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  1. 1. [TYPE THE COMPANY NAME] Model Answers Education [Type the document subtitle] [Year]Views on education – Marxist, Functionalist, New right Perspective, Post modernSocial class and education – Internal factors, external factorsEthnicity and education - Internal factors, external factorsGender and achievement- Subject choice, gender identity, Internal factors, external factors [TYPE THE COMPANY ADDRESS]
  2. 2. ContentPerspectives on educationFunctionalism………………………………………………………………………. p 3New right…………………………………………………………………………….. p 5Marxist…………………………………………………………………………………..p 6Social class and educationMaterial deprivation…………………………………………………………..p 8Cultural deprivation……………………………………………………………p 9Internal factors ………………………………………………………………..p 13Marketisation……………………………………………………………………..p 11Ethnicity and achievementExternal factors ………………………………………………………………p 15Internal factors…………………………………………………………………p 17Gender and achievementSubject choice…………………………………………………………………….p 19Internal factors…………………………………………………………………p 20External factors……………………………………………………………….Education policies………………………………………………………………p 222|Page
  3. 3. Assess the contribution of functionalism in our understanding of education 20mFunctionalism is based on the view that society is a system of interdependent parts,held together by shared culture or value consensus. Each parts of society perform afunction to help maintain society as a whole. Durkeim argues that society needs a senseof solidarity, as without this social co operation would be impossible as individuals wouldbecome individualistic and selfish. The education system helps create social solidarityby tram sitting the society’s culture to the younger generation. School prepareschildren for wider society as these interpersonal rules in school apply to wider society.Durkeim argues that another function of education is to teach specialist skills. Theproduction of a single item involves the cooperation of many specialists. Thiscooperation promotes social solidarity. Education teaches individuals the specialistknowledge and skills that they need to play their part in the social division of labour.Parson draws on many of Durkheims ideas and sees school as the social socialisingagency as it acts a s bridge between family and wider society. Within a family child isjudged by particularistic standards, i.e. the rules for each child. Similarly childsstatus within the family is ascribed, ie fixed from both. By contrast in school/ societyjudge us by universalistic standards, i.e. the same law applies to everyone. In societyand school one’s status is achieved not ascribed i.e. you have to work hard to gain somestatus. Parsons sees school and society as based on meritocratic principles, soeveryone is given an equal opportunity and individuals achieve rewards through owneffort and ability. Parsons argue schools also allocate pupils to their future work rolesby assessing their abilities.Davis and Moore see education as a devise for selection and role allocation. Theyargue inequality is necessary to ensure that the most important roles of society arefilled by the most talented people this encourages people to compete for the mosttalented jobs and improve the workforce. Blau and Duncan ague that modern economicprosperity depends on it using its human capital efficiently, they argue meritocraticeducation system does this best as it enables each person to be allocated to the jobbest suited to its ability. New vocationalism aims to provide society with skilledworkforce by creating schemes within education system that prepare students forwork ie GNVQ and NVQ.However Marxists argue that such schemes only benefit capitalist companies whobenefit from cheap labour, and also lower the aspirations of young children by givingthem low skilled job Overall the functionalist perspective has been criticised for3|Page
  4. 4. idealising education as in reality the system is not equal instead influences by class,gender and ethnicity. Marxists also argue that schools only transmit the ideology ifruling class and further perpetuate a cycle of submission of the lower class. This can beseen by the increase of university fees making it impossible for lower classes to affordhigher education and rising its availability only to the elite class Also functionalistargue that pupils passively accept what they are taught and ignores incidences of whenpupils reject the school system. Finally new right perspective argue that educationfails to prepare young people for work as the state control of education discouragesefficient, competition and choice.4|Page
  5. 5. Outline the new right view of the role of education 12mThe new right is a conservative political perspective influences by both labour andconservative polices. They believe the state cannot meet people’s needs and people arebest left to meeting their needs in a free market. They argue some people are naturallymore talented than other, and that education should socialise pupils into shared valuessuch as competition and instil national identity.However new right argue the current system is not doing this because it is run by thestate. State education systems use a one size fits all approach imposing uniformity anddisregarding local needs. The local councils have no say which leads to inefficiently,wasted money and poor results. This leads to lower achievement of pupils and lessqualified workforce for the future.The new rights solution to this is the marketisation of education creating an educationmarket. They believe competition between schools will empower the pupils and bringabout greater diversity, choice and efficiency. Chubb and Moe argue that theAmerican school system has failed miserably and make a case for marketisation. Theyargue that state education has failed to create equality between races, religious andlower class members of society, failed to develop pupils into effective workers