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Keynote talk at ATAED 2017 @ PN/ACSD 2017

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My keynote talk given at International Workshop on Algorithms & Theories for the Analysis of Event Data 2017

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Keynote talk at ATAED 2017 @ PN/ACSD 2017

  1. 1. Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graphs Thomas T. Hildebrandt 
 joint work with S. Debois, K. R. Ulrik, P. H. Laursen (ITU),T. Slaats (KU), R. Mukkamala (CBS), M. Marquard (Exformatics) Process Intelligence, Modelling & Optimisation Group IT University of Copenhagen (ITU) Denmark Invited talk - ATAED 2017 @ PN/ACSD2017 June26th, 2017 IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGENITUNIVERSITYOFCOPENHAGEN SUBMISSION OF WRITTEN WORK Class code: Name of course: Danish Defence Agency
  2. 2. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Motivation 2 IT systems increasingly control and support critical processes & interactions between humans and machines
  3. 3. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Motivation 2 IT systems increasingly control and support critical processes & interactions between humans and machines and operate in unpredictable and changing contexts
  4. 4. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Motivation 2 IT systems increasingly control and support critical processes & interactions between humans and machines Need for flexibility, adaptability & compliance with legal, safety and security regulations and operate in unpredictable and changing contexts
  5. 5. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) 40 years of flow diagrams… 3 zc := Computer Science and Office Information Systems By Clarence A. Ellis and Gary J. Nutt ORDERPROCESSING LogRequest TypeOrder SendOrder ReceiveOrder BrocessII J I I • :1.1 Customer Request Arrival lL -""/ I I r •r J/.I I A/I " Order Form '"I +0I,Custamer JjFile I IIBillingFile I I I J I J I I I I I I I / I, lOut" 1:;;1tJ.lOut.I tForm'--------/--"" ',----..._------_.._-..,.-' F.igure2 70’ties: 2010 - now:
  6. 6. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) What is the problem with flows? 4
  7. 7. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) What is the problem with flows? 4 Inflexible execution and development IT UN Towards effective, flexible & legally compliant digital knowledge workflows Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) The computer says no…. 5 Performance goals Best practice the computer says no The baby is coming!
  8. 8. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) What is the problem with flows? 4 Only describe how not why difficult to adapt when regulations change Inflexible execution and development IT UN Towards effective, flexible & legally compliant digital knowledge workflows Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) The computer says no…. 5 Performance goals Best practice the computer says no The baby is coming!
  9. 9. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) What is the problem with flows? 4 Only describe how not why difficult to adapt when regulations change Limited support for modularity & re-use Inflexible execution and development IT UN Towards effective, flexible & legally compliant digital knowledge workflows Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) The computer says no…. 5 Performance goals Best practice the computer says no The baby is coming!
  10. 10. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) The true process landscape 5 Completely predictable & many repetitions, few changes Completely unpredictable, few repetitions & changes Partially predictable, some repetition & some changes Very few (<5%) work processes fully predictable Workflows and it-systems contain unpredictable parts and need to be changed over time A FUTURE THAT WORKS: the impact of automation in Denmark
  11. 11. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Flexibility versus Support 6 Motivation Flexibility versus Support in workflows • Flexibility: ability to defer, change, and deviate • support: provide analysis and guidance • unstructured: do what ever you want, but get no support • structured: support, but no flexibilityClassical trade-off between flexibility and support1 [1] W.M.P. van der Aalst et al. Declarative workflows: Balancing between flexibility and support Sunday, March 14, 2010 Motivation Flexibility versus Support in workflows • Flexibility: ability to defer, change, and deviate • support: provide analysis and guidance • unstructured: do what ever you want, but get no support • structured: support, but no flexibilityClassical trade-off between flexibility and support1 [1]W.M.P. van der Aalst et al. Declarative workflows: Balancing between flexibility and support unday, March 14, 2010 [Schmidt & Bannon:Taking CSCW Seriously: Supporting Articulation Work, 1992] Already in 1983, researchers in Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) concluded that office automation systems “do not deal well with unanticipated conditions” (Barber) & “were automating a fiction” (Sheil)
