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  1. 1. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 24-31 © IAEME 24 IMPACT OF POOR USABILITY OF VARIOUS ATM: A STUDY OF ATM USERS IN PCMC AREA Ashvini Shende* , Sarika Thakare, Vijaya Kumbhar, Mahesh Jagtap, Janardan Pawar, Sarita Byagar Dept. of Computer Science, Indira College of Commerce & science, Indira College of Commerce & science ABSTRACT The Automated Teller Machine has become an integral part of our Society. Due to increasing popularity, the fraud cases, issues and problems with respect to ATM increased, hence use of ATM can often be a unsatisfactory experience many times. This paper examines a variety of issues experienced by ATM users of PCMC area in Pune. Keywords: ATM, Usability, HCI, Touch Technology. 1. INTRODUCTION This paper will cover the concepts of ATM, usability, Usability testing, HCI and Touch Technology. Paper is divided into 4 sections, Section I explains Literature review, and Section II focuses Problem statement, Section III shows sample & Analysis of Data, Section IV gives Result; Section V focuses Methodology & Conclusion ATM stands for; Automated Teller Machine. It is also referred to as a cash machine; a cash dispenser The ATM is an electronic computerized telecommunications device that allows financial institutions (e.g. bank or building society) customers to directly use a secure method of communication to access their bank accounts. The ATM is a self-service banking terminal that accepts deposits and dispenses cash. Most ATM’s also let users carry out other banking transactions (e.g. check balance). ATM’s are activated by inserting a bank card (cash or credit card) into the card INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJCET) ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print) ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 24-31 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 8.5328 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 24-31 © IAEME 25 reader slot. The card will contain the customer’s account number and PIN (Personal Identification Number) on the cards magnetic stripe. When a customer is trying to withdraw cash for example, the ATM calls up the banks computers to verify the balance, dispenses the cash and then transmits a completed transaction notice. The notion of having a bank machine which automatically dispensed cash to customers came about in the 1930’s. A Turkish born inventor working in America called George Simijan started building an earlier and not-so-successful version of an ATM in the late 1930’s. He registered the related patents. Simijan came up with the idea of a ‘hole-in-the-wall’ machine which would allow customers to make financial transactions. However, at the time this idea was well ahead of its time and was met with great doubt. Simijan registered 20 patents related to the device and persuaded an American bank to trial it. However, after 6 months the bank reported little demand in the service and it was withdrawn. John Shepherd-Barron, an inventor from the UK, had an idea in the 1960’s for a 24/7 cash dispenser. At the time Shepherd-Barron was the managing director of a company called De La Rue Instruments which today still manufactures cash dispensers. People who believe John Shepherd-Barron invented the ATM argue that the world’s first ATM was installed outside a north London branch of Barclays in 1967. [1] HCI (human-computer interaction) is the study of how people interact with computers and to what extent computers are or are not developed for successful interaction with human beings. [4] Human computer interaction (HCI) is an interdisciplinary field in which computer scientists, engineers, psychologists, social scientists, and design professionals play important roles. The goal of HCI is to solve real problems in the design and use of technology, making computer-based systems easier to use and more effective for people and organizations. Ease of use and effectiveness are critical to the success of any systems that interact with people, including software systems, home, office and factory appliances, and web and phone applications. The goals of HCI are to produce usable and safe systems, as well as functional systems. In order o produce computer systems with good usability, developers must attempt to: • understand the factors that determine how people use technology • develop tools and techniques to enable building suitable systems • achieve efficient, effective, and safe interaction • put people first Usability is the ease of use and learns ability of a human-made object. The object of use can be a software application, website, book, tool, machine, process, or anything a human interacts with. A usability study may be conducted as a primary job function by a usability analyst or as a secondary job function by designers, technical writers, marketing personnel, and others. It is widely used in consumer electronics, communication, and knowledge transfer objects (such as a cookbook, a document or online help) and mechanical objects such as a door handle or a hammer. Usability is a major product quality factor, which is concerned with ease of use, user satisfaction and the user's ability to learn the product easily without much training. Usability includes methods of measuring usability, such as needs analysis [1] and the study of the principles behind an object's perceived efficiency or elegance. In human-computer interaction and computer science, usability studies the elegance and clarity with which the interaction with a computer program or a web site (web usability) is designed. Usability differs from user satisfaction and user experience because usability also considers usefulness. [2]