and thatprivate schools outperform state schools because they are answerable to a payingconsumer i.e. parents Chubb and Moe base their findings on 60,000 pupils from 1015schools, through case studies and surveys they found that low income students do 5%better in private schools.They suggest that instead of having guaranteed funding, parents should be givenvouchers to spend on schools of their choice. Schools are thus forced to appeal toparents wishes as vouchers means funding for school.New right argue that the state still has a role to play, namely by providing aframework in which schools compete. That is having Ofsted inspection, resultspublished and exam boards. The state also ensures a shared set of values are instilledthrough national curriculumHowever critics argue that the cause of failing education is because state schools donot receive enough funding. They also see marketisation as only benefiting the middleclass who can use their cultural capital to get into good schools and low class studentsare left with unpopular schools. Finally Marxists argue that schools do not instil ashared set of values but just the values of the elite upper class to control the workingclass.5|Page
  6. 6. Assess the contribution Marxists have made to our understanding of education 20mWhereas functionalist see education based on value consensus, Marxists see it basedon class division and capitalist exploitation. Marx described capitalism as the capitalistclass or bourgeoisie are the minority class. They are the employers who make theirprofits by exploiting the labour majority. The working class sell their power to thecapitalists as they do not have any other source of income. Marx argues that educationprevents revolution of the minority class and maintains capitalism and is way ofcontrolling the working class.Marxists see the state as a means of the ruling class maintain their superior position.Althusser argued that the state consist of two apparatuses which keep the bourgeoisiein power: Repressive state apparatuses which maintain the rule of bourgeoisie byforce such as police, army and courts. The ideological state apparatuses maintain therole of bourgeoisie by controlling people’s ideas, values and beliefs i.e. religion, mediaand education. Education reproduces class inequality by transmitting it from generationto generation and failing the working class deliberately. Education also legitimates classinequalities by reproducing ideologies that disguise the truth. This aims to make theworking class accept their subordinate position in society.Bowles and Gintis develop these ideas further and suggest capitalism requires aworkforce with the behaviour and personality suited to their role as exploited hardworkers who accept low pay. The role of education is to produce an obedient workforcethat accepts inequality as inevitable. They looked at 237 high school students andfound that schools reward submissive, compliant workers and punished defiantbehaviourHowever Bowles and Gintis used questionnaires which are subject to social desirabilitybias, in addition all they found was correlation between obedience and rewards,correlations can not establish cause and effect due to intervening variables. Bowles andGintis argue there are similarities between schooling and work in capitalist society asthey both have; hierarchies, with pupils or workers always being at the bottom. This iswhat they refer to as the correspondence principle- that school mirrors thestructures found at work. The correspondence principle works through the hiddencurriculum, these are the lessons taught indirectly in school eg competition, acceptingauthority, mindless obedience etc In this way school prepare working class pupils fortheir role as exploited workers.Bowles and Gintis see the education system as a myth making machine that promotesthis myth of meritocracy, that everyone is equal and can achieve but really it simplyreproduces class and racial inequalities. Evidence suggests that income is determined6|Page
  7. 7. by family class and background more so than educational achievement Willis looked atthe way schooling serves capitalism. He used an internationalist approach that focuseson the meanings pupils give to their situation and how this can lead to resistingindoctrination. Using a qualitative method of interviews and studied the culture of“lads” a group of 12 working class boys who were making their transition from school towork. The lads had a anti school subculture when at school and found school boring andmeaningless and rejected the idea of meritocracyWillis notes the similarity between this anti school counter culture and shop floorculture of male manual workers. Both cultures see manual work as superior andintellectual work as inferior. These similarities explain why anti school lads tend to endup in low jobs: Being accustomed to findings school unfulfilling and boring they havelittle expectations from work and those can cope with its tedium. Their acts ofrebellion guarantee they will end up in unskilled jobs as they failed to gain thequalifications.However it must be noted that interviews are not always reliable. This method tends tolack internal validity as the interviewer can interpret the results in a bias manner. Inaddition the sample size was far too small to make generalisations from.The Marxist approach has been criticised by port fordist who argue educationreproduces diversity and equality In addition Willis found that students do notpassively accept this indoctrination for capitalism instead they can still develop an antischool attitude. Feminists criticise Marxist approach for over emphasising the classinequality in schools and ignore the patriarchal inequalities faced by women. Feministargue schools promote and idea of patriarchy where girls are taught to be submissiveand well behaved while boys are allowed to express their dominance7|Page
