >> Sequences of whitespace will collapse into a single whitespace. Text will never wrap to the next line. The text continues on the same line until a <br /> tag is encountered pre >> Whitespace is preserved by the browser. Text will only wrap on line breaks Acts like the <pre> tag in HTML pre-line >> Sequences of whitespace will collapse into a single whitespace. Text will wrap when necessary, and on line breaks pre-wrap >> Whitespace is preserved by the browser. Text will wrap when necessary, and on line breaks inherit >> Specifies that the value of the white-space property should be inherited from the parent element 47 Ravi Yelluripati
  48. 48. CSS – font CSS font properties define the font family, boldness, size, and the style of a text. 48 Ravi Yelluripati
  49. 49. CSS – font families In CSS, there are two types of font family names: generic family - a group of font families with a similar look (like "Serif" or "Monospace") font family - a specific font family (like "Times New Roman" or "Arial") Generic family Font family Description Serif Times New Roman Georgia Serif fonts have small lines at the ends on some characters Sans-serif Arial Verdana "Sans" means without - these fonts do not have the lines at the ends of characters Monospace Courier New Lucida Console All monospace characters have the same width 49 Ravi Yelluripati
  50. 50. CSS – list style <!DOCTYPE html> <ul class="b"> <html> <li>Coffee</li> <head> <li>Tea</li> <style> <li>Coca Cola</li> ul.a {list-style-type:circle;} </ul> ul.b {list-style-type:square;} <p>Example of ordered lists:</p> ol.c {list-style-type:upper-roman;} <ol class="c"> ol.d {list-style-type:lower-alpha;} <li>Coffee</li> </style> <li>Tea</li> </head> <li>Coca Cola</li> <body> <p>Example of unordered lists:</p> <ul class="a"> <li>Coffee</li> <li>Tea</li> <li>Coca Cola</li> </ul> </ol> <ol class="d"> <li>Coffee</li> <li>Tea</li> <li>Coca Cola</li> </ol> </body> </html> 50 Ravi Yelluripati
  51. 51. CSS – units Unit Description % percentage in inch cm centimeter mm em millimeter 1em is equal to the current font size. 2em means 2 times the size of the current font. E.g., if an element is displayed with a font of 12 pt, then '2em' is 24 pt. The 'em' is a very useful unit in CSS, since it can adapt automatically to the font that the reader uses ex one ex is the x-height of a font (x-height is usually about half the font-size) pt point (1 pt is the same as 1/72 inch) pc pica (1 pc is the same as 12 points) px pixels (a dot on the computer screen) 51 Ravi Yelluripati
  52. 52. CSS3 – support CSS3 is not yet a W3C standard, but the major browsers support many of the new properties. Check the link below for upto date information on supported features by various browsers..... 52 Ravi Yelluripati
  53. 53. CSS3 – reference Use the following link to see all the features of CSS including the CSS version 3..... Use the following link to see all the selectors of CSS..... 53 Ravi Yelluripati
  54. 54. CSS – box model All HTML elements can be considered as boxes. In CSS, the term "box model" is used when talking about design and layout. 54 Ravi Yelluripati
  55. 55. CSS – border styles <!DOCTYPE html> <body> <html> <p class="dotted">A dotted border.</p> <head> <style> p.none {border-style:none;} p.dotted {border-style:dotted;} p.dashed {border-style:dashed;} p.solid {border-style:solid;} p.double {border-style:double;} p.groove {border-style:groove;} p.ridge {border-style:ridge;} p.inset {border-style:inset;} p.outset {border-style:outset;} <p class="none">No border.</p> <p class="dashed">A dashed border.</p> <p class="solid">A solid border.</p> <p class="double">A double border.</p> <p class="groove">A groove border.</p> <p class="ridge">A ridge border.</p> <p class="inset">An inset border.</p> <p class="outset">An outset border.</p> p.hidden {border-style:hidden;} <p class="hidden">A hidden border.</p> </style> </body> </head> </html> 55 Ravi Yelluripati
  56. 56. CSS – outline The outline is not a part of an element's dimensions; the element's total width and height is not affected by the width of the outline. Property Description Values outline Sets all the outline properties in one declaration Outline-color,outline-style outline-width,inherit outline-color Sets the color of an outline color_name,hex_number rgb_number,invert,inherit outline-style Sets the style of an outline None,dotted,dashed,solid ,double,groove,ridge,inse t,outset,inherit outline-width Sets the width of an outline Thin,medium,thick,length ,inherit 56 Ravi Yelluripati
