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Eadm 12 310 072 Comp Ed2


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Eadm 12 310 072 Comp Ed2

  1. 1. The Implications of Compulsory Attendance - 2 <ul><li>“ . . . and when we ask you to regard yourself as a ‘guest’ of the education system we mean precisely that. Now, kindly stop referring to yourself as a hostage . . . .” </li></ul>
  2. 2. Blasphemy 030 The London Free Press, Saturday, March 3, 1990
  3. 3. Blasphemy 030 Assuming Compulsory Attendance . . . <ul><li>What do we teach? </li></ul>Condoms? No problem. Just don’t ask for any Bibles!!
  4. 4. Enrolment By Control, Saskatchewan, 2002 - 2003 Data from Saskatchewan Education 89.7% .92% 1.39% 8%
  5. 5. Reasons Parents Select Independent Schools - 1 <ul><li>Parents believe that the public schools implicitly teach doctrines (primarily of a secular humanist nature) which are contrary to their religious convictions, i.e.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>schools promote evolution as opposed to creationism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>texts contain obscene passages or blasphemous ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public schools fail to teach discipline and respect for authority (some feel the public schools are not safe) </li></ul><ul><li>Student achievement standards are too low in public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Parents want their children educated in a milieu consistent with the beliefs and values taught in the home </li></ul><ul><li>The private school offers a specific pedagogical or philosophical approach favoured by the parents </li></ul><ul><li>The private school offers special education programs and facilities superior to those in the public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Public school education leads to assimilation and the death of heritage language and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Private schools (through lower PTR, higher expectations and controlled enrolment) provide an enriched academic and social environment </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reasons Parents Select Independent Schools - 2 <ul><li>A primary democratic principle (liberty) includes the right to enjoy the fruits of one’s labour as one wishes; this includes the right to provide a superior education to one’s children if one wishes to do so </li></ul><ul><li>Are there other more pragmatic, and perhaps less laudable, reasons for enrolling children in a private school? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private boarding school relieves the parents of responsibility for child-rearing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Problem Children” are placed in an environment (particularly boarding school), in which it is more difficult to get into trouble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social advantages accrue from attendance in particular schools </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Branksome Hall
  8. 8. Branksome Hall
  9. 9. Upper Canada College
  10. 10. Upper Canada College
  11. 11. Arguments in Favour of Public Support of Independent Schools <ul><li>parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education they believe is appropriate for their children, without undue hardship imposed by financial constraints </li></ul><ul><li>it is discriminatory to provide denominational education to one religious denomination and not to others </li></ul><ul><li>having to pay property tax and tuition is double taxation, which is inherently unfair </li></ul><ul><li>there is more than one way to achieve the “public goals” of education. It is unwise to “put all our eggs in one basket” </li></ul><ul><li>like all monopolies, public schools are inefficient and ineffective - competition stimulates quality </li></ul><ul><li>diversity is appropriate to a pluralistic, multicultural society </li></ul>
  12. 12. Arguments Against Public Support of Independent Schools <ul><li>given current economic conditions, the province cannot afford to fund independent schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Funding independent schools sanctions segregation of students on the basis of religion and socio-economic class, processes which inevitably foster fear, prejudice and intolerance </li></ul><ul><li>funding independent schools erodes the financial and ideological foundations of the public schools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>since private schools can offer a “tailored” experience and public schools cannot; there will be an exodus of students, and dollars, from the public system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>public schools provide a “shared experience” which promotes social integration, and the development of a common “Canadian” identity; independent schools define students by their differences rather than their similarities </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Critique of the Left: Structural-Functionalism v. Conflict Theory in Education <ul><li>Structural-Functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>1. Society is an organic system; school is one of its vital organs. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The school’s socialization function is both an integral part of, and necessary to, the survival of the society. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The school socializes children so that they can adapt successfully to the social, economic, and political institutions of society. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The school's &quot;latent&quot; function is to produce individuals who share the basic economic, political and cultural practices and norms of the society. </li></ul>Feinberg, W. & Soltis, J.F. (1985). School and society . New York: Teachers College Press.