  8. 8. Outline some ways in which material deprivation affects class differences ineducational achievement. 12m (external factor)Material deprivation refers to poverty and lack of material necessities such as homeand income. Poverty is linked to under achievement as only 33% of children receivingfree school meals gain 5 A-C’s compared to 61% of children not receiving free schoolmeals. Exclusion and truancy is more common in poorer families, and 90% of failingschools are located in deprived areas.Sociologists have explored the factors contributing to the link between materialdeprivation and education. Poor housing can affect pupil’s underachievement bothdirectly and indirectly. Overcrowding can have a direct effect by making is harder fora child to study. Families living in temporary accommodation may find themselvesmoving more frequently resulting in changing schools and disrupting their education.Poor housing can also have indirect effects on their health and welfare, as they may bemore likely to get ill or psychological distress leading to more absences in school.Another factor is diet and health. Marilyn Howard notes that young people frompoorer homes have lower intakes of energy, vitamins and minerals. Poor nutritionweakens the immune system and again leading to more absences from school due toillness.Finally financial support and cost of education can affect educational achievement.Materially deprived children have to do without equipment and miss out on experiencesthat would have enhanced their educational achievement. Tanner et al found that costsof items such as transport, uniforms, books, computers etc place heavy burdens on poorfamilies As a result poor children have to make do with hand me downs and cheaperless fashionable equipment. This may lead to poor children feeling stigmatised andbullied resulting in poorer educational achievement. Lack of funds also means thatchildren from low incomes families often need to work. Ridge found that children inpoverty take on jobs such as baby sitting and paper rounds which have negative impacton their schoolwork. These financial restriction help to explain why many working classpupils leave school at 16 and why relatively few go on to university as the debt deterspoor students from applyingWhile material factors clearly play a part in achievement, the fact that some childrenfrom poor families do success suggests that material deprivation is only part of theexplanation. The cultural and religious values of family may play a art in creating child’smotivation even despite poverty. Similarly the quality of the school may play animportant part in enabling some poor children to achieve.8|Page
  9. 9. Assess the view that working class students under achieve because they areculturally deprived 20m (external factor)Cultural deprivation theorists argue that we acquire basic values and attitudes neededfor educational success through primary socialisation in the family. However manyworking class families fail to socialise their children adequately, as a result theydevelop culturally deprived. There are three main aspects of cultural deprivation: Thefirst is intellectual development; this refers to the development of thinking andreasoning skills such as problem solving. Working class families are said to lack booksand toys that would stimulate a child’s intellectual development, thus children beginschools without the skills needed to progress. Douglas found that working classstudents scored lower on intellectual tests than middle class children. Bernstien andDouglas found that middle class mothers are more likely to choose toys that encouragethinking and reasoning and this prepares them better for educational success.Engleman and Bereiter claim that the language used by working class families isdeficient, as a result they fail to develop the necessary language skills and grow upincapable of abstract thinking. Bernstein identified two type of languages used byworking and middle class, restricted and elaborated code, which he claims isresponsible for underachievement among working class. The restricted code is a speechcode used by the working class. It has limited vocabulary and is based on short,unfinished and grammatically incorrect sentences. The speech is descriptive notanalytic and context bound, that is the speaker assumes the listener shares similarexperiences .The elaborated code is typically used by middle class and describes awider vocabulary characterized by longer, grammatically correct and more complexsentences. Elaborated code is context free as the speaker does not assume thelistener shares the same experiences in order to understand what is being said.These differences give middle class an advantage at school as elaborated code us usedby teachers, textbooks and exams. Early socialization of the elaborated code meansthat middle class students are already fluent users when they start school and aremore likely to be successfulCultural deprivation theorists argue that a parent’s attitudes and values are a keyfactor in education achievement. Douglas found that working class parents were lessambitious for their children and took less interest in their education. As a resultchildren had less motivation towards school. Hyman argues that the values of lowerclass reflect a self imposed barrier to educational success, they believe they have lesschance of achieving individual success and so see no point of education.9|Page
