Chapter 7:Cognitive Aspects ofPersonality         Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Roots in Gestalt PsychologyHuman  beings seek meaning in their environmentsWe   organize the sensations we receive into ...
Kurt Lewin’s Field TheoryLife   space ◦ All internal and external forces, and their   relationships to one another ◦ e.g....
Schema TheorySchema ◦ A cognitive structure that organizes knowledge and   expectations about one’s environment ◦ Determi...
Categorization We   tend to organize events, objects, and people  into categories Positive effects of categorization  ◦ ...
George KellyPersonal   Construct Theory ◦ People actively endeavor to understand   the world and construct their own   th...
Kelly: The Role Construct RepertoryTestAssesses      personal construct systemsThink   of: ◦ A teacher you liked ◦ Your ...
Social IntelligenceKnowledge    and skills relevant to interpersonal situations ◦ Including: empathy, compassion, humor, ...
Explanatory StyleA characteristic way of interpreting                     life eventsOptimism and Pessimism  ◦ Optimisti...
Julian RotterBehavior depends upon outcome expectancy and reinforcement valueOutcome expectancy ◦ Person’s expectation t...
Julian RotterBehavior    potential ◦ Likelihood that a behavior will be performed in   a particular situationGeneralized...
Julian RotterSix   psychological needs ◦   Recognition-status ◦   Dominance ◦   Independence ◦   Protection-dependency ◦ ...
Julian Rotter Locus   of control  ◦ Beliefs about one’s ability to affect outcomes  ◦ Stable individual difference Inter...
Albert BanduraSelf-system ◦ The set of cognitive processes by which a   person perceives, evaluates, and regulates   his ...
Albert BanduraHow   can new behaviors be acquired in the absence of reinforcement?Observational   Learning ◦ Vicarious l...
Albert BanduraFactors   that influence modeling: ◦ Outcome expectancy   People are more likely to imitate behaviors that...
Albert BanduraProcesses     underlying observational learning ◦ Attention   Got to pay attention when observing ◦ Retent...
Albert BanduraSelf-efficacy  ◦ A belief abut how competently one will be    able to enact a behavior in a particular    s...
Albert BanduraSelf-efficacy   is based on:  ◦ Past success and failures at similar tasks   ◦ Mastery of the skill  ◦ Vica...
Albert BanduraSelf-regulation  ◦ People’s control over their own achievements     Setting goals for themselves     Eval...
Humans as ComputersPeople   as information processors ◦ Similar to how computers manipulate   informationShortcomings   ...
Cognitive ApproachLimits ◦ Often ignores unconscious and emotional   aspects of personality ◦ Some theories tend to overs...
Cognitive ApproachView   of free will ◦ Free will through active human thought   processes ◦ Individual responsibility fo...
Cognitive ApproachImplications   for therapy ◦ Uses understanding of perception, cognition,   and attribution to change t...
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5e ch07

  1. 1. Chapter 7:Cognitive Aspects ofPersonality Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Roots in Gestalt PsychologyHuman beings seek meaning in their environmentsWe organize the sensations we receive into meaningful perceptionsComplex stimuli are not reducible to the sum of their parts Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Kurt Lewin’s Field TheoryLife space ◦ All internal and external forces, and their relationships to one another ◦ e.g., family, religion, work, etc.Contemporaneous causation Behavior is caused at the moment of its occurrence by all the forces acting at that momentHow affected you are by the environmental forces and context of the situation is your level of “field dependence” field = the forces/context around you at a given moment that can affect your behavior See table 7.1 in textbook
  4. 4. Schema TheorySchema ◦ A cognitive structure that organizes knowledge and expectations about one’s environment ◦ Determines how we think and act ◦ Different experiences lead to different ways of “seeing things” ◦ We may often expect others to share our schemasScript ◦ Schemas for familiar events ◦ e.g., eating at a restaurant ◦ What if your dinner partner has a different script for this? They eat pizza with a fork, don’t usually leave a tip, take 20 minutes to choose something from the menu, and order dessert & coffee. While you use your hands, always tips, make choices quickly, and leave as soon as you are done eating.