  12. 12. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Flexibility versus Support 6 Motivation Flexibility versus Support in workflows • Flexibility: ability to defer, change, and deviate • support: provide analysis and guidance • unstructured: do what ever you want, but get no support • structured: support, but no flexibilityClassical trade-off between flexibility and support1 [1] W.M.P. van der Aalst et al. Declarative workflows: Balancing between flexibility and support Sunday, March 14, 2010 Motivation Flexibility versus Support in workflows • Flexibility: ability to defer, change, and deviate • support: provide analysis and guidance • unstructured: do what ever you want, but get no support • structured: support, but no flexibilityClassical trade-off between flexibility and support1 [1]W.M.P. van der Aalst et al. Declarative workflows: Balancing between flexibility and support unday, March 14, 2010 [Schmidt & Bannon:Taking CSCW Seriously: Supporting Articulation Work, 1992] Already in 1983, researchers in Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) concluded that office automation systems “do not deal well with unanticipated conditions” (Barber) & “were automating a fiction” (Sheil) “Good standards for business process modelling are still missing and even today’s WFMSs are too rigid” Process-Aware Information Systems: Design, Enactment, and Analysis Wil M.P. van der Aalst Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Eindhoven University o nology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, w.m.p.v.d.aalst@tue.nl Abstract. Process-aware information systems support operational busine cesses by combining advances in information technology with recent in
  13. 13. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Example from local government 7 Compliant? • Lov om Aktiv beskæftigelsesindsats (LBK nr 1428 af 14/12/2009) • Lov om Aktiv socialpolitik (LBK nr 946 af 01/10/2009) • Lov om Arbejdsløshedsforsikring (LBK nr 574 af 27/05/2010) • Lov om Integration af udlændinge (LBK nr 1062 af 20/08/2010) • Lov om Sygedagpenge (LOV nr 563 af 09/06/2006) • Retssikkerhedsloven (LBK nr 1054 af 07/09/2010) • Datagrundlag (BEK nr 418 af 23/04/2010) arbejdsgangsbanken.dk2010: Case Studies of Best Practice Workflow and Workflow in Practice (Innovation Network Project)
  14. 14. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Example from local government 7 Change in law Compliant? • Lov om Aktiv beskæftigelsesindsats (LBK nr 1428 af 14/12/2009) • Lov om Aktiv socialpolitik (LBK nr 946 af 01/10/2009) • Lov om Arbejdsløshedsforsikring (LBK nr 574 af 27/05/2010) • Lov om Integration af udlændinge (LBK nr 1062 af 20/08/2010) • Lov om Sygedagpenge (LOV nr 563 af 09/06/2006) • Retssikkerhedsloven (LBK nr 1054 af 07/09/2010) • Datagrundlag (BEK nr 418 af 23/04/2010) arbejdsgangsbanken.dk2010: Case Studies of Best Practice Workflow and Workflow in Practice (Innovation Network Project)
  15. 15. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Example from local government 7 Change in law Compliant? • Lov om Aktiv beskæftigelsesindsats (LBK nr 1428 af 14/12/2009) • Lov om Aktiv socialpolitik (LBK nr 946 af 01/10/2009) • Lov om Arbejdsløshedsforsikring (LBK nr 574 af 27/05/2010) • Lov om Integration af udlændinge (LBK nr 1062 af 20/08/2010) • Lov om Sygedagpenge (LOV nr 563 af 09/06/2006) • Retssikkerhedsloven (LBK nr 1054 af 07/09/2010) • Datagrundlag (BEK nr 418 af 23/04/2010) How to change?? arbejdsgangsbanken.dk2010: Case Studies of Best Practice Workflow and Workflow in Practice (Innovation Network Project)
  16. 16. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Example from local government 7 Change in law Compliant? • Lov om Aktiv beskæftigelsesindsats (LBK nr 1428 af 14/12/2009) • Lov om Aktiv socialpolitik (LBK nr 946 af 01/10/2009) • Lov om Arbejdsløshedsforsikring (LBK nr 574 af 27/05/2010) • Lov om Integration af udlændinge (LBK nr 1062 af 20/08/2010) • Lov om Sygedagpenge (LOV nr 563 af 09/06/2006) • Retssikkerhedsloven (LBK nr 1054 af 07/09/2010) • Datagrundlag (BEK nr 418 af 23/04/2010) How to change?? arbejdsgangsbanken.dk Change in practice 2010: Case Studies of Best Practice Workflow and Workflow in Practice (Innovation Network Project)
  17. 17. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Example from local government 7 Change in law Compliant? • Lov om Aktiv beskæftigelsesindsats (LBK nr 1428 af 14/12/2009) • Lov om Aktiv socialpolitik (LBK nr 946 af 01/10/2009) • Lov om Arbejdsløshedsforsikring (LBK nr 574 af 27/05/2010) • Lov om Integration af udlændinge (LBK nr 1062 af 20/08/2010) • Lov om Sygedagpenge (LOV nr 563 af 09/06/2006) • Retssikkerhedsloven (LBK nr 1054 af 07/09/2010) • Datagrundlag (BEK nr 418 af 23/04/2010) How to change?? arbejdsgangsbanken.dk Change in practice Still compliant ?? 2010: Case Studies of Best Practice Workflow and Workflow in Practice (Innovation Network Project)
  18. 18. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Example from local government 7 Change in law Compliant? • Lov om Aktiv beskæftigelsesindsats (LBK nr 1428 af 14/12/2009) • Lov om Aktiv socialpolitik (LBK nr 946 af 01/10/2009) • Lov om Arbejdsløshedsforsikring (LBK nr 574 af 27/05/2010) • Lov om Integration af udlændinge (LBK nr 1062 af 20/08/2010) • Lov om Sygedagpenge (LOV nr 563 af 09/06/2006) • Retssikkerhedsloven (LBK nr 1054 af 07/09/2010) • Datagrundlag (BEK nr 418 af 23/04/2010) How to change?? arbejdsgangsbanken.dk Change in practice Still compliant ?? 2010: Case Studies of Best Practice Workflow and Workflow in Practice (Innovation Network Project) gave up January 2013
  19. 19. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Flow diagrams are like… 8
  20. 20. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Flow diagrams are like… 8 following pre-specified route(s)