  10. 10. Similarly Sugarman argued that working class subculture has four key features thatact as a barrier to educational achievement: Fatalism a belief in fate and there isnothing you can do to change your status. Collectivism: valuing being part of a groupmore than succeeding as an individual. Immediate gratification: seeking pleasure nowrather than making sacrifices in order to get rewards in the future. Finally presenttime orientation: seeing the present as more important than the future and so nothaving long term goals. Although cultural deprivation theorists have provided some evidence for the effectsone educational achievement there are still some criticisms of this approach. Keddiedescribes cultural deprivation as a myth and a victim blaming explanation. She arguesworking class families are different not deprived and fail because of biases ineducation system which put working class families at a disadvantage. Keddie arguesschools should recognize and build upon working class values and reduce anti workingclass prejudices. Troyna and Williams argue that teachers have a speech hierarchy andlabel middle class speech as the highest and working class speech as uneducated, thisbias leads to underperformance of working class students. Blackstone and Mortimoreargue that working class parents are not necessarily less involved in child’s education.Instead their long working hours makes attending parents evening more difficult. Inaddition helping with homework may be inhibited by the fact they may not be welleducated. As a result cultural deprivation theorists are exaggerating in their claims.10 | P a g e
  11. 11. Explain how marketisation may have produced social class differences ineducational achievement 12m (internal)Schools operate within a wider education system whose polices directly affect theprocesses to produce class differences in achievement. These polices includemarketisation. Marketisation has bought in two policies funding formula (that givesschool funding per student), exam league tables ranking each school according to examperformance to create competition amongst schools to attract pupils.These changes explain why schools are under pressure to stream and select pupils.Schools need to achieve good league table position to attract pupils and funding.Gillborn and Youdell argue that publishing league table leads o the “A-C economy”.This is a system in which schools ration their time and effort on those pupils theyhaving the potential to get five A-C’s at GCSE and thus boost the schools league tableposition. The A-C economy produces educational triage, school’s categories pupilsas; those that will pass anyway, those with potential and hopeless cases. Teacherslabel students this using ability, class and ethnicity, working class tend to be labeled asunable. As a result they are classed as “hopeless” cases and ignored. This produces selffulfilling prophecy and failure.The educational triage is closely linked to the process of streaming, where teachersbeliefs about pupil’s ability are used to segregate them into different classes and thusproduce different levels of achievement especially for the working class.Marketisation explains why schools are under pressure to select more able middleclass pupils who will help the school achieve higher ranking on the league tables.High ranking schools further attract middle class students furthering the results.Increased popularity of a school gives that school freedom to select their pupils whichusually results in middle class high achieving students being selected and working classstudents being rejected.On the other hand unpopular schools have no choice but to take the underachievingbadly behaved students who have been rejected from popular schools. This results ingreater social class segregation between schools and lower achievement amongstworking class students.Will Bartlett argued that marketisation leads to popular schools cream skimming(selecting higher ability students) and slit shifting (off loading pupils with learningdifficulties with poor results). Some schools have responded to marketisation bycreating a traditional image to attract middle class parents which has reinforced classdifferences. Walford looked at city technology colleges and found that they wereintended to provide vocational education in partnership with employers and recruit11 | P a g e
  12. 12. pupils from all social backgrounds however they tend to only attract middle classparents as they are seen as an alternative to gr56ammar schools.A similar pattern is found in sixth form as the top highly selective sixth forms attractmiddle class students providing academic courses leading to university and professionalcareers. While working class tend to attend colleges catering for vocational coursesand low level courses and reduced future success.Overall marketisation has had a direct impact on the performance of working class as itleads to a wider scale prejudice towards working class students.12 | P a g e
  13. 13. Assess the view that social class differences in educational achievement are theresult of in school processes 20m (internal)In school processes refers to internal factors within the school system that createsegregation and lead to class differences in achievement. These internal factors aresaid to have a direct effect on a child’s future performance.The first of which is labelling, to label someone is to attach a meaning or definition tothem. Teachers may label someone as intelligent or troublesome. Studies show thatteachers attach labels based more on class rather than on actual ability, and attachnegative labels to working class and positive to middle class.Evidence shows that labelling occurs both in high and primary school. Becker carriedout an internationalist study of labelling. After interviewing 60 high school teachers hefound that they judged pupils according to how closely they fitted an image of the“ideal pupil”. The teachers often saw middle class students as the closest to ideal andworking class children as furthest away. Further studies looked at school counsellors;they found that counsellors judge students on the basis on their social class and race.Middle class students were labelled as having more potential and higher level courses.Rist conducted a study on primary school teachers and found teachers used student’sbackgrounds to place them in separate groups. Those seen as fast learners werelabelled as “tigers” and tended to be middle class. Those seen as less able