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Automatic fascicle length estimation on muscle ultrasound images with an orientation sensitive segmentation

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Final Year IEEE Projects for BE, B.Tech, ME, M.Tech,M.Sc, MCA & Diploma Students latest Java, .Net, Matlab, NS2, Android, Embedded,Mechanical, Robtics, VLSI, Power Electronics, IEEE projects are given absolutely complete working product and document providing with real time Software & Embedded training......

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Automatic fascicle length estimation on muscle ultrasound images with an orientation sensitive segmentation

  1. 1. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com AUTOMATIC FASCICLE LENGTH ESTIMATION ON MUSCLE ULTRASOUND IMAGES WITH AN ORIENTATION-SENSITIVE SEGMENTATION By A PROJECT REPORT Submitted to the Department of electronics &communication Engineering in the FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree Of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS &COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING APRIL 2016
  2. 2. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report titled “Automatic Fascicle Length Estimation on Muscle Ultrasound Images with an Orientation-Sensitive Segmentation” is the bonafide work of Mr. _____________Who carried out the research under my supervision Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. Signature of the Guide Signature of the H.O.D Name Name
  3. 3. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project work entitled “Automatic Fascicle Length Estimation on Muscle Ultrasound Images with an Orientation-Sensitive Segmentation” Submitted to BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITY in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of MASTER OF APPLIED ELECTRONICS is a record of original work done by me the guidance of Prof.A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., to the best of my knowledge, the work reported here is not a part of any other thesis or work on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion to me or any other candidate. (Student Name) (Reg.No) Place: Date:
  4. 4. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am extremely glad to present my project “Automatic Fascicle Length Estimation on Muscle Ultrasound Images with an Orientation-Sensitive Segmentation” which is a part of my curriculum of third semester Master of Science in Computer science. I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to those who helped me in bringing out this project work. I would like to express my Director,Dr. K. ANANDAN, M.A.(Eco.), M.Ed., M.Phil.,(Edn.), PGDCA., CGT., M.A.(Psy.)of who had given me an opportunity to undertake this project. I am highly indebted to Co-OrdinatorProf. Muniappan Department of Physics and thank from my deep heart for her valuable comments I received through my project. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide Prof. A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., for her immense help and encouragement for successful completion of this project. I also express my sincere thanks to the all the staff members of Computer science for their kind advice. And last, but not the least, I express my deep gratitude to my parents and friends for their encouragement and support throughout the project.
  5. 5. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ABSTRACT: Fascicle length obtained by ultrasound imaging is one of the crucial muscle architecture parameters for understanding the contraction mechanics and pathological conditions of muscles. However, the lack of a reliable automatic measurement method restricts the application of fascicle length for the analysis of muscle function, as frame-by-frame manual measurement is time- consuming. In this study, we propose an automatic measurement method to preclude the influence of non-fascicle components on the estimation of fascicle length by using motion estimation of fascicle structures. Methods: The method starts with image segmentation using the cohesiveness of fascicle orientation as a feature, obtaining the fascicle change by tracking manually marked points on the fascicular path with the Lucas–Kanade optical flow algorithm applied on the segmented image. Results: The performance of this method was evaluated on ultrasound images of the gastrocnemius obtained from 7 healthy subjects (34.4 ± 5.0 years). Waveform similarity between the manual and dynamic measurements was assessed by calculating the overall similarity with the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC). In vivo experiments demonstrated that fascicle tracking with the orientation-sensitive segmentation (CMC = 0.97 ± 0.01) was more consistent with the manual measurements than existing automatic methods (CMC = 0.87 ±0.10). Conclusion: Our method was robust to the interference of non-fascicle components, resulting in a more reliable measurement of fascicle length. Significance: The proposed method may facilitate further research and applications related to real-time architectural change of muscles.
  6. 6. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com INTRODUCTION: Muscle imaging is a promising field of research in understanding the biological and bioelectrical characteristics of muscles, as well as assessing their function and pathological conditions through the observation of muscle architectural change, since muscle activation is closely related to its structure. Recently, sonomyography (SMG), representing the real-time change of muscle architecture obtained using ultrasound imaging, has been proposed as a noninvasive option to measure muscle activation under different contractions. It has been reported that muscle architecture, primarily delineated by geometric layout of the fascicles within the skeletal muscle, including fascicle length and pennation angle, is highly correlated with muscle contraction. SMG has showed its potential in both diagnosis and rehabilitation assessment in vivo, as a reliable research and clinical tool. It has been used to monitor treatment outcomes for patients with motor problems, prepare rehabilitation plans for patients with surgical operations and control powered prostheses. Fascicle length is the most often used SMG parameter to quantify changes in the fascicle geometry of muscle. Since the ability of muscle to generate force is largely determined by its fascicle length, the change of fascicle length has been examined in response to contraction, aging fatigue and