  57. 57. CSS – grouping and nesting selectors <!DOCTYPE html> <body> <html> <p>This paragraph has blue text, and is center aligned.</p> <head> <div class="marked"> <style> <p>This paragraph has not blue text.</p> p </div> { <p>p elements inside a "marked" classed element keeps the color:blue; alignment style, but has a different text color.</p> text-align:center; </body> } </html> .marked { background-color:red; } .marked p { color:white; } </style> </head> 57 Ravi Yelluripati
  58. 58. CSS – display and visibility of elements The display property specifies if/how an element is displayed, and the visibility property specifies if an element should be visible or hidden. <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <style> h1.hidden {visibility:hidden;} h3 {display:none;} </style> </head> <body> <h1>This is a visible heading</h1> <h1 class="hidden">This is a hidden heading</h1> <p>Notice that the hidden heading still takes up space.</p> <h2> This is a sub-heading</h2> <hr> <h3> This is one more sub-heading</h3> <hr> </body> </html> 58 Ravi Yelluripati
  59. 59. CSS – positioning The CSS positioning properties allow you to position an element. Static Positioning Fixed Positioning Relative Positioning Absolute Positioning Overlapping Elements Examples: 59 Ravi Yelluripati
  60. 60. CSS – horizontal align, psuedo classes Examples: filename=trycss_align_container First Word First letter <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <style> h1:before {content:url(smiley.gif);} h1:after {content:url(smiley.gif);} </style> </head> <body> <h1>This is a heading</h1> </html> 60 Ravi Yelluripati
  61. 61. javascript 61 Ravi Yelluripati
  62. 62. javascript – Basics 1/3 <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> Welcome Hello friends <h1>Welcome</h1> How are you? <p id="demo">A Paragraph.</p> <div id="myDIV">A DIV.</div> <script> document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML="Hello friends"; document.getElementById("myDIV").innerHTML="How are you?"; </script> </body> </html> 62 Ravi Yelluripati
  63. 63. javascript – Basics 2/3 <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> My First Web Page <h1>Welcome to My Web Page</h1> My First JavaScript <p id="demo">My First Paragraph.</p> <script> document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML="My First JavaScript"; </script> </body> </html> 63 Ravi Yelluripati
  64. 64. javascript – Basics 3/3 <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> My Web Page <h1>My Web Page</h1> A Paragraph. <p id="demo">A Paragraph.</p> <button type="button" onclick="myFunction()">Try it</button> <p><strong>Note:</strong> myFunction is stored in an external file called "myScript.js".</p> <script src="myScript.js"></script> </body> </html> Note: myFunction is stored in an external file called "myScript.js". 64 Ravi Yelluripati
  65. 65. javascript – Statements, Blocks and Comments <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> <h1>Welcome to My Web Page</h1> <p id="demo">My First Paragraph.</p> <script> //This is a single line comment /* We can also add Multi-line comments just like we do in C/C++ */ //The line below is a javascript statement document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML="My First JavaScript"; </script> </body> </html> Block 65 Ravi Yelluripati
  66. 66. javascript – variables <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> Aditya Bunty <script> var firstname; firstname="Aditya"; document.write(firstname); document.write("<br>"); firstname="Bunty"; document.write(firstname); </script> <p>The script above declares a variable, assigns a value to it, displays the value, changes the value, and displays the value again.</p> </body> </html> The script above declares a variable, assigns a value to it, displays the value, changes the value, and displays the value again. 66 Ravi Yelluripati