wereplaced on tables towards the back and labelled “clowns” and received less teacherattention. These students tended to be working class.The studies show how labelling can put working class students at a disadvantage aslabels lower their self esteem and reduce the help received by teachers. Labels canalso apply to the knowledge taught to students. The knowledge taught can be describedas high or low status. When teaching A grade streams teachers use high statuslanguage which is more abstract and theoretical. When teaching low streams consistingmainly of working class pupils, teachers use low status language which is descriptive andcommon sense. This reduces lower class students access to elaborated code and thusputting them at a disadvantage.A self fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that comes true simply by virtue of havingbeen made. This lowers performance as the teacher labels the child as underachiever,treats the student as if the prediction if true, finally the pupil internalises theteachers expectation which become part of their self concept and lives up to the labelthat has been assigned to them.13 | P a g e
  14. 14. Evidence for the self fulfilling prophecy comes from Rosenthal. They told school theyhad a new test designed to identify spurters this was in fact a standard IQ test. Theythen selected 20% of students at random and told teachers these were the futurespurters. When they returned to the school a year later 47% of the “spurters” showedsignificant progress. This suggests that when teachers believe a child is able they showmotivation to help them achieve, and demonstrates the impact of self fulfillingprophecy.Streaming involves separating children into different ability groups called streams.Each group is taught separately based on their ability. This is likely to have an effecton working class students achievement as teachers see them as less able and poorlybehaved so are placed in lower streams. Once in lower streams its hard for them toachieve high grades as they do not have access to higher exam papers. Middle classtend to be placed in high sets and so have greater self esteem and more motivation tosucceed.Pupil subcultures refer to a group of pupils who share similar values and behaviourpatterns. They often emerge as a response to labels and streams. Pro schoolsubcultures tend to have a positive attitude to school and respect school values. Antischool subcultures tend to be those placed in low streams and blame school for theirlow self esteem. They gain status by rebelling against school values and norms. This islikely to lead to educational failure.The final in school process leading to class difference comes courtesy ofmarketisation. Since schools receive funding per student and have to publish leaguertable results, schools are under pressure to compete with other schools. As a resultpopular outstanding schools can select which students they enrol these tend to bemiddle class students and thus exam results are stronger. Working class students thushave no choice but to join unpopular failing schools with poor results. This leads to acycle of poor results for working class students.However in school factors have been criticised for being too deterministic, that is theyignore factors outside of the school such as class and background which can have asignificant effect. Factors such as labelling does not explain why failing students failacross the board even though they may only be labelled in one particular subject.Finally the research is based on observations and interviews both of which are subjectto interpreter bias which may affect the validity of the results.14 | P a g e
  15. 15. Outline the ways in which a childs home background may influence ethnicdifferences in achievement 12mEvidence from government statistics show that white and Asians on average to betterthan Black pupils. However there are significant differences within the Asiansubculture with Indians outperforming Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. However whiteworking class tend to perform similarly if not lower than ethnic minorities suggestingthat the cause of education underachievement is a mixture of culture and classThe reasons for ethnic differences can be internal (factors within the school) orexternal (factors outside the education system). The external factors tend to becultural deprivation, material deprivation and racismCultural deprivation theorists argue that underachievement is a result of inadequatesocialisation in the home. One major factor being the lack of intellectual and linguisticskills being taught to their children, in addition ethnic children are less likely to engagein activities that are intellectually enriching leaving these students poorly equipped forschool. In addition the language spoken by ethnic families tend to be inadequate foreducational success as it tends to be ungrammatical which acts as a barrier toeducational success. However some sociologists argue that Indian children do just aswell as white middle class students despite not speaking English at homeCultural deprivation theorists also argue that black children do not have the attitudesand values to promote educational achievement. Instead black families instil fatalisticlive for today attitudes that doe not value education leaving black children at adisadvantage when attending school. Other sociologists argue that because blackfamilies are headed by lone parents children lack an adequate male role model inaddition they lack the economical foundation for successful progression in school..Driver and Ballard argue that Asian family culture brings educational benefits as theirparents have more positive attitudes towards education with higher aspirations forcareer options. Lupton found that Asian families promote respect for elders whichhelps their attitudes towards authority figuresHowever the cultural deprivation theory has been criticised. For instance GeoffreyDriver argues that this theory ignores the positive effects of ethnicity on educationalachievement. For instance black family structure can show a strong independent womanas a role model explaining why black girls achieve better than black males. Keddieargues that families are culturally different not deprives, they under achieve due toethnocentric bias schools not their family.15 | P a g e