  21. 21. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Flow diagrams are like… 8 following pre-specified route(s) If you leave the route, you are on your own & can not see the road
  22. 22. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Flow diagrams are like… 8 following pre-specified route(s) If you leave the route, you are on your own & can not see the road If the map changes, you have no idea how to update the routes
  23. 23. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) We need a workflow GPS 9
  24. 24. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) We need a workflow GPS 9 where the route is calculated from the map and your goal
  25. 25. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) We need a workflow GPS 9 where the route is calculated from the map and your goal If you leave the route, a new one can be calculated
  26. 26. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) We need a workflow GPS 9 where the route is calculated from the map and your goal If you leave the route, a new one can be calculated If the map changes,
 the route can be adjusted
  27. 27. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) We need a workflow GPS 9 where the route is calculated from the map and your goal If you leave the route, a new one can be calculated If the map changes,
 the route can be adjusted - achieved by modelling processes declaratively as DCR Graphs
  28. 28. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) DCR Graphs: A decade of R&D 10 2007-11: Computer Supported Mobile Adaptive Business Processes (Danish Research Foundation for Technology and Production)
  29. 29. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) DCR Graphs: A decade of R&D 10 2007-11: Computer Supported Mobile Adaptive Business Processes (Danish Research Foundation for Technology and Production) 2008-2012: Trustworthy Pervasive Healthcare Processes (Danish Strategic Research Council)
  30. 30. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) DCR Graphs: A decade of R&D 10 2007-11: Computer Supported Mobile Adaptive Business Processes (Danish Research Foundation for Technology and Production) 2008-2012: Trustworthy Pervasive Healthcare Processes (Danish Strategic Research Council) 2009-13: Services in Context 
 (Danish Strategic Research Council)
  31. 31. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) DCR Graphs: A decade of R&D 10 2007-11: Computer Supported Mobile Adaptive Business Processes (Danish Research Foundation for Technology and Production) 2010: Case Studies of Best Practice Workflow and Workflow in Practice (Innovation Network Project) 2008-2012: Trustworthy Pervasive Healthcare Processes (Danish Strategic Research Council) 2009-13: Services in Context 
 (Danish Strategic Research Council)
  32. 32. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) DCR Graphs: A decade of R&D 10 2007-11: Computer Supported Mobile Adaptive Business Processes (Danish Research Foundation for Technology and Production) 2010: Case Studies of Best Practice Workflow and Workflow in Practice (Innovation Network Project) 2008-2012: Trustworthy Pervasive Healthcare Processes (Danish Strategic Research Council) 2009-13: Services in Context 
 (Danish Strategic Research Council) DCRGraphs.com 2011-2014: Flexible Cross-organizational Case Management (Industrial PhD)
  33. 33. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) DCR Graphs: A decade of R&D 10 2007-11: Computer Supported Mobile Adaptive Business Processes (Danish Research Foundation for Technology and Production) 2010: Case Studies of Best Practice Workflow and Workflow in Practice (Innovation Network Project) 2008-2012: Trustworthy Pervasive Healthcare Processes (Danish Strategic Research Council) 2009-13: Services in Context 
 (Danish Strategic Research Council) 2014-17: Computational Artifacts: Design Oriented Theory of Computational Artifacts in Cooperative Work Practices (Velux Foundation, www.COMPART.ku.dk) DCR.Tools DCRGraphs.com 2011-2014: Flexible Cross-organizational Case Management (Industrial PhD)
  34. 34. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) DCR Graphs: A decade of R&D 10 2007-11: Computer Supported Mobile Adaptive Business Processes (Danish Research Foundation for Technology and Production) 2010: Case Studies of Best Practice Workflow and Workflow in Practice (Innovation Network Project) 2015: Finance Case: Visualising for Customers, Business & IT (Copenhagen Fintech Innovation & Research) 2008-2012: Trustworthy Pervasive Healthcare Processes (Danish Strategic Research Council) 2009-13: Services in Context 
 (Danish Strategic Research Council) 2014-17: Computational Artifacts: Design Oriented Theory of Computational Artifacts in Cooperative Work Practices (Velux Foundation, www.COMPART.ku.dk) DCR.Tools DCRGraphs.com 2011-2014: Flexible Cross-organizational Case Management (Industrial PhD)
  35. 35. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) DCR Graphs: A decade of R&D 10 2015-16: ProSec: Cyber security and ICT Infrastructure with importance to crucial functions in Denmark - Mapping Emergency and Security Processes in the Danish Public Transport Sector and their Dependency on ICT (Royal Danish Defence College) 2007-11: Computer Supported Mobile Adaptive Business Processes (Danish Research Foundation for Technology and Production) 2010: Case Studies of Best Practice Workflow and Workflow in Practice (Innovation Network Project) 2015: Finance Case: Visualising for Customers, Business & IT (Copenhagen Fintech Innovation & Research) 2008-2012: Trustworthy Pervasive Healthcare Processes (Danish Strategic Research Council) 2009-13: Services in Context 