  67. 67. javascript – Popup Boxes JavaScript has three kind of popup boxes: Alert box, Confirm box, and Prompt box. Alert Box window.alert("sometext"); //or Confirm Box var r=confirm("Press a button"); if (r==true) { alert(“some text”); x="You pressed OK! n Isn't that cool!"; } Prompt Box else window.prompt("sometext", "defaultvalue"); { x="You pressed Cancel!"; } 67 Ravi Yelluripati
  68. 68. javascript – loops Commonly used loops are for,, while, do..while for for (var i=0;i<cars.length;i++) { document.write(cars[i] + "<br>"); for in var person={fname:"richard",lna me:"stallman",age:25}; } for (x in person) { txt=txt + person[x]; } 68 Ravi Yelluripati
  69. 69. javascript – functions Here is a function with arguments and a return value Try It function <button onclick="myFunction('Harry Potter','Wizard')">Try it</button> <script> function myFunction(name,job) { alert("Welcome " + name + ", the " + job); return (“thanks for visiting my page”); } </script> 69 Ravi Yelluripati
  70. 70. javascript – events 'onclick' is an event as shown below Try It function <button onclick="myFunction('Harry Potter','Wizard')">Try it</button> <script> function myFunction(name,job) { alert("Welcome " + name + ", the " + job); return (“thanks for visiting my page”); } </script> 70 Ravi Yelluripati
  71. 71. javascript – OnMouseOver <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <script> function writeText(txt) { document.getElementById("desc").innerHTML=txt; } </script> </head> <body> <img src ="planets.gif" width ="145" height ="126" alt="Planets" usemap="#planetmap" /> <map name="planetmap"> <area shape ="rect" coords ="0,0,82,126" onmouseover="writeText('The Sun and the gas giant planets like Jupiter are by far the largest objects in our Solar System.')" href ="sun.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Sun" /> <area shape ="circle" coords ="90,58,3" onmouseover="writeText('The planet Mercury is very difficult to study from the Earth because it is always so close to the Sun.')" href ="mercur.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Mercury" /> <area shape ="circle" coords ="124,58,8" onmouseover="writeText('Until the 1960s, Venus was often considered a twin sister to the Earth because Venus is the nearest planet to us, and because the two planets seem to share many characteristics.')" href ="venus.htm" target ="_blank" alt="Venus" /> </map> <p id="desc">Mouse over the sun and the planets and see the different descriptions.</p> </body> </html> 71 Ravi Yelluripati
  72. 72. javascript – error handling <script> var txt=""; function message() { try { adddlert("Welcome guest!"); } catch(err) { txt="There was an error on this page.nn"; txt+="Error description: " + err.message + "nn"; txt+="Click OK to continue.nn"; alert(txt); } } </script> 72 Ravi Yelluripati
  73. 73. javascript – the oneerror event <script> onerror=handleErr; var txt=""; txt+="Click OK to continue.nn"; alert(txt); return true; function handleErr(msg,url,l) } { txt="There was an error on this page.nn"; txt+="Error: " + msg + "n"; txt+="URL: " + url + "n"; txt+="Line: " + l + "nn"; function message() { adddlert("Welcome guest!"); } </script> 73 Ravi Yelluripati
  74. 74. javascript – set a cookie <!DOCTYPE html> function checkCookie() <html> if (c_end == -1) <head> { { function getCookie(c_name) var username=getCookie("username"); c_end = c_value.length; <script> if (username!=null && username!="") { } { var c_value = document.cookie; var c_start = c_value.indexOf(" " + c_name + "="); c_value = unescape(c_value.substring(c_start,c_end) ); alert("Welcome again " + username); } else } if (c_start == -1) { username=prompt("Please enter your name:",""); { return c_value; c_start = c_value.indexOf(c_name + "="); } } function setCookie(c_name,value,exdays) if (c_start == -1) { c_value = null; if (username!=null && username!="") { { } { } var exdate=new Date(); exdate.setDate(exdate.getDate() + exdays); } else setCookie("username",username,365); var c_value=escape(value) + ((exdays==null) ? "" : "; expires="+exdate.toUTCString()); } </script> </head> <body onload="checkCookie()"> c_start = c_value.indexOf("=", c_start) + 1; document.cookie=c_name + "=" + c_value; </body> var c_end = c_value.indexOf(";", c_start); } </html> Ravi Yelluripati 74