  5. 5. Categorization We tend to organize events, objects, and people into categories Positive effects of categorization ◦ Quickly understand complex information ◦ Make likely inferences about new things Negative effects of categorization ◦ Stereotypes ◦ Overlook individuating characteristics One of the first categories we tend to put people into is gender, male or female. When it is ambiguous, we feel uncomfortable and confused because our normal categorization process isn’t working and our scripts fail us On the other hand, if we frequently came into contact with gender ambiguity, we would develop a schema, scripts, and a probably a different categorization process
  6. 6. George KellyPersonal Construct Theory ◦ People actively endeavor to understand the world and construct their own theories about human behavior ◦ “Every man is, in his own particular way, a scientist” — Kelly Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Kelly: The Role Construct RepertoryTestAssesses personal construct systemsThink of: ◦ A teacher you liked ◦ Your boss ◦ A successful person you knowWhich two are similar? How?Who is different? How?Over many triads, the test-taker’s constructs emerge by identifying common themes in your assessment of a “type” of person Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Social IntelligenceKnowledge and skills relevant to interpersonal situations ◦ Including: empathy, compassion, humor, etc. ◦ Emotional intelligence ◦ Emotion knowledgeSimilar to Howard Gardner’s “multiple intelligences” theory Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Explanatory StyleA characteristic way of interpreting life eventsOptimism and Pessimism ◦ Optimistic style is generally associated with better outcomes ◦ Implications for achievementLearned Helplessness (Seligman) ◦ Repeated exposure to unavoidable punishment leads to the acceptance of avoidable punishmentCognitive intervention can reduce the depressive effect of pessimismPositive Psychology (Seligman) ◦ New ways of thinking can be trained ◦ Learned Optimism ◦ http://youtu.be/Q-Vhjmdp4nI (Interview with Seligman)
  10. 10. Julian RotterBehavior depends upon outcome expectancy and reinforcement valueOutcome expectancy ◦ Person’s expectation that his or her behavior will be reinforcedReinforcement value ◦ Value of the expected reinforcer to the individual Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Julian RotterBehavior potential ◦ Likelihood that a behavior will be performed in a particular situationGeneralized vs. specific expectancies ◦ Generalized expectancies apply to categories of behaviors and situations  General personality traits & behaviors  Ex. I don’t enjoy parties as a general rule because I expect them to be dull and I get nervous talking to new people ◦ Specific expectancies apply to particular instances of behaviors and situations  Ex. I am looking forward to my best friend’s birthday party
  12. 12. Julian RotterSix psychological needs ◦ Recognition-status ◦ Dominance ◦ Independence ◦ Protection-dependency ◦ Love and affection ◦ Physical comfortSecondary reinforcers ◦ Associated with satisfaction of these needs ◦ Subjective value of reinforcers, depending on person ◦ Ex. A promotion at work gives me the ability to have a roof over my head, eat, and meet basic biological needs (primary). It also is important to me because I get more recognition at work, can move into a bigger place to be more comfortable, and get to be work more independently in my new job (secondary). These are things I value, therefore I worked hard to get the promotion.
  13. 13. Julian Rotter Locus of control ◦ Beliefs about one’s ability to affect outcomes ◦ Stable individual difference Internal locus of control ◦ Outcomes are the result of one’s own actions ◦ More achievement-oriented External locus of control ◦ Believe events are beyond their personal control ◦ Includes components of chance and powerful others ◦ More likely to suffer stress and depression Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Albert BanduraSelf-system ◦ The set of cognitive processes by which a person perceives, evaluates, and regulates his or her own behavior so it’s functionally efficient and appropriate Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Albert BanduraHow can new behaviors be acquired in the absence of reinforcement?Observational Learning ◦ Vicarious learning and modelingLearning Aggressive Behavior ◦ Bobo doll experiments Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Albert BanduraFactors that influence modeling: ◦ Outcome expectancy  People are more likely to imitate behaviors that they believe lead to positive outcomes ◦ Characteristics of the model  Age, gender, status, competence, etc. ◦ Characteristics of the behavior  Simple and salient behaviors ◦ Attributes of the observer  Self-esteem, dependence, cognitive development Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Albert BanduraProcesses underlying observational learning ◦ Attention  Got to pay attention when observing ◦ Retention (Symbolic representation)  Got to commit it to memory ◦ Motor reproduction (Transformation to action)  Got to put into practice what you observed ◦ Motivation  Got to want to learn it Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Albert BanduraSelf-efficacy ◦ A belief abut how competently one will be able to enact a behavior in a particular situationSelf-efficacy determines: ◦ If we even try to act ◦ How long we persist in our behavior ◦ How success or failure affects future behavior Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Albert BanduraSelf-efficacy is based on: ◦ Past success and failures at similar tasks ◦ Mastery of the skill ◦ Vicarious experiences ◦ Seeing others / Social Modeling ◦ Social/Verbal persuasion ◦ By others ◦ Emotional reactions ◦ How we feel about the behaviorSelf-efficacyis specific to the situation/behavior ◦ Unlike self-esteem, which is global Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Albert BanduraSelf-regulation ◦ People’s control over their own achievements  Setting goals for themselves  Evaluating their success  Rewarding themselvesIncludesself-efficacy and schemasFocuses on internal control of behavior ◦ Intrapersonal approach ◦ Close to social psychological approaches Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Humans as ComputersPeople as information processors ◦ Similar to how computers manipulate informationShortcomings of artificial intelligence ◦ Turing Test ◦ Personality is difficult to simulate Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Cognitive ApproachLimits ◦ Often ignores unconscious and emotional aspects of personality ◦ Some theories tend to oversimplify complex thought processes ◦ May underemphasize situational influences on behavior Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Cognitive ApproachView of free will ◦ Free will through active human thought processes ◦ Individual responsibility for thoughts, feelings, and actions is emphasized Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. Cognitive ApproachImplications for therapy ◦ Uses understanding of perception, cognition, and attribution to change thought processes ◦ Emotion and behavior can be changed by changing cognitions & perceptions of situations ◦ Ex. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

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