What do you want to contribute today (INSEMTIVES)

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What do you want to contribute today (INSEMTIVES)

  1. 1. What do you want to contribute today? Guiding user contributions in social software Hans-Jörg Happel, FZI Karlsruhe, Germany 2011-02-18 @ INSEMTIVES Q7 Meeting, London, UK
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Contributing to Social Software </li></ul><ul><li>Need-Driven Knowledge Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: Woogle4MediaWiki </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: Semantic Need </li></ul><ul><li>Summary & Outlook </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  3. 3. The Social Web <ul><li>Social Software is essentially „open“ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everybody is free to contribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely unconstrained usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralized, self-organized, emergent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary, continuously improving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But openess also bears risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Error & Vandalism (e.g., Wikipedia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste of resources (Enterprise Social SW) </li></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  4. 4. Contribution Problems in Social Software <ul><li>Decoupling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributor vs. beneficiary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of investment vs. time of benefit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aka „curse of prepayment“ [ZB08] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often accompanied by a decoupling of cause and effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Limited resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals, but also in communities </li></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  5. 5. The Toothpaste Problem <ul><li>“ People who visit a toothpaste isle with only 4 products walk away much happier than those who visit the typical supermarket isle crammed with 40 variants of Colgate. Why? Because they don’t get overwhelmed by a tsunami of possibilities that leaves them wondering if they made the wrong choice. </li></ul><ul><li>When it comes to a large organization publishing data, perhaps a similar problem arises. Given all the information in the world that we could publish in structured form, how are we to know which important bits to address first ?” </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London Ed Benson, MIT http://groups.csail.mit.edu/haystack/blog/2010/11/09/the-toothpaste-problem-choosing-the-right-data-to-publish/
  6. 6. Observation: Lack of guidance and incentives <ul><li>Although the Social Web coined the „ Prosumer “ role, very few tools & methods systematically address the contributor side of social software </li></ul><ul><li>Also observed on the Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>„ Semantic gap between supply and demand on the Semantic Web” [Mika09] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Web Vision paper focuses on usage scenarios [BHL01] </li></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  7. 7. Questions <ul><li>How can people be guided to create useful content? </li></ul><ul><li>How can people be incentivized to create that content? </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  8. 8. Agenda <ul><li>Contributing to Social Software </li></ul><ul><li>Need-Driven Knowledge Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: Woogle4MediaWiki </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: Semantic Need </li></ul><ul><li>Summary & Outlook </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  9. 9. Typical contribution problems <ul><li>Motivational (Willingness to share) </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational/group culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image of self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Means (e.g, Tools) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost/Effort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of awareness what others need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of awareness what one can contribute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  10. 10. Knowledge Sharing as a communication process Explicit Implicit Semi-Explicit Information seeker Information provider Query Answer <ul><li>Information need </li></ul><ul><li>explicit (e.g. query) </li></ul><ul><li>implicit („push triggered“) </li></ul>Mediation Services Private information space Private information space Shared information space Mediation space <ul><li>Knowledge sharing </li></ul><ul><li>need-driven („pull“, request) </li></ul><ul><li>pro-active („push“) </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  11. 11. Need-Driven Knowledge Sharing <ul><li>“ Need-Driven Knowledge Sharing is an approach to knowledge sharing in groups, which allows information providers to share knowledge based on the implicit or explicit needs of information seekers.” </li></ul><ul><li>Information providers shall receive better guidance about which knowledge is sought </li></ul><ul><li>Information seekers shall be able to better satisfy their information needs. As a supportive measure, they should also receive improved means to describe their information needs. </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  12. 12. Sources for needs <ul><li>Means for deriving information needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Queries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information access/browsing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We chose to focus on queries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit; can be captured easily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Express a „demand“ [Mika09] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recur across time and different people [Smy05, Tee06, Zha09] </li></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  13. 13. Agenda <ul><li>Contributing to Social Software </li></ul><ul><li>Need-Driven Knowledge Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: Woogle4MediaWiki </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: Semantic Need </li></ul><ul><li>Summary & Outlook </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  14. 