  3. 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 24-31 © IAEME 26 Usability Testing is that area of System Testing that attempts to find any human-factor problems. A better description is "testing the software from a user’s point of view". Essentially it means testing software to prove and ensure that it is 'user-friendly', as distinct from testing the functionality of the software. In practical terms it includes ergonomic considerations, screen design, standardization, user centric etc. Usability testing should not be confused with functionality testing or beta testing. The following are the major usability characteristics: [3] • Ease of learning: The product must be easy to learn for both novice and users with experience from similar systems • Ease of use: The product must be easy to use without much help. • Ease of remembering: The product must be easy to remember for a casual user. • Subjective satisfaction: The user must feel satisfied with the product • Efficiency of use: The product must be efficient for the user. 2. SECTION I LITERATURE REVIEW For studying background of topic here some literature study done, in the first paper author worked on navigation menus on ATM, in this he studied various technical aspects of ATM interfaces as well as studied algorithm or steps done by user when he stand front of machine, here author observed the problem “Reinserting Card” and suggested HCI (Human computer Interface) by which user feel comfortable for using ATM and designed ATM simulator Interface design, in which user can withdraw money for various banks.[5] In the second paper author shares their views about improvement of online banking usability.[3] The article “International Usability Testing” presents some example of usability of ATM worldwide, for example Sweden country has all ATM with big buttons on ATM interface , because for Winter season users wears gloves.[6] In the next paper “Usability Research for the elderly People” authors presented the problems for elderly people and pensioner’s class people and concluded with designing of model which proves usability of ATM use for elderly class people. [7]
  4. 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 24-31 © IAEME 27 3. SECTION II PROBLEM STATEMENT After completing Literature Review for finding out problems, applied survey method for data collection from users from PCMC region, out of which collected data through some interviews with users, from this below listed are the problems. 1. Long waiting time 2. Difficulty in understanding of error messages 3. Difficulty in locating right menu on screen 4. Cash limit problems Etc. 4. SECTION III DATA COLLECTION & ANALYSIS OF DATA With understanding the above problems found through general discussion with users, detailed questionnaire prepared (refer last page) which covers all aspects of ATM usage for the users and distributed among 70 users in PCMC area. Analysis of Data 1. Maximums users are Post Graduates by qualification and users are using almost all Banks ATMs. But below graph shows that maximum State Bank of India ATM users(30) and next maximum Bank of Maharashtra users (12) are in the scope. Graph 1. Shows no of ATM users Bank wise 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Series1
  5. 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 24-31 © IAEME 28 So decided for comparing & analyzing rest part of questionnaire for SBI & BOM. Below graph shows comparison for all aspect of usage of ATM between two banks. Graph 2. Shows no of ATM users’ opinion for questions given in the Questionnaire In the above graph B to M stands for Question No 2 to 13 from questionnaire (Refer Last Page), by the above graph we can present the analysis as B. Waiting Time-: maximum SBI users are wasting time for waiting in queue. C. ATM location-: maximum BOM users are agreeing for safe location. D. Attendant/ Security Guard-: 75 % BOM ATM has the security guard. E. User friendly -: SBI ATMs are more user-friendly. F. Multilanguage support-: BOM ATM supports multiple languages for communication. G. Meaning of Icons-: SBI ATM icons meanings are clearer. H. Proper warnings or messages-: 73% SBI users are getting proper error messages. I. Have you helped other people for its use for different purposes-:83% BOM users helped other people (pensioners’ class) for ATM transaction. J. Safety when multiple ATM machines are located in same room-: SBI users are comfortable with other ATM machines installed in the same room. 33 92 75 92 100 83 67 83 25 50 50 100 40 83 57 97 93 87 73 70 47 60 37 83 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 B C D E F G H I J K L M BOM SBI