 (Danish Strategic Research Council) 2014-17: Computational Artifacts: Design Oriented Theory of Computational Artifacts in Cooperative Work Practices (Velux Foundation, www.COMPART.ku.dk) DCR.Tools DCRGraphs.com 2011-2014: Flexible Cross-organizational Case Management (Industrial PhD)
  36. 36. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) DCRGraphs.com & DCR.Tools 11 Commercial tool (free for test & academia) Academic tool
  37. 37. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Events & roles 12 Events as “Post-it notes”
  38. 38. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Events & roles 12 Events as “Post-it notes” Can simulate at any time
  39. 39. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Simulation 13
  40. 40. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Simulation 13 add computer as users
  41. 41. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Simulation 13 add computer as users add friends as users
  42. 42. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Any task is possible 14
  43. 43. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Swim lane view of simulation 15
  44. 44. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Save simulation as Happy 16
  45. 45. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Write description 17
  46. 46. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Hurried case 18
  47. 47. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Hurried case not compliant 19 Fig. 10.1 Prespecified process model Smed Table 10.1 Examples of compliance rules for medical processes c1 Before a surgery may be performed the patient must be prepared for it and be sent to the surgical suite. c2 After examining the patient a decision must be made. However, this must not be done before the examination. c3 After the examination, the patient must be informed about the risks of the (planned) surgery. c4 Before scheduling the surgery the patient has to be informed about anesthesia. c5 If a surgery has not been scheduled it must not be performed. c6 After a patient is discharged a discharge letter must be written. c7 After performing the surgery and before writing the discharge letter, a surgery report must be created and a lab test be made. particularly crucial for process instances defined or adapted on-the-fly (cf. Chap. 7), i.e., for which there is no fully prespecified process model. Likewise, compliance monitoring at run-time is required if a priori compliance checking is not feasible, e.g., if the process model is too large or the compliance rules are too complex.
  48. 48. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Save unhappy hurried case 20
  49. 49. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Re-run or re-play simulations 21 re-run as test on current graph re-play on original graph
  50. 50. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Re-run or re-play simulations 22
  51. 51. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Add condition constraints 23
  52. 52. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Re-run simulations 24
  53. 53. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Conditions disable events 25
  54. 54. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Make decision enabled 26
  55. 55. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Also response constraints 27 Table 10.1 Examples of compliance rules for medical processes c1 Before a surgery may be performed the patient must be prepared for it and be sent to the surgical suite. c2 After examining the patient a decision must be made. However, this must not be done before the examination. c3 After the examination, the patient must be informed about the risks of the (planned) surgery. c4 Before scheduling the surgery the patient has to be informed about anesthesia. c5 If a surgery has not been scheduled it must not be performed. c6 After a patient is discharged a discharge letter must be written. c7 After performing the surgery and before writing the discharge letter, a surgery report must be created and a lab test be made. particularly crucial for process instances defined or adapted on-the-fly (cf. Chap. 7), i.e., for which there is no fully prespecified process model. Likewise, compliance monitoring at run-time is required if a priori compliance checking is not feasible, e.g., if the process model is too large or the compliance rules are too complex. Regarding completed process instances, in addition, a process-aware information system (PAIS) needs to be able to determine whether these instances were executed Responses
  56. 56. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Simulation with responses 28 required before the process can complete
  57. 57. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) No more pending responses 29 no more pending responses, process can end
  58. 58. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Excluded = irrelevant events 30 events may be excluded initially http://www.dcrgraphs.net/Tool?id=4863#
  59. 59. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Dynamic inclusion & exclusion 31 events may be excluded initially
  60. 60. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) 32 events may be excluded initially Dynamic inclusion & exclusion
  61. 61. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Complete constraint map 33 http://www.dcrgraphs.net/Tool?id=4864#