  75. 75. javascript – the timeout <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> <head> <form> <script> <input type="button" value="Display timed text!" onclick="timedText()" /> function timedText() { var x=document.getElementById('txt'); <input type="text" id="txt" /> </form> var t1=setTimeout(function(){x.value="2 seconds"},2000); <p>Click on the button above. The input field will tell you when two, four, and six seconds have passed.</p> var t2=setTimeout(function(){x.value="4 seconds"},4000); </body> var t3=setTimeout(function(){x.value="6 seconds"},6000); } </html> </script> </head> 75 Ravi Yelluripati
  76. 76. javascript – direct instance of object <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> <script> person={firstname:"John",lastname:"Doe",age:50,eyecolor:"blue"} document.write(person.firstname + " is " + person.age + " years old."); </script> </body> </html> 76 Ravi Yelluripati
  77. 77. javascript – object constructor <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <body> <script> function person(firstname,lastname,age,eyecolor) { this.firstname=firstname; this.lastname=lastname; this.age=age; this.eyecolor=eyecolor; } myFather=new person("John","Doe",50,"blue"); document.write(myFather.firstname + " is " + myFather.age + " years old."); </script> </body> </html> 77 Ravi Yelluripati
  78. 78. Javascript ... more objects ... String, Date, Array, Window, Navigator (details about user's browser), screen, history, location, document, anchor, area, base, button, form, frame/iframe, image, event, option & select object, table, tableheader, tablerow, tabledate 78 Ravi Yelluripati
  79. 79. Javascript ..what next? HTML DOM - The HTML DOM is a standard for how to get, change, add, or delete HTML elements. jQuery ajax, php 79 Ravi Yelluripati
  80. 80. Javascript ... html dom (prerequisites – html, css, javascript) 80 Ravi Yelluripati
  81. 81. html dom – methods and properties Some commonly used HTML DOM methods: ● getElementById(id) - get the node (element) with a specified id ● appendChild(node) - insert a new child node (element) ● removeChild(node) - remove a child node (element) Some commonly used HTML DOM properties: ● innerHTML - the text value of a node (element) ● parentNode - the parent node of a node (element) ● childNodes - the child nodes of a node (element) ● attributes - the attributes nodes of a node (element) 81 Ravi Yelluripati
  82. 82. ajax – asunchronous javascript and XML 82 Ravi Yelluripati
  83. 83. ajax – asunchronous javascript and XML AJAX was made popular in 2005 by Google, with Google Suggest. 83 Ravi Yelluripati
  84. 84. ajax – asunchronous javascript and XML HTML DOM - The HTML DOM is a standard for how to get, change, add, or delete HTML elements. jQuery ajax, php 84 Ravi Yelluripati
  85. 85. ajax – asunchronous javascript and XML ● The keystone of AJAX is the XMLHttpRequest object. var xmlhttp; if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest(); } else {// code for IE6, IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP"); } 85 Ravi Yelluripati
  86. 86. ajax – request to server ● Send a Request To a Server"GET","ajax_info.txt",true); xmlhttp.send(); ● GET or POST? GET is simpler and faster than POST, and can be used in most cases. However, always use POST requests when: ● A cached file is not an option (update a file or database on the server) ● Sending a large amount of data to the server (POST has no size limitations) ● Sending user input (which can contain unknown characters), POST is more robust and secure than GET More here ... 86 Ravi Yelluripati
  87. 87. ajax – example <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <script> var xmlhttp; function loadXMLDoc(url,cfunc) { if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {// code for IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest(); } else {// code for IE6, IE5 xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP"); } xmlhttp.onreadystatechange=cfunc;"GET",url,true); xmlhttp.send(); } function myFunction() • { • loadXMLDoc("ajax_info.txt",function() • { • if (xmlhttp.readyState==4 && xmlhttp.status==200) • { • • document.getElementById("myDiv").innerHTML=xmlhttp.res ponseText; • } • }); • } • </script> • </head> • <body> • <div id="myDiv"><h2>Let AJAX change this text</h2></div> • <button type="button" onclick="myFunction()">Change Content</button> • • </body> • </html> • 87 Ravi Yelluripati