  16. 16. Material deprivation refers to a lack of physical necessities that are essential forfunctioning in today’s society. Material deprivation theorists argue that educationalfailure results from ethnic minorities not having the adequate materials forachievement. Flaherty found that Pakistanis and Bangladeshis were three times morelikely to be amongst the poorest fifth of the population, they were more likely toengage in low paid word and twice as likely to be in low skilled low paid work.Since the SWANN report found that class has a 50% effect on educationalachievement this must be an explanation of ethnic differences in achievement. HoweverGillborn and Mirza argues that social class factors do not override the effects ofculture as even when social class has been accounted for ethnic differences inachievement still existThe final reason for differences in achievement is racism in wider society. John Rexargues that racial discrimination leads to social education and how it worsens poverty.In housing for instance minorities are more likely to be in poor accommodation. Inemployment ethnic minorities face extensive discrimination in areas such as telesales,admin and opportunities. This in turn leads to poor educational prospects.16 | P a g e
  17. 17. Assess the importance of school factors in creating ethnic differences ineducational achievement 20mAccording to Youdell and Gillborn African Caribbean children ted to be amongst thehighest achievers when entering high school and lave high school as the lowest achiever,this suggests that there are factors internal to the education system itself causing theunderachievement of ethic minoritiesThe term ethnocentric describes an attitude or policy that give priority to one culturewhile disregarding the others. Troyna and Williams describe British schools asethnocentric because it gives priority to English culture. Ball argued that the nationalcurriculum ignores cultural diversity and promotes the Englandism and focuses onBritish empire and ignores Asian and black history. This leads to ethnic minoritiesfeeling isolated and lowers their self esteem which leads to educational failure.However studies show black students tend not to have low self esteem. In additionmany Asian minorities exceed the national average suggesting this is not the cause ofeducational underachievement of ethnic minorities.Troyna and Williams argue that ethnic differences in achievement are more to do withinstitutional racism, and that schools discriminate in two ways: Individual racism thatresults form prejudiced views and intuitionalism racism which is discrimination withinhow schools operate.The ethnocentric curriculum is just one example of institutional racism. Hatcher foundthat school bodies failed to deal with pupils reacts behaviour in schools and there wereno channels of communication between school and governors and ethnic minorityparents.Gillborn argues that marketisation of schools gives schools more power to select pupilsand this puts ethnic minorities at a disadvantage. Moore and Davenport found thatschools use primary school data to screen out students with language or learningdifficulties, this favours the white middle class pupils and low income ethnic minoritiesare at a disadvantage, Further studies show that schools that have a large intake ofAsian pupils can discourage white pupils from joining as it was viewed as “rough”suggesting discrimination occurs within wider society and affects school in take.The final factor is labelling pupils; this is when you attach a definition to a pupil.Interactionalists found show that teachers see black and Asian pupils far from theirideal pupil and these negative labels can disadvantage them in the future. Gillborn et alfound that teachers were quick to discipline black students over white students for thesame behaviour.17 | P a g e
  18. 18. Gillborn argued this is because teachers have racialised expectations in that theyexpect black students to present more behaviour problems and often react to theirown misinterpretations of behaviour which leads to conflict between students andteachers, which leads to more exclusion for black students.Wright found that teachers would respond to Asian students in a way to promote theidea that British culture was superior and often spoke to Asian pupils as if they did nothave a strong grasp of English. As a result these students were marginalised and notincluded in class discussions. Pupils respond to these labels in a variety of ways oftencreating subcultures. Fuller studied a group of black high achieving girls. Instead ofaccepting their negative stereotypes they channelled their anger into pursuit ofeducational success and did not seek teacher approval. They also maintained friendshipswith pupils in lower streams who were part of an anti school subculture. They alsopretended not to show an interest of school matters yet were privately extremelyconscientious. This was their way of dealing with educational demands whilstmaintaining ties with anti school subculture friends.This shows that pupils can still achieve even when negatively labelled and these labelsneed not lead to self fulfilling prophecy. However Mirza did find evidence of teacherlabelling and even racism in some cases. She argues that there are three types ofteacher racism: Colour blind teacher who see students as equal but allow racism tooccur, Liberal chauvinists who believe black pupils are deprived so have lowerexpectations for them, Overt racists who see blacks as inferior and discriminateagainst them. These subtypes of teachers can lower the achievement levels as Mirzafound that girls would avoid teacher interaction and be selective about which staffthey seek help form. This can reduce their possibilities and lead to poorer outcomes.Overall there seems to be several in school factors implicated in ethnic differences inachievement. However in order to fully understand why these differences occur theexternal factors need to be considered as the internal factors fail to take into accountthe fact that home environment such as language, material and cultural deprivationneed to be considered.18 | P a g e