physical training. Moreover, modulation of the fascicle-tendinous tissue interaction, which occurs to make the movement more economic via effective utilization of tendinous tissue elasticity for specific movement tasks, can also be estimated from changes of fascicle and tendon length. This morphometric skeletal muscle parameter is therefore of great importance to understanding the mechanism of muscle contraction. Although the manual measurement of fascicle length was reported to be reproducible the method is time-consuming and subjective, restricting the application of fascicle length in the dynamic analysis of muscle function, especially when dealing with a sequence of ultrasound images. Since fascicles are usually non-uniformly distributed as line-like structures in ultrasound images some automatic fascicle detection approaches based on the Hough or Radon transforms have been proposed for estimating fascicle length. However, the fascicle structures are often obscured by speckle noise, making it difficult to locate them accurately. Moreover, intramuscular blood vessels are also visible as line-like structures in the fascicle region of some ultrasound images , resulting in incorrect measurements
  7. 7. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com of fascicle length. Motion between successive images has also been used to estimate fascicle length by observing the continuous changes in the fascicle region. Under the assumption that homogeneous affine transformations are applicable in the muscle region, Cronin, et al. Estimated global affine transform parameters with the Lucas-Kanade optical flow algorithm , by regarding a selected fascicle region as a whole patch to derive the changes in fascicle length. Based on the assumption of straight fascicles, fascicle length was identified by calculating the displacement of predefined points on the fascicular path using the global affine transform parameters. In this approach, the accumulation of errors in tracking small regions of interest (ROI) was avoided by estimating global movement over a large region. Nonetheless the non-fascicle components of speckle noise that can violate the assumption of homogeneous affine transformations were not taken into account which could lead to inaccurate estimation of fascicle length in some images. Using the framework of Bayesian multiple hypotheses, the Kanade-Lucas- Tomasi (KLT) feature trackers. combined with visible fascicle structures has also been proposed to estimate changing fascicle shape . About 200 non-overlapping square feature templates with a size 15×15 pixels, derived in the fascicle region using multi-resolution active shape model training, were tracked using KLT weighted by a multi-scale vessel enhancement map. This map was used to obtain global fascicle displacements and changes of fascicle length with the particle filter, thus allowing recovery from small tracking errors. However, the weight of non-fascicle components, such as visible intramuscular blood vessels, was also increased in the calculation, possibly influencing the estimation of fascicle length. Moreover, the time-consuming multi-resolution active shape model segmentation and particle filter also restricted the application of this approach In this study, under the assumption of homogeneous affine transformations, we propose an automatic method for estimating the change of fascicle length in consecutive ultrasound images by calculating global affine transform parameters over the effective fascicle region obtained with an orientation-sensitive segmentation algorithm, in order to address the limitations of currently available approaches. The orientation-sensitive segmentation algorithm was designed to segment visible fascicle structures from the whole muscle region based on the observation of similar orientations of fascicles in muscles.
  8. 8. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed a new approach using orientation-sensitive segmentation for automatically estimating fascicle length in a series of ultrasound images utilizing prior knowledge of the orientations of fascicles. The orientation-sensitive segmentation algorithm precluded the influence of non-fascicle components on the calculation of affine transform parameters, resulting in a more reliable measurement of fascicle length. The results obtained using the proposed approach showed good agreement with those obtained by manual measurements. The method therefore provides an alternative dynamic measurement of muscle activation with ultrasound imaging to analyze muscle function in human motion analysis. Future studies with a large group of subjects and other types of motion such as walking will be conducted to further demonstrate the potential of this new method for full understanding of muscle activation. The performance of the newly proposed method can also be further enhanced by using GPU programming to achieve real-time application in future studies.
  9. 9. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com REFERENCES: [1] V. M. Zatsiorsky, and B. I. Prilutsky, Biomechanics of Skeletal Muscles: Human Kinetics, 2012. [2] Y. P. Zheng et al., “Sonomyography: Monitoring morphological changes of forearm muscles in actions with the feasibility for the control of powered prosthesis,” Medical Engineering & Physics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 405-415, Jun, 2006. [3] A. A. Mohagheghi et al., “In vivo gastrocnemius muscle fascicle length in children with and without diplegic cerebral palsy,” Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 44-50, Jan, 2008. [4] L. Barber et al., “Medial gastrocnemius muscle fascicle active torque-length and Achilles tendon properties in young adults with spastic cerebral palsy,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 45, no. 15, pp. 2526-2530, Oct, 2012. [5] C. Suetta et al., “Resistance training induces qualitative changes in muscle morphology, muscle architecture, and muscle function in elderly postoperative patients,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 180-186, Jul, 2008. [6] X. Chen et al., “Sonomyography (SMG) control for powered prosthetic hand: a study with normal subjects.,” Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 1076-1088, Jul, 2010. [7] J. Y. Guo et al., “Towards the application of one-dimensional sonomyography for powered upper-limb prosthetic control using machine learning models,” Prosthetics and Orthotics International, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 43-49, Feb, 2013.

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