  6. 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 24-31 © IAEME 29 K. Satisfied with the cash withdrawal limit-: SBI users are happy with cash withdrawal limit. L. ATM has cheque deposit facility-: BOM users are having cheque facility. M. Special ATM facility for Pensioners Age Group (Senior Citizens) and Blind People-: Almost both the bank users are recommending for special facility for senior citizen group. Graph 3. Shows no of ATM users’ rank for problems & facilities provided by ATM A. ATM service charges B. User friendliness C. ATM security and safety D. ATMs availability nearby your location E. Clarity in communication F. Visual presentation G. Convenient for its use H. Speed of transactions I. Frequency of shut down of ATM due to technical Problems After observing above graph users are not happy with usability of ATM screen i.e. User- friendly & speed of ATM as well as clarity in communication & visual presentation. 2.65 3.78 3.35 3.57 3.75 3.75 3.65 3.71 2.78 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 A B C D E F G H I rank rank
  7. 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 24-31 © IAEME 30 5. SECTION IV RESULT After analysis of data, not a single ATM is satisfies all constraints mentioned in the questionnaire and observation shows that users are more concern about time and usability of ATM. At the same time user is suggesting some special embedded facility in the ATM for old age people for their independency for ATM usage. Users are not satisfied about cash withdrawal limit. 6. SECTION V METHODOLOGY & CONCLUSION By observing above problems Bank must have innovate & include HCI in the ATM which will increase usability of ATMs. Navigation Menus must b placed on right place i.e infront of the visualized text on the screen. Some special device must be embedded with ATM for old age group, for example when ATM throws some voice messages, voice is not clear for this special sound must be attached and messages must be generated in regional language or national language for clarity of errors.ATM servers must be checked for speed and accuracy of the transaction periodically. REFERENCES 1. Miller (2006) 2. Karwowski W, Soares M M, Stanton, N A. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Consumer Product Design: Methods and Techniques (Handbook of Human Factors in Consumer Product Design): Needs Analysis: Or, How Do You Capture, Represent, and Validate User Requirements in a Formal Manner/Notation before Design” (Chapter 26 by K Tara Smith), CRC Press. 2011. 3. Ranganathan Santhanam, Rajee Natesan “Usability Testing to Improvise Online-banking experience”, 4th Annual International Software Testing Conference in India 2004. 4. HCII, Carnegie Mellon University | 5000 Forbes Ave | Pittsburgh, PA 15213. 5. Kevin Curran, David King, CHI 97 Electronic Publication: Papers Investigating the Human Computer Interaction Problems with Automated Teller Machine(ATM) Navigation Menus. 6. International Usability Testing article by Jakob Nielsen. 7. Usability Research for the elderly People Paper from Oki Technical Review July 2004/Issue 199 vol. 71. No. 3. 8. Dillip Kumar Mahapatra and Tanmaya Kumar Das, “HCI Framework Towards Gap Analysis and Evaluation of Usability Factors in Distributed Software Project Development”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 6, 2013, pp. 269 - 283, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375. Questionnaire Screening questionnaire for Impact of poor usability of various ATM: A study of ATM users in PCMC area • Name • Educational qualification • Occupation • Age • Name of ATM
  8. 8. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6375(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 24-31 © IAEME 31 Assertive questionnaire (Please tick appropriate option i. e. Yes/No) Questions: Yes No • Do you use ATM facility of banking system? • Do you waste time in a long queue at ATM? • Is its location safe? • Is security guard appointed at every ATM you visit? • Is it user friendly? • Does it provide Multilanguage support? • Is it clear to understand the meanings on icons? • Does it give proper warnings or messages? • Have you helped other people for its use for different purposes? • Do you feel safety when multiple ATM machines are located in same room? • Are you satisfied with the cash withdrawal limit ruled by your bank? • Does your ATM have cheque deposit facility? • Do you think that ATM Bank must provide special ATM facility for Pensioners Age Group (Senior Citizens)and Blind People Quantitative questionnaire (Please give appropriate ranking from scale of 1 to 5 i.e Lowest to Highest) Questions: Rank Comments, if any • ATM service charges • User friendliness • ATM security and safety • ATMs availability nearby your location • Clarity in communication • Visual presentation • Convenient for its use • Speed of transactions • Frequency of shut down of ATM due to technical Problems List out the different problems faced while using ATM _________________________________________________________________________________ Any other suggestion for improving ATM facility_________________________________________