  19. 19. Outline the reasons for gender differences in subject choice 12mAccording to Oakley gender role socialisation is the process of learning the behaviourexpected of males and females in society. Early socialisation influences gender identity,schools also play a role as Byrne shows that teachers encourage boys to be tough andpunish and feminine behaviours. Girls on the other hand are expected to be quiet,helpful ant punished for being rough or noisy.Browne and Rose argue that children beliefs about gender domains are shaped byexpectations of adults. Gender domains refer to the tasks that boys and girls see astheir territory. For eg cars are a male domain and cooking a female domain. Children aremore confident in engaging in tasks of their own domain.The gender image that a subject gives off affects who will want to choose it.Sociologists tried to explain why some subjects are boy’s schools while others are girlsubjects. For example Kelly argued science is seen as a boy’s subject as teachers tendto be men, the examples in textbooks tend to draw on male experiences and in sciencelessons boys monopolise the apparatus and dominate the lab.Students who attend single sex schools tend to have less stereotypes subject images.Leaonard found that this results in them taking less traditional subjects. She lookedat 13,000 pupils and found that compared to mixed schools girls were more likely totake maths and science A levels.Subject choice can be influenced by peer pressure as peers may disprove of subjectchoice. Boys tend to opt put of drama and music as it attracts negative responses frommale peers.Paetcher found that girls who chose sports tend to be subject to taunts such as beingcalled butch or lesbian. However in single sex schools girls are more likely to selectsports as they do not receive as much ridicule. The absence of boys puts less pressureon girls to conform to gender stereotypes. One of the main reasons for genderdifference sin subject choice is that employment is highly gendered. Jobs tend to besex typed as women jobs tend to be jobs that mirror the housewife role such asclerical, cleaning, secretarial and personal services. Over half of all womensemployment falls within these categories compared to only one 6th of men falling in thiscategoryThis explains why vocational courses are gender specific more so than academiccourses as vocational studies are more closely liked to students career paths which isgender stereotyped.19 | P a g e
  20. 20. Asses the view that gender differences in achievement are a result of changes Inthe education system (20 m)Many sociologists argue that feminists have had a strong impact on the educationsystem. Those who run the education system are now much more aware of gender issuesand stereotyping. Policies such as GIST and WISE encourage girls to pursue careers inscience and technology, female scientists visiting schools also encourages girls topursue science.Similarly national curriculum removed gender inequality by making girls and boys studythe same subjects. This has changed girl’s achievement levels. Education has becomemeritocratic so girls who generally work harder are now achieving more.In recent years there has been an increase in proportion of female teachers and headteachers. These women require extensive education to get to that position whichencourages young females to find role models who are qualified and well educated.Some sociologists argue that changes to the way pupils are assessed has favoured girlsand disadvantaged boys. Gorard found that the gender gap was quite constant until1988 when GCSE and coursework was introduced. Gorard concludes that the gender gapis a product of the changed system of assessment rather than a failing boys. Brownefound that girls are more successful at coursework as they are more conscientious andbetter organised. These factors helped girls to over achieve. Oral exams also benefitgirls as they have better developed language skills. These factors result in girlsachieving educational success and leave boys behind.The way teachers interact with boys and girls also effects gender differences inachievement. Spender found that teachers spend more time interacting with boys.However French found that boys tend to receive more negative attention for poorbehaviour and girls receive more positive attention which is work related and helpsthem achieve. Some sociologists argue that removal of gender stereotypes formtextbooks which was previously a barrier in achievement, has contributed to genderdifference in achievement.In the 70’s and 80’s girls were portrayed as house wives and mothers and boys asscientists and inventors. The removal of such images has helped raise girls achievementby presenting with them more positive images of what women can do.Marketisation policies have created a more competitive climate In which schools seegirls as more desirable recruits and achieve better results. Jackson notes thatintroduction of exam league tables’ places higher value on academic achievement, andhas improved opportunities for girls as high achieving girls are sought after by top20 | P a g e