14. Motivation <ul><li>Wikis (in particular Wikipedia) are a popular example for crowdsourcing </li></ul><ul><li>But: Wikis lack efficient means for coordination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To improve quality & structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To guide its evolution towards „completeness“ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Wikipedia, these coordination tasks are carried out by the community as well </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not feasible in an Enterprise context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even a problem for Wikipedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can IT help? </li></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  15. 15. There are two kinds of people in a Wiki… <ul><li>Readers </li></ul><ul><li>Have information needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But only few means for articula-ting such needs (e.g. search) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Have collaboration needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Search is an inherently social activity (40,4% of users interact with others before and during search; 58,7% share information after search [EC08]) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contributors </li></ul><ul><li>Have limited ressources (time/effort) and face futher barriers (motivation, privacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Choices on contributions are seldom based on demand of readers ( lack of guidance ) </li></ul><ul><li>Wiki communities stress the relevance of content („what is worth to be documented“) </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial decoupling of readers and contributors in Wikis </li></ul><ul><li>Only few readers become contributors </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  16. 16. <ul><li>Are Wikis search-friendly? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not collaborative/“wiki-style“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No query logs </li></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  17. 17. Contributing in MediaWiki <ul><li>Are Wikis really contribution-friendly? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>„ Red links“ are great, but do not tell how much this information is required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The „empty-page“ phenomenon (How to start an article) </li></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  18. 18. (Media)Wikis can do better <ul><li>Improve search with collaborative features </li></ul><ul><li>Allow people to express information needs </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a first-order representation for information needs </li></ul><ul><li>Guide contributions </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  19. 19. Every query can be a Wiki page… <ul><li>Allows for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki-Text („Social Did-You-Mean“) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watches/Notifications (WoogleAlerts) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shows basic statistics about query </li></ul><ul><ul><li>„ How many people searched for that?“ </li></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  20. 20. Social Search <ul><li>Add, remove and re-rank query results </li></ul><ul><li>Add comments </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  21. 21. Demand guidance <ul><li>Woogle uses queries and further metadata to qualify desired content </li></ul><ul><li>Users are informed how strong the information need is, and in which context it arises </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  22. 22. Preferences & Instrumentation <ul><li>Preferences might be defined globally or by each individual user </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific instrumentation framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logs certain kinds of user interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customize system/override configuration for experimental groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Randomized group assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informed consent (user acceptance dialog) </li></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  23. 23. Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  24. 24. Online Field Experiment <ul><li>Three experimental groups (random assignment): Woogle UI, Woogle UI+Info, Reference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal wiki: 1967 content pages, 165 registered users, 42 active users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>44 users accepted to participate (69 total; 25 declined); 122 days of data collection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>924 different queries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>263 without result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>118 only 1/2 results (50% without follow-up click) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>978 article saves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>206 times, a &quot;navigational search&quot; was preceding the edit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in 43 of these 206 cases, a new article was created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 of the navigational search failed, in 16 cases resulting in the creation of new pages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>60 articles created after clicking on &quot; red link &quot;: 6 relevant for our study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 articles without particular demand (9418 red links shown) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 articles with demand (1869 red links shown) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 users created 7 &quot;Woogle&quot;-pages concerning 4 topics (all forwards for synonymous queries) </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  25. 25. Agenda <ul><li>Contributing to Social Software </li></ul><ul><li>Need-Driven Knowledge Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: Woogle4MediaWiki </li></ul><ul><li>Tool: Semantic Need </li></ul><ul><li>Summary & Outlook </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  26. 26. <ul><li>SMW is a popular Semantic Web application that allows to annotate Wiki pages semantically </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic interpretation of the existing Wiki categories </li></ul><ul><li>Syntax extension for [[Wiki links]] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relations to other pages: [[Capital::Abuja]] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literals: [[Inhabitants::182418]] </li></ul></ul>Semantic MediaWiki (SMW) Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  27. 27. SMW Query Result <ul><li>{{#ask: [[Category:Country]] [[OnContinent::Africa]] |?area |?... }} </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London ??? … ?
