3 Project Cycle and Planning (4-6 hours)

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A series of modules on project cycle, planning and the logical framework, aimed at team leaders of international NGOs in developing countries. (Part 3 of 11)
There are two handouts to go with this presentation,
- the Project Planning slides as a handout: http://www.slideshare.net/Makewa/3-proj-plan-handouts
- Project Management Terms: http://www.slideshare.net/Makewa/project-management-terms,
& the Project Planning Presenter Notes: http://www.slideshare.net/Makewa/3-proj-plan-notes

Published in: Business, Technology
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3 Project Cycle and Planning (4-6 hours)

  1. 1. Project Planning 1: Development Project Planning Overview
  2. 2. Overview of this session <ul><li>What is Development Planning? </li></ul><ul><li>Project Cycle Management </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOGICAL FRAMEWORK ANALYSIS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MONITORING & EVALUATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comments on Project Planning </li></ul>
  3. 3. “ If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there”
  4. 4. Development Planning Theory <ul><li>Development Planning has become a special field of study </li></ul><ul><li>Lets look at some of the ideas and concepts of modern Development Planning </li></ul>
  5. 5. Development Planning Theory Some of the ideas <ul><li>What ‘just happens’ vs. intentional acts </li></ul><ul><ul><li> a planned process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development as Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Can be Positive or Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Trusteeship (act for other people) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Development Planning Theory Some of the ideas <ul><li>Development Administration & Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure of the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social, cultural, political relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the ability of people and groups to influence events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies (organisations at all levels) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutions (laws, codes) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Development Planning Theory Some of the ideas <ul><li>All this is done by simplifying – called ‘Reductionism’: to look at complex systems with simple principles </li></ul><ul><li>examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>capacity </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Plans, Programmes, Projects <ul><li>Plan: a statement of forward looking decisions, how they work together and the criteria used in making them </li></ul><ul><li>Programme: usually a long-term series of interventions, sometimes with no defined end point </li></ul><ul><li>Project: a discrete activity aimed at a specific objective with a defined budget and limited timeframe </li></ul>
  9. 9. Aspects of Project Cycle Management <ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ownership” </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring and control </li></ul><ul><li>Formal contingency planning </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory, flexible, … but … you need some form of rule book to keep to budgets and timeframes </li></ul>
  10. 10. ‘Reductionist’ Project Approach <ul><li>Scientific Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplifies and reduces management to a series of inter-related and quantifiable components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defined processes and relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Has serious problems, </li></ul><ul><li>but used in all development work </li></ul>
  11. 11. Generic Project Cycle Identification Appraisal Negotiation and Approval Implementation & Monitoring Evaluation
  12. 12. Generic Project Cycle Exercise: Who does each stage? Identification Appraisal Negotiation and Approval Implementation & Monitoring Evaluation
  13. 13. Some examples of project cycle methods
  14. 15. Asian Development Bank
  15. 16. World Bank
  16. 17. International Fund for Agricultural Development
  17. 18. Logical Framework Approach <ul><li>ZOPP (Zielorientierte Projektplanung) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GOPP - Goal Oriented Project Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OOPP - Objective Oriented Project Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning, by a participatory process, </li></ul><ul><li>aimed at the needs of target groups, </li></ul><ul><li>the key parts of a project are agreed with those concerned </li></ul>