  62. 62. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) DCR Graphs as formulars 34
  63. 63. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Data & Declarative Forms 35 Fig. 1. Reimbursement claim approval form (rejecting). f the manager chooses “Approve”, the form is complete and may be sub- mitted. f the manager chooses “Reject”, a new field appears—the “Justify rejection” ext box of Figure 1. When this field appears, it must be filled in before the form can be submitted. f the manager changes his mind and reverts his choice from “Reject” to “Approve”, the description field should disappear again. Fig. 2. Reimbursement claim approval form (initial appearance). make two notes about this form and its behaviour. irst, even this seemingly exceedingly simple form has fairly complex be- our when you sit down and write it out as we did in the above list. Getting behaviour right is not necessarily di cult, but it is time-consuming and nsive because of the required programmer intervention. econd, the form and the rules governing it are inextricably linked with the ess to which the form contributes. The little list above is littered with men- Fig. 1. Reimbursement claim approval form (rejecting). 3. If the manager chooses “Approve”, the form is complete and ma mitted. 4. If the manager chooses “Reject”, a new field appears—the “Justify text box of Figure 1. 5. When this field appears, it must be filled in before the form can be s 6. If the manager changes his mind and reverts his choice from “R “Approve”, the description field should disappear again. tions; this is an extension to the syntax and semantics of DCR graphs has not yet appeared in the scientific literature. DCR comprises (1) a set of activities and (2) a set of relations between tivities. Activities are there to be executed, and relations indicate what es happen to the state of the DCR graph as activities are executed. By ntion, executing an activity in a DCR graph may input a data value for tivity. the name suggests a DCR graph is a graph: the nodes are activities, and ges relations. a running example, we will use the DCR graph depicted in Figure 3. This graph is a minimal model of the travel reimbursement workflow sketched tion 2. It has just two activities (boxes): Approve or reject (to the left) and Rejection (to the right). Fig. 3. Example DCR graph (reimbursement workflow) * * *
  64. 64. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Data & Declarative Forms 35 Fig. 1. Reimbursement claim approval form (rejecting). f the manager chooses “Approve”, the form is complete and may be sub- mitted. f the manager chooses “Reject”, a new field appears—the “Justify rejection” ext box of Figure 1. When this field appears, it must be filled in before the form can be submitted. f the manager changes his mind and reverts his choice from “Reject” to “Approve”, the description field should disappear again. Fig. 2. Reimbursement claim approval form (initial appearance). make two notes about this form and its behaviour. irst, even this seemingly exceedingly simple form has fairly complex be- our when you sit down and write it out as we did in the above list. Getting behaviour right is not necessarily di cult, but it is time-consuming and nsive because of the required programmer intervention. econd, the form and the rules governing it are inextricably linked with the ess to which the form contributes. The little list above is littered with men- Fig. 1. Reimbursement claim approval form (rejecting). 3. If the manager chooses “Approve”, the form is complete and ma mitted. 4. If the manager chooses “Reject”, a new field appears—the “Justify text box of Figure 1. 5. When this field appears, it must be filled in before the form can be s 6. If the manager changes his mind and reverts his choice from “R “Approve”, the description field should disappear again. tions; this is an extension to the syntax and semantics of DCR graphs has not yet appeared in the scientific literature. DCR comprises (1) a set of activities and (2) a set of relations between tivities. Activities are there to be executed, and relations indicate what es happen to the state of the DCR graph as activities are executed. By ntion, executing an activity in a DCR graph may input a data value for tivity. the name suggests a DCR graph is a graph: the nodes are activities, and ges relations. a running example, we will use the DCR graph depicted in Figure 3. This graph is a minimal model of the travel reimbursement workflow sketched tion 2. It has just two activities (boxes): Approve or reject (to the left) and Rejection (to the right). Fig. 3. Example DCR graph (reimbursement workflow) * * * ust have put data into it. In particular, the user is free to subsequently validate the contents of the field. eviate this tension, we must model more faithfully the dynamic be- the form, taking into account the event of invalidating the required do so by adding to our model a response arrow from the pending itself, guarded by value = null. This means that whenever the field is with a null value, it will be marked as pending again, ensuring that the s not, in fact, complete before the activity/field is either excluded or non-null value. Of course, one could define more complex criteria for lue is invalid and thus trigger the response. In particular, the guard end on the value entered in other fields. 4. Variant of DCR graph in Figure 3 taking null-values into account.