  14. 14. The Critique of the Left: Structural-Functionalism v. Conflict Theory in Education <ul><li>Conflict Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Schooling is a social practice used by those in power to maintain their dominance in the social order. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Students learn to be obedient workers and excessive consumers in order to ensure that the profits of the upper classes will be maximized. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Schools are publicly supported through taxes in order to give workers the sense that they are in control of their schools when, in reality, they are merely paying for their own training and repression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. The school is an instrument of class domination serving to reproduce the workforce and maintain class distinctions. </li></ul></ul>Feinberg, W. & Soltis, J.F. (1985). School and society . New York: Teachers College Press.
  15. 15. The Courts Respond to Attempts to Accommodate Diversity <ul><li>R. v. Jones (1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Zylberberg v. Sudbury (1988) </li></ul><ul><li>C.C.L.A. v. Ontario (1990)[ Elgin County ] </li></ul><ul><li>Bal v. Ontario (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Adler v. Ontario (1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Schools Federation v. Ottawa Board (1997) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Saskatchewan’s Response: Historical High Schools <ul><li>Athol Murray College of Notre Dame </li></ul><ul><li>Caronport High School </li></ul><ul><li>College Matieu (High School) </li></ul><ul><li>Luther College (High School) </li></ul><ul><li>Luthern Collegiate Bible Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Rivier Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Rosthern Junior College </li></ul><ul><li>St. Angela’s Academy </li></ul>Historical High Schools are deemed to hold Certificates of Registration as Independent Schools
  17. 17. Saskatchewan’s Response: Independent Schools <ul><li>owned or operated by a Saskatchewan corporation </li></ul><ul><li>has a board that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exercises powers similar to those of a board of education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>comprises a minimum of three adults, representing three different family units </li></ul></ul><ul><li>enrols pupils between the ages of 6 and 21 from a minimum of two different family units </li></ul><ul><li>has facilities which meet health, safety and construction standards </li></ul><ul><li>has goals of education which are not inconsistent with the goals of education for Saskatchewan </li></ul><ul><li>is not owned or operated for the benefit of pupils from an Indian Band within the meaning of the Indian Act </li></ul><ul><li>has a name that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is distinct from the names of other existing educational institutions; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reflects the level of programming offered; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>does not inaccurately reflect the location or geographical area to be served </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Accredited Independent Schools <ul><li>conforms to provincial curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>employs only certified teachers </li></ul><ul><li>is supervised by either the Dept. or an approved person </li></ul><ul><li>has operated for a full year prior to application for accreditation </li></ul><ul><li>subscribes to the Saskatchewan “goals of education” </li></ul>
  19. 19. Associate Schools <ul><li>These are schools which, while independent, operate under the supervision of an existing public or separate school board. They are: </li></ul><ul><li>deemed to be registered while their agreement with a board is in effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>subject to all provisions of the Regulations except: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they are not required to appoint a director </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they are not required to permit inspection or provide the department with records </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parents of pupils attending are not required to provide the local school district with written notice that their child is attending an independent school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the school is not required to notify parents that the school is not accredited, if this is the case </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Saskatchewan's Response: Alternative Schools <ul><li>Accredited Alternative Schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conforms to provincial curriculum policy with respect to alternative education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>employs only certified teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is supervised by either the Dept. or an approved person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has operated for a full year prior to application for accreditation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subscribes to the Saskatchewan ”goals of education” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accepts pupils placed by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>boards of education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>independent school boards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Social Services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saskatchewan Department of Justice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dept. of Indian and Northern Affairs (Canada) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>with the approval of the Minister, the pupil’s parent or guardian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offers to special needs pupils courses and programs that are qualitatively different from regular education courses and programs. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Saskatchewan's Response: Home-based Education <ul><li>Prior to September 15, 1994, there really wasn’t any way for parents to legitimately home-school their children. </li></ul><ul><li>As of September 15, 1994, Saskatchewan boards are required to establish procedures for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>registration and renewal of registration of all home-based education programs in their jurisdictions; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monitoring all home-based education programs; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cancellation of such registrations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dispute resolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If the board has not established procedures for the registration of home-based education programs or where the board refuses to register a program, parents can apply directly to the Department of Education which may elect to act as the registering authority </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements to be met by Home-based Education Programs are detailed in Regulation 15. </li></ul>