  18. 19. Logical Framework Approach <ul><li>Use a planning matrix – the logical framework – which: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>summarises the main parts of a project, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>highlights logical lines between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intended inputs, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>planned activities and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expected results . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. ZOPP and the Project Cycle GTZ - 5 ZOPP Stages <ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Partner Negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>- Plan Finalization </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation and Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Identification: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify need </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder consultations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preliminary feasibility study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of funding agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration of possible approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site consultation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept note/paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary feasibility report </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Pre-project planning <ul><li>In-house exercise by agency </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory Action Research </li></ul><ul><li>Situation Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Identification: Problem Tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies Analysis </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Problem Tree <ul><li>A process of putting a lot of problems on cards, and then sorting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By sorting these you will find a natural focal point (or points) – the core problem </li></ul><ul><li>Note: this is different to Visualisation in Participatory Processes where the core problem has already been identified </li></ul>
  23. 24. Example: Problem Tree Sufficient Funds Best Practice Water Administration Low Rate of Disease Low Infant Mortality High Productivity High Incomes Low Infant Mortality High Incomes High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Best Practice Water Administration Few Houses Connected Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Best Practice Water Administration No Access to CLEAN WATER Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Not Enough Works Funds Broken Down Water System Bureaucratic Water Administration Too much Disease Low Worker Productivity High Infant Mortality Low Incomes CAUSES EFFECTS CORE PROBLEM
  24. 25. Stakeholder Analysis <ul><li>Consider appropriate level for analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Identify & list key stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Look at their needs, characteristics, circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Identify relationships between stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Assess power (influence) and potential (importance) </li></ul><ul><li>Create a Matrix </li></ul>
  25. 26. Stakeholder Analysis: List Secondary Primary Participation Influence on project Importance to Project Key Interests Stakeholders
  26. 27. Stakeholder Analysis: List Example: School Attendance May be high Medium – depends on approach High – implementers? Their job, role, respect Teachers Maybe small High – control children Have authority over the children Child’s future Parents Involved at various stages Small – they do what they are told The target group Get work School Age Children Participation Influence on project Importance to Project Key Interests Stake-holders
  27. 28. Stakeholder Analysis: Matrix Low Influence High Influence High Potential Significance or Importance Low Importance Influential stakeholders but with less importance for outputs. They affect outcome of activities and need careful management The interests of these should be monitored to ensure that they are not negatively affected Project Managers will need good working relationships with these stakeholders to ensure support for project activities May need special initiatives if needs are to be met. The Target Group should be here
  28. 29. Stakeholder Analysis: Matrix Low Influence High Influence High Potential Significance or Importance Low Importance Elders Monks Women’s Association Teachers Dept of Education Children
  29. 30. Objectives Analysis <ul><li>Change the Problem Tree into an Objectives Tree </li></ul><ul><li>Change the negative problems into positive outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ no staff in clinic’ becomes “fully staffed clinic” </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Example: Problem Tree Sufficient Funds Best Practice Water Administration Low Rate of Disease Low Infant Mortality High Productivity High Incomes Low Infant Mortality High Incomes High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Best Practice Water Administration Few Houses Connected Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Best Practice Water Administration No Access to CLEAN WATER Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Not Enough Works Funds Broken Down Water System Bureaucratic Water Administration Too much Disease Low Worker Productivity High Infant Mortality Low Incomes CAUSES EFFECTS CORE PROBLEM
  31. 32. Becomes: Objective Tree Sufficient Funds Best Practice Water Administration Low Rate of Disease Low Infant Mortality High Productivity High Incomes Low Infant Mortality High Incomes High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Best Practice Water Administration All Houses Connected Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Best Practice Water Administration Adequate Clean WATER Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes Sufficient Funds Good Water System Best Practice Water Administration Low Rate of Disease High Productivity Low Infant Mortality High Incomes MEANS ENDS DESIRABLE STATE If necessary, revise statements, delete objectives that appear unrealistic and add new objectives.