  65. 65. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Data & Declarative Forms 35 Forms are Declarative Processes! [BPM Case paper 2016] Fig. 1. Reimbursement claim approval form (rejecting). f the manager chooses “Approve”, the form is complete and may be sub- mitted. f the manager chooses “Reject”, a new field appears—the “Justify rejection” ext box of Figure 1. When this field appears, it must be filled in before the form can be submitted. f the manager changes his mind and reverts his choice from “Reject” to “Approve”, the description field should disappear again. Fig. 2. Reimbursement claim approval form (initial appearance). make two notes about this form and its behaviour. irst, even this seemingly exceedingly simple form has fairly complex be- our when you sit down and write it out as we did in the above list. Getting behaviour right is not necessarily di cult, but it is time-consuming and nsive because of the required programmer intervention. econd, the form and the rules governing it are inextricably linked with the ess to which the form contributes. The little list above is littered with men- Fig. 1. Reimbursement claim approval form (rejecting). 3. If the manager chooses “Approve”, the form is complete and ma mitted. 4. If the manager chooses “Reject”, a new field appears—the “Justify text box of Figure 1. 5. When this field appears, it must be filled in before the form can be s 6. If the manager changes his mind and reverts his choice from “R “Approve”, the description field should disappear again. tions; this is an extension to the syntax and semantics of DCR graphs has not yet appeared in the scientific literature. DCR comprises (1) a set of activities and (2) a set of relations between tivities. Activities are there to be executed, and relations indicate what es happen to the state of the DCR graph as activities are executed. By ntion, executing an activity in a DCR graph may input a data value for tivity. the name suggests a DCR graph is a graph: the nodes are activities, and ges relations. a running example, we will use the DCR graph depicted in Figure 3. This graph is a minimal model of the travel reimbursement workflow sketched tion 2. It has just two activities (boxes): Approve or reject (to the left) and Rejection (to the right). Fig. 3. Example DCR graph (reimbursement workflow) * * * ust have put data into it. In particular, the user is free to subsequently validate the contents of the field. eviate this tension, we must model more faithfully the dynamic be- the form, taking into account the event of invalidating the required do so by adding to our model a response arrow from the pending itself, guarded by value = null. This means that whenever the field is with a null value, it will be marked as pending again, ensuring that the s not, in fact, complete before the activity/field is either excluded or non-null value. Of course, one could define more complex criteria for lue is invalid and thus trigger the response. In particular, the guard end on the value entered in other fields. 4. Variant of DCR graph in Figure 3 taking null-values into account.
  66. 66. Different uses of DCR Graphs
  67. 67. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Modelling & Validation 37 Papers: [ACM15,BPM13-15] Papers: [BPM14]
  68. 68. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) DCR Graphs for execution 38 Workflow engine Papers: [ACM15,BPM13-15]
  69. 69. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Seamless & safe distribution 39 Workflow engine Workflow engine Papers: [SEFM2011,FHIES2011,BPM15]
  70. 70. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Monitoring & Compliance 40 Workflow engine Workflow engine Run-time monitor Papers: [R. Mukkamala PhD,CSF 2016]
  71. 71. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Policy enforcement 41 Workflow engine Workflow engine Policy enforcement point Papers: [CSF 2016]
  72. 72. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) What is special for DCR graphs? 42
  73. 73. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) What is special for DCR graphs? • Formal and close to natural language:
 Conditions, Responses, Inclusions and Exclusions 42
  74. 74. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) What is special for DCR graphs? • Formal and close to natural language:
 Conditions, Responses, Inclusions and Exclusions • Expressive and decidable:
 Can express all regular safety and liveness properties 42
  75. 75. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) What is special for DCR graphs? • Formal and close to natural language:
 Conditions, Responses, Inclusions and Exclusions • Expressive and decidable:
 Can express all regular safety and liveness properties • Operational and understandable:
 Run-time state as “check-list” on events 42
  76. 76. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) What is special for DCR graphs? • Formal and close to natural language:
 Conditions, Responses, Inclusions and Exclusions • Expressive and decidable:
 Can express all regular safety and liveness properties • Operational and understandable:
 Run-time state as “check-list” on events • Efficient distributed monitoring & enactment
 Locally determine enabledness & effect of events 42
  77. 77. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Additional work • Time & Dynamic Subprocesses • Independence analysis (true concurrency) • Applications to case studies [FHIES2011,ACM14,BPM15,S4CIP16]
 (Healthcare, funding agency, finance & emergency management) • Run-time adaptation & refinement
 [EDOC2013][ACM14][FM15] • Programming Language, Data & Forms 43 [JLAP82,2013, BPM14,FM15] [DEBS2012,REBLS15, BPM CASE 2016] [BPM15]
  78. 78. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Dealing with state space explosion • Safe distribution & infer concurrency • Modularity & step-wise refinement • Static analysis for reachability & enforceability [CSF15] 44 [SEFM2011,BPM15] [FM15] vs
  79. 79. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) True concurrency 45 Provides an asynchronous transition system
  80. 80. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Timed DCR Graphs 46 Eventually is often not good enough….