  21. 21. schools whereas low achieving boys are not. As a result boys end up in unpopularschools which leads to self fulfilling prophecies as unpopular schools tend to have theworst results. Girls attend better schools helping them over achieve. All the above factors suggest that girls are benefit from changes in educationwhereas boys suffer which explains the gender gap in education. However radicalfeminists take a more critical view. They argue that the system remains patriarchal andconveys a message of it being a man’s world. Sexual harassment still exists in schooland education still limits girls subject choice and career options. In addition, thoughfemale teachers are on the rise, head masters and head of departments still tend to bemen.Finally women are under represented in many areas of the curriculum as theircontribution to our history is ignored. Therefore though changes have lead to genderdifferences, education system is not the whole cause of the gender gap.21 | P a g e
  22. 22. Discuss the main phases in education policy. 20mEducational policy refers to the plans and strategies for education introduced by the government.Industrialisation increased the need for an educated workforce from the late 19th century the satebecame more involved in education. At this time schooling was not meritocratic and did not changepupils’ ascribed status. It only benefited the middle class who could afford school, the working classwere not able to access education. Working class were given schooling for basic numeracy andliteracy skills preparing them for low skilled work.The tripartite system was introduced in 1944, education began to be shaped around meritocracythat individuals should achieve their status based on hard work and effort. In 1944 education actbrought in the tripartite system where students would be selected and allocated to one of threetypes of secondary schools, based on attitudes and ability assessed by the 11 plus exam. Grammarschools offered an academic curriculum and access to non manual jobs and higher education, theywere and were mainly middle class children.Secondary modern schools offered a non academic practical curriculum and access to manual workfor people who failed the 11 plus. Finally Technical schools existed in very few areas geared towardstechnical skills.This system rather than promoting meritocracy it promoted inequality by channelling the two socialclasses into different schools which offered different opportunities. It also discriminated against girlsas they were required to get a higher grade than boys in order to attend grammar schools. Finallynot being able to enter “better” schools those attending secondary modern schools were likely toshow self fulfilling prophecy and under achieve due to not seeing any hope for them.This system also legitimised inequality by arguing education is innate rather than a product of yourenvironment. It was thus agreed that ability can be categorised at an early age which was notnecessarily valid as many students intelligence peaked at a later age.The comprehensive system was introduced from 1965 onwards and aimed to overcome the classdivide and make education more meritocratic, the 11 plus was eliminated and replaced bycomprehensive schools that all students could attend. Students thus attended school based oncatchment area and locality rather than ability and class. However the system was still unequalbecause: Streaming into ability groups still existed and middle class were over represented in highergroups and working class in lower streams . This may lead to self fulfilling prophecy and achievementmay deteriorate. Even when streaming was not evident working class may still be labellednegatively which restricts their achievement. Comprehensive schools legitimised inequality throughthe myth of meritocracy the belief that students were all equal when in reality inequalities stillexisted.1988 the education re Form act introduced by Margaret Thatcher established the principle ofmarketisation in education. From 1997 the new labour government followed similar principlesemphasising standards, diversity and choice.22 | P a g e
  23. 23. Marketisation refers to the process of introducing market forced of consumer choice andcompetition by reducing direct state control over education and increasing competition betweenschools.The education reform act created a market by: 1. Reducing state control over education 2. Increasing competition between schoolsThe new right saw state control over education is a cause for inefficiency, low standards and a lackof choice for parents. By contrast marketisation means that schools are run like businesses with theaim of attracting as many customers as possible, they can only attract customers by meeting theirneeds and providing good service.David described this phase as parentocracy. This is because the power shifts away from the schoolsand to the parents as they chose where they send their children. This creates diversity amongstschools and more choice for parents.Policies to promote marketisation include: - Publication of exam tables - Oftsed - Open enrolment - Schools competing to attract pupils.However critics argue that marketisation still creates inequality as middle class parents are moreequipped to select the better schools.Stephan ball argued that marketisation legitimises inequality by:Exam league tablesFunding formulaThe publication of exam league tables mean that schools with good results are more in demand. As aresult they can be more selective on whom they want to join their school. As a result middle classhigh achieving white pupils are more likely to be selected than working class. As a result the middleclass are still more likely to achieve better results. In addition the funding formula means schools aregiven same funding for each child. However this means popular high achieving schools who have agreater in take of students receive more funding than low achieving schools with smaller intakes. Asa result good schools get more funding and thus have more money for better facilities and payhigher wages to better teachers. These policies promote inequality.23 | P a g e