  32. 33. Exercise: Problem Tree & Stakeholder Analysis <ul><li>Choose a problem in our work area </li></ul><ul><li>Divide into groups </li></ul><ul><li>1. Do a problem tree </li></ul><ul><li>2. Do a stakeholder analysis </li></ul>
  33. 34. Take a Break
  34. 35. Exercise: Problem Tree & Stakeholder Analysis <ul><li>Share </li></ul><ul><li>1. problem tree </li></ul><ul><li>2. stakeholder analysis </li></ul>
  35. 36. 2. Starting Appraisal: <ul><li>Appraisal ( ex-ante ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full feasibility study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baseline study, needs assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs assessment report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baseline data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed set of indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amended proposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project plan, Gantt chart etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Planning Matrix - Logframe </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Gantt Chart
  37. 38. Project Planning Matrix (PPM) <ul><li>Logframe, Logical Framework (Analysis), LFA </li></ul><ul><li>4x4 matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures clear statement of objectives (distinction between purpose and objectives) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduces indicators of progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses attention on the assumptions and risks involved </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Logframe More detail in the Logframe session Milestones Activities (Inputs) Outputs Purpose Assumptions Risks MOVs Means of Verification OVIs Objectively Verifiable Indicators Goal
  39. 40. 3. Partner Negotiation: <ul><li>Negotiation with finance provider </li></ul><ul><li>Possible outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project memorandum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(or go back and redesign) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. Plan Finalisation: <ul><li>Detail of the activities </li></ul><ul><li>work plans, </li></ul><ul><li>staff structures, terms of reference </li></ul><ul><li>budgets </li></ul>
  41. 43. 4. Implementation and Monitoring : <ul><li>Team selection and startup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person specification/job allocation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews and selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terms of engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines of responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Briefing </li></ul></ul>
  42. 44. 4. Implementation and Monitoring : <ul><li>Do the work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of project plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular reports, meetings, workshops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring: systematic documentation of performance - indicating whether project is performing as intended </li></ul></ul>
  43. 45. Monitoring (Performance Measurement ) <ul><li>Monitoring – of the Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcomes ( Results Based Management ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical framework approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team meetings, team briefing reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid term review </li></ul></ul>
  44. 46. Quick Exercise <ul><li>List all the forms of monitoring used in your project </li></ul><ul><li>Share </li></ul>
  45. 47. Take a break
  46. 48. Monitoring (Performance Measurement ) <ul><li>Levels of Indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul>Quality, Quantity, Time
  47. 49. 5. Evaluation and Closure <ul><li>Obtain “sign off” from project participants </li></ul><ul><li>Project evaluation ( Ex-post ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When possible to assess full effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External evaluator may be necessary/appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record lessons learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulate recommendations for next phase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Submission of completion report and evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Donors may demand closing activities </li></ul></ul>
  48. 50. Evaluation: Impact Assessment <ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baseline, (midterm?) and End of Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact from beneficiaries’ point of view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they think is significant? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To whom is it important? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency – relate inputs to outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness- extent to which achieved objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency- methods/approaches with objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact – change to lives/environment </li></ul></ul>
  49. 51. Evaluation: Feedback to Planning <ul><li>Lessons Learned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to replan the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to plan the next project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most useful in development of LFA </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion: How we use feed back </li></ul><ul><li>When? Method? Who? Lessons learned </li></ul>
  50. 52. <ul><li>Limits to Rational Planning and Systematic Management </li></ul>
  51. 53. Trade Offs: Too much project planning? Amount of planning Cost
  52. 54. Things that Limit using the process <ul><li>Costly and ineffective analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Full planning vs. flexible interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Inflexibility and unnecessary constraints on managers, </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation to experts and inappropriate intervention </li></ul><ul><li>No involvement of intended beneficiaries in planning and management </li></ul><ul><li>Reluctance to engage in evaluation and error detection </li></ul>
  53. 55. Constraints (that limit effectiveness) <ul><li>Difficulty in precise definition of objectives and goals </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of appropriate or adequate data </li></ul><ul><li>Not understand social and cultural activities </li></ul><ul><li>Weak ways to guide behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Low administrative capacity </li></ul>
  54. 56. Discussion <ul><li>Questions and follow ups </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>
  55. 57. Thank you GrKuN
  56. 58. Produced by Tony Hobbs Health Unlimited, Ratanakiri, Cambodia www.healthunlimited.org With the support of Australian Volunteers International www.australianvolunteers.com © 2009 HU. Use with Acknowledgement

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