  81. 81. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Timed DCR Graphs 46 Eventually is often not good enough…. and delays may be required
  82. 82. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Timed DCR Graphs 46 Eventually is often not good enough…. and delays may be required Timed DCR Graphs introduce delays on conditions, and deadlines on responses [JLAP82,2013, CSF2016]
  83. 83. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Delays & Deadlines 47 “After eating you must wait 12 hours before surgery” “After surgery, a checkup must be done within 7 days”
  84. 84. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Enforceability & Escalation 48 Some events are uncontrollable in particular progress of time and human activities
  85. 85. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Enforceability & Escalation 48 Some events are uncontrollable in particular progress of time and human activities Need compensation/escalation & pro-active enforcement [CSF2016]
  86. 86. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Enforceability & Escalation 48 Some events are uncontrollable in particular progress of time and human activities Need compensation/escalation & pro-active enforcement [CSF2016] Try research-prototype at dcr.tools/obligations
  87. 87. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Sub processes & infinity • Dynamically spawned sub processes • supported in theory and tools - but makes termination undecidable • not a problem for enactment, run-time monitoring & (some) static analysis (refinement) 49 [FM15] [FM15]
  88. 88. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Refinement & Security 50
  89. 89. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Refinement & Security 50 (EU General Data Protection Requirement)
  90. 90. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Mining Declarative Processes 51 Process log Statistically inferred constraints Inferred flows Avoid mined spaghetti diagrams
  91. 91. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) First DCR mining algorithm 52 Contradiction based mining: 1) Start with every possible condition, response, exclusion and every activity excluded, pending & not executed 2) Remove relation & include activity when contradiction found in log Declarative Process Mining for DCR Graphs⇤ Søren Debois IT University of Copenhagen Copenhagen, Denmark debois@itu.dk Thomas T. Hildebrandt IT University of Copenhagen Copenhagen, Denmark hilde@itu.dk Paw Høvsgaard Laursen IT University of Copenhagen Copenhagen, Denmark pawh@itu.dk Kenneth Ry Ulrik IT University of Copenhagen Copenhagen, Denmark kulr@itu.dk ABSTRACT We investigate process mining for the declarative Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) graphs process modelling lan- guage. We contribute (a) a process mining algorithm for DCR graphs, (b) a proposal for a set of metrics quantifying output model quality, and (c) a preliminary example-based comparison with the Declare Maps Miner. The algorithm takes a contradiction-based approach, that is, we initially assume that all possible constraints hold, subsequently re- moving constraints as they are observed to be violated by traces in the input log. Keywords Declarative process mining; DCR graphs 1. INTRODUCTION Business process management (BPM) technologies [33] support the management and digitalisation of workflows and business processes by employing explicit process models, fol- lowing a cycle of process (re)design, validation, execution and monitoring. Process mining algorithms [32] have been proposed for the identification of process models from process logs, support- ing both process design and compliance monitoring. Most industrial BPM tools and process miners describe processes as imperative flow diagrams such as BPMN. How- ever, flow diagrams tend to get either too rigid or too com- plex, in particular for knowledge work processes having a high degree of variation [28]. Moreover, flow diagrams only describe how to perform a process, leaving a gap to the legal regulations and guidelines, that are often more declarative in nature, describing why the process must be performed in ⇤Authors listed alphabetically. This work supported in part by the Velux Foundation, grant 33295, and Exformatics A/S. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for third-party components of this work must be honored. For all other uses, contact the owner/author(s). SAC 2017 April 03-07, 2017, Marrakech, Morocco c 2017 Copyright held by the owner/author(s). ACM ISBN 978-1-4503-4486-9/17/04. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3019612.3019622 certain ways, not how exactly it must be performed. For instance, a clinical guideline may state, that a patient must consent to a blood transfusion [13]. It does not state ex- actly when such consent should be obtained, only “prior to the transfusion”. For this reason, it is recommended to use flow diagrams only for routine processes, or for describing common stan- dard practices and allow deviations [28]. It has been advo- cated that declarative notations should be used as output of process mining (e.g. [17]) and for run-time process support (e.g. [25, 24, 29]). For the former, one hopes to extract from a process log the rules obeyed in practice (the “why”) as opposed to a flow-diagram describing the usual executions (the “how”). For the latter, one hopes to guide knowledge workers to activities in conformance with rules and regula- tions. Implementation techniques for most declarative models such as Declare [27] and DecSerFlow [31], rely on translating the declarative constraints to an imperative model (e.g., an automaton [20]) to enable execution. Such translation usu- ally entail a state-space explosion, and run-time adaptation of constraints becomes more di cult, because the automa- ton must be recomputed when constraints change. A notable exception is the Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) graphs process language [11, 30]. DCR graphs can be executed without intermediate transformation to an imper- ative model creating the entire transition graph, and more directly support run-time adaptive case management [24, 5]. DCR graphs are supported by industrial design and case management tools (see e.g. dcrgraphs.net and [5]). In the present paper, we present the first process mining algorithm for DCR graphs. 