Writing a project is basically a kind of
academic text: The academic text
▪ The Thesis
A scientific text should consist of:
2. List of content
3. An introduction
4. A body which typically is the most important
part – it is here analyzing is being done
5. The end (conclusion)
6. Literature list, notes, etc.
Problem formulation, The question of the project
Method, how the project ’is being done’
Presentation of the theories
Presentation of the empiric field, also a brief historic introduction
Results, presentation of the production, interpretations
▪ Where are we now, what is the topic of the project in a broad
▪ What is the topic of your project in a narrow perspective. You must
be very precise and exact. You must make it clear, which questions
will be answered by the project and which not
▪ That means you must draw clear boarders for your problem
Criteria for selection or drawing the boarder:
▪ Why is ‘this’ included in stead of ‘that’? On which terms are the
▪ Which analyzing tools are you going to use? And which theories?
Tell about your approach towards the analysis
▪ How can you base the method on different texts or eve may be a
▪ ”Change of gear” Tell about how the reader will be guided from
page 1 to p. XX? What can the reader expect?
▪ Analyze means ”deconstruct”, on the other side you
have synthesis meaning ”construct”.
▪ It is imperative to keep a good balance between
deconstruction and construction – possibly in a new
Please dig deep if you like. (I.e. in a production, which you
really go into. But never forget: think about your reader: She
must understand what is going on!
Literature, appendix, etc.
A good tool
But: Not always the best for the text. It may become to ‘heavy’.
Do experiment with the right way to do (Catch ups)
Conclude on your analysis!
TEST: The part conclusions 1, 2 and 3… must become the same result as the
conclusion (otherwise something is wrong!)
Alter, Jonathan: “The Weird World of Secrets and
Lies”, in Newsweek, nr. 22, 1998
Bolter, Jay David and Richard Grusin: Remediation.
Understanding New Media, Cambridge, Mass. 1999
De Certeau, Michel: The Practice of Everyday
Life, Berkeley 1984 
Elmer, Greg: Profiling Machines: Mapping the
Personal Information Economy, Cambridge, Mass.
From the whole
world into the topic
Cut, cut, cut!
- but don’t forget to
draw lines forth and
Conclude, conclude… But
don’t forget self critism
and news to come
How to write the project?
Which style should I use?
It is scientific – but don’t use difficult words when not
necessary. Also about notes: Only when relevant
Focus on working with two texts: 1: The raw material
text, and 2: The text for your reader.
Reader? A student at your level but from an other
Its al in the variation…
Highlight your points by ’replays’ – but not all the time
Feel free to point to your own text (i.e. In the next
paragraph I am going to… But not all the time!)
Change between short and long sentences, beginnings,
A good project is ‘written through’ several times!
Remember: The last: I am not in the mood for more…
costs at least one grade!
The classical scientific text is based on a thesis which
you have to prove right or wrong. The reader must be
able to control the content
That’s why argumentation is important
The Argumentation is yours (and therefore also the
readers) way through the landscape.
Therefore argumentation is like travelling with a companion…
Thing about it like a series of: ‘If’ – ‘then’s’ – and test
your self and your text. Did you remember all part
conclusions? Can others follow your way of thinking?
Are you jumping to conclusions too fast?
It is imperative to distinguish between:
NOW: you are in the interpreting mode (you analyze)
when you are telling the reader (and give good
argumentation) which style the design of you
production has. This can be supported by examples
(which then are descriptive.
You are in the DESKRIPTIVE mode (you describe), when
you give a short review of a plot or give a refernce to
another analyse (of your production) etc.
A good project finds the balance between form and
It’s not enough that you have brilliant ideas if your
language is messy, bad spelling and you are not
argumenting well for your points etc.
CONSISTENS: Use the same system for your notes all
way through your project, the same way of spelling
same quotation pracsice, same bla, same…..
If you are good here it give one grade credit!!!