  88. 88. jQuery 88 Ravi Yelluripati
  89. 89. JQuery – what is it? ● ● ● jQuery is a JavaScript Library. jQuery greatly simplifies JavaScript programming. jQuery is easy to learn. ● ● 89 Ravi Yelluripati
  90. 90. JQuery – what is it? The jQuery library contains the following features: ● ● ● ● ● ● HTML/DOM manipulation CSS manipulation HTML event methods Effects and animations AJAX Utilities ● 90 Ravi Yelluripati
  91. 91. JQuery – how to use it? <head> <script src="// 1/jquery.min.js"> </script> </head> 91 Ravi Yelluripati
  92. 92. JQuery – syntax Basic syntax is: $(selector).action() A $ sign to define/access jQuery A (selector) to "query (or find)" HTML elements A jQuery action() to be performed on the element(s) Examples: $(this).hide() - hides the current element. $("p").hide() - hides all <p> elements. $(".test").hide() - hides all elements with class="test". $("#test").hide() - hides the element with id="test". 92 Ravi Yelluripati
  93. 93. JQuery – example Example When a user clicks on a button, all <p> elements will be hidden: Example $(document).ready(function(){ $("button").click(function(){ $("p").hide(); }); }); 93 Ravi Yelluripati
  94. 94. JQuery – fading methods Example fade $("button").click(function(){ $("#div1").fadeIn(); $("#div2").fadeIn("slow"); $("#div3").fadeIn(3000); }); Example slide function $("#flip").click(function(){ $("#panel").slideDown(); }); filename=tryjquery_slide_down 94 Ravi Yelluripati
  95. 95. JQuery – animate The jQuery animate() method lets you create custom animations. <script> $(document).ready(function(){ $("button").click(function(){ $("div").animate({left:'250px'}); }); }); $("#stop").click(function(){ $("#panel").stop(); }); </script> filename=tryjquery_slide_down 95 Ravi Yelluripati
  96. 96. JQuery – watch it! JavaScript statements are executed line by line. However, with effects, the next line of code can be run even though the effect is not finished. This can create errors! //with a callback function displays the alert after hide $("button").click(function(){ $("p").hide("slow",function(){ alert("The paragraph is now hidden"); }); }); //without a callback function displays the alert before hide $("button").click(function(){ $("p").hide(1000); alert("The paragraph is now hidden"); }); 96 Ravi Yelluripati
  97. 97. JQuery – set content Set Content - text(), html(), and val() We will use the same three methods from the previous page to set content: text() - Sets or returns the text content of selected elements html() - Sets or returns the content of selected elements (including HTML markup) val() - Sets or returns the value of form fields 97 Ravi Yelluripati
  98. 98. JQuery – set content - example <script> $(document).ready(function(){ $("#btn1").click(function(){ $("#test1").text("Hello world!"); }); $("#btn2").click(function(){ $("#test2").html("<b>Hello world!</b>"); }); $("#btn3").click(function(){ $("#test3").val("Dolly Duck"); }); }); </script> 98 Ravi Yelluripati
  99. 99. JQuery – reference HTML / CSS Methods Ajax methods Miscellaneous methods Properties Traversing Methods 99 Ravi Yelluripati
  100. 100. Animation 100 Ravi Yelluripati
  101. 101. Animation – how is it done Div manipulation Moving the divs – alter the position of elements using javascript Hide/show sprites CSS3 Transform Keyframe animation But why...? 101 Ravi Yelluripati
  102. 102. Animation – CSS3 Transform <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <style> div { width:200px; height:100px; background-color:blue; /* Rotate div */ transform:rotate(75deg); -ms-transform:rotate(75deg); /* IE 9 */ -webkit-transform:rotate(75deg); /* Safari and Chrome */ } </style> </head> <body> <div>Hello</div> </body> </html> 102 Ravi Yelluripati
  103. 103. Animation – keyframes <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <style> div { width:100px; height:100px; background:red; animation:myfirst 5s; -webkit-animation:myfirst 5s; /* Safari and Chrome */ } @keyframes myfirst { from {background:red;} to {background:yellow;} } @-webkit-keyframes myfirst /* Safari and Chrome */ { from {background:red;} to {background:yellow;} } </style> </head> <body> <p><b>Note:</b> This example does not work in Internet Explorer 9 and earlier versions.</p> <div></div> </body> </html> 103 Ravi Yelluripati