2. DCR GRAPHS In this Section, we briefly recall DCR graphs. For a formal introduction and applications, refer to [11, 23, 30, 3, 5, 6]. Dynamic Condition Response graphs is a declarative mod- elling notation describing at the same time a process and its run-time state. The core notation comprises activities, activity states, and four relations between activities. An ac- tivity state comprises three booleans, indicating respectively whether the activity has been executed, is included, and is pending. Intuitively, activities that are not included are treated as temporarily absent from the workflow; activities that are pending must eventually be executed or excluded before the workflow may complete. [SAC 2017] Implemented at dcr.tools
  92. 92. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Example 53 Provide Budget Calculate Maximum Cost Find Houses Buy Provide Budget Calculate Maximum Cost Find Houses Logs
  93. 93. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Remove redundancy 54 Provide Budget Calculate Maximum Cost Find Houses Buy Provide Budget Calculate Maximum Cost Find Houses Logs
  94. 94. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Add trace & remove redundancy 55 Provide Budget Calculate Maximum Cost Find Houses Buy Provide Budget Calculate Maximum Cost Find Houses Provide Budget Calculate Maximum Cost Find Houses Provide Budget Logs ProvideBudget CalculateMaximumCost FindHouses http://dcr.itu.dk/Workbench/Default/2265168991/1033131530
  95. 95. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Not always perfect fit 56 http://dcr.itu.dk/Workbench/Default/2489849454/4066076145
  96. 96. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Can view as transition system 57
  97. 97. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) What is the new LTS? 58 http://dcr.itu.dk/Workbench/Default/578939190/4034201725
  98. 98. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) What is the new LTS? 59 http://dcr.itu.dk/Workbench/Default/578939190/4034201725
  99. 99. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Thoughts on DCR process Miner • DCR process miner heavily uses include/exclude • Future work: • Most frequent activities included initially ? • Parallelise (seems promising) • Time? Map to true concurrent model We collaborate with KMD and danish municipalities. 
 Look out for possibilities to join our team as postdoc - write me if interested. 60
  100. 100. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) True Concurrent Mining 61
  101. 101. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Conclusions 62
  102. 102. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Conclusions • Flow-graphs take routes as starting point: Often too inflexible, do not capture why, difficult to maintain 62
  103. 103. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Conclusions • Flow-graphs take routes as starting point: Often too inflexible, do not capture why, difficult to maintain • DCR graphs take events and constraints as starting point: Support flexibility, adaptability and formal validation of compliance and correctness
 Can express all omega-regular concurrent languages 62
  104. 104. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Conclusions • Flow-graphs take routes as starting point: Often too inflexible, do not capture why, difficult to maintain • DCR graphs take events and constraints as starting point: Support flexibility, adaptability and formal validation of compliance and correctness
 Can express all omega-regular concurrent languages • Tool support & applied with success in industry 62
  105. 105. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Conclusions • Flow-graphs take routes as starting point: Often too inflexible, do not capture why, difficult to maintain • DCR graphs take events and constraints as starting point: Support flexibility, adaptability and formal validation of compliance and correctness
 Can express all omega-regular concurrent languages • Tool support & applied with success in industry • Early work on mining [SAC17] and refinement [FM15] 62
  106. 106. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) Conclusions • Flow-graphs take routes as starting point: Often too inflexible, do not capture why, difficult to maintain • DCR graphs take events and constraints as starting point: Support flexibility, adaptability and formal validation of compliance and correctness
 Can express all omega-regular concurrent languages • Tool support & applied with success in industry • Early work on mining [SAC17] and refinement [FM15] • Look out for postdoc & ph.d. positions to join us! 62
  107. 107. IT UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN Modelling & Mining Event-based Concurrent Declarative Processes as DCR Graphs ATAED 26/6/17 Thomas T. Hildebrandt (hilde@itu.dk) The future 63 S (Italy) d gi, m Municipality partners as early adopters: Koncern IT - Copenhagen Municipality IT & Digitalisation, Syddjurs Municipality Kammeradvokaten & Globeteam ve case management for knowledge workers ation of knowledge work processes regulations (e.g. data protection) ness and legal compliance Enabling technologies shared as open source tools via the OS2 open source digitalisation community Effective, co-created & compliant adaptive case management solutions for knowledge workers decision support enter • Lov om Sygedagpenge (LOV nr 563 af 09/06/2006) • Retssikkerhedsloven (LBK nr 1054 af 07/09/2010) • Datagrundlag (BEK nr 418 af 23/04/2010) of log-files Process-mining Pro-active compliance Prescriptive BPM

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