  28. 28. What happend to „Nigeria“? Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London Info might be missing … not annotated properly Different property name Distributed data source not available
  29. 29. Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/limaoscarjuliet/ (licensed under cc-by)
  30. 30. Observation: Semantic Gaps <ul><li>„ Semantic gap between supply and demand on the Semantic Web” [Mika09] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to the evolutionary nature of the (Semantic) Web (OWA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is missing? – i.e.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KB: Axioms that are known (e.g. statements about Nigeria) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XKB: Axioms not yet known but people would like to know </li></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  31. 31. Identifying „Semantic Gaps“ <ul><li>Focus on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conjuctive queries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieving instances and their properties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Core elements </li></ul><ul><li>{{#ask: [[Category:Country]][[OfContinent::Africa]] |?hasArea |?population |?hasCapital |?Currency }} </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London Printout Statement Conditions
  32. 32. Semantic Gap Heuristic #1: Example <ul><li>{{#ask: [[Category:Country]] [[OnContinent::Africa]] |?area |?... }} </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London Egypt 1.001.449 km2 83.082.869 Cairo Egyptian pound Lacks annotation [[OnContinent::Africa]]  „Near Match“
  33. 33. Semantic Gap Heuristic #2: Example Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London „ Missing Printout Values“
  34. 34. Public SMW Analysis: Do Semantic Gaps exist? <ul><li>Analysis of 25 queries from 8 SMW instances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>35 queries per SMW on average </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Printout-Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In average, 16% of cells in a result set were empty due to missing annotations (up to 63% for certain queries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Allows for identifying a total of 296 missing printout values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Near matches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In average, 22% of all potential result pages of a query lack a selective annotation (up to 94% for certain queries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for identifying a total of 147 potentially missing annotations for “selective” properties </li></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  35. 35. How to close „Semantic Gaps“? <ul><li>Extension:Semantic Need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guide the creation of semantic annotations in SMW by Information Needs (i.e., structured queries) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Core features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture and store needs (i.e., #ask-queries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guide annotations by extending and modifying the SMW user interface based on information need heuristics (i.e., „near matches“ and „missing printout values“) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global overview pages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local (page-specific) overview pages („What Links Here“) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In-Page display of information needs </li></ul></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  36. 36. Screenshot: In-Page Annotation Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London Hint Sources of need
  37. 37. Semantic Need Online Survey <ul><li>30 complete answers (out of 58) </li></ul><ul><li>Core Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem patterns do occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage of SMW differs (predefined vs. evolving data structure) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No systematic guidance & gardening of SMW knowledge bases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>„ Methods & tools used to maintain semantic data“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(7: n.a.; due to given external data model) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12: none </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5: „simple“ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7: „advanced“ (e.g. scripts, documentation, team decisions) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>„ How to find missing annotations for a given page“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6: Compare to similar pages („extensional“) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7: Check schema („intensional“) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4: Text analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10: Use query </li></ul></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  38. 38. Related Work <ul><li>OMIS/AnswerGarden (Ackermann et al., UMichigan) </li></ul><ul><li>Raising participation to the MovieLens site (GroupLens, UMinnesota) </li></ul><ul><li>Directed Content Sharing/„Friend-sourcing“ (Bernstein/Karger, MIT) </li></ul><ul><li>BlogMuse: Topic Suggestions for Blog Writers (Geyer/Dugan, IBM Watson) </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Intelligence in Wikis (Chi et al., PARC) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Information Seeking/Social Search (various) </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  39. 39. <ul><li>Search engine for contribution opportunities to Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>http://de.intopedia.org </li></ul>Further Work <ul><li>Guide the sharing of files from private folders based on information needs </li></ul>„ Inverse Search“ Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  40. 40. Bridging Gaps in Knowledge Sharing <ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational </li></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London Explicit Implicit Semi-Explicit Information seeker Information provider Mediation Services Private information space Shared information space Mediation space <ul><li>Knowledge sharing </li></ul><ul><li>need-driven („pull“, request) </li></ul><ul><li>pro-active („push“) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Summary <ul><li>NKS mediates between info seekers & providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved awareness about information needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved guidance on what should (and could) be contributed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woogle and Semantic Need are provide realizations for (Semantic) Wikis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of UI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of Incentives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of Anonymity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Q&A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to enable the Social Semantic Web? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federated Semantic Need-enabled SMW‘s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Express „needs“ on the Semantic Web? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Missing Linked Data”? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to combine need-drivenness with incentives? </li></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  42. 42. Intopedia – Example Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  43. 43. References <ul><li>http://www.globalise-projekt.de </li></ul><ul><li>Extension:Semantic Need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://amazonas.fzi.de/semanticneed / (Demo Wiki) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:Semantic_Need </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extension:Woogle4MediaWiki (for non SMW-Wikis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://amazonas.fzi.de/wooglenative/ (Demo Wiki) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:Woogle4MediaWiki </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[EC08] Evans, B. M. and Chi, E. H. 2008. Towards a model of understanding social search. In Proceedings of the ACM 2008 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (San Diego, CA, USA, November 08 - 12, 2008). CSCW '08. ACM, New York, NY, 485-494. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[BHL01] Berners-Lee, T; Hendler, J.; Lassila, O.: The Semantic Web. Scientific American. 2001. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Han05] Handschuh, Siegfried: Creating ontology-based metadata by annotation for the semantic web, Dissertation, 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Hap08a] Hans-Jörg Happel: Growing the Semantic Web with Inverse Semantic Search. In Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Incentives for the Semantic Web (INSEMTIVE '08) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Hap08b] Hans-Jörg Happel: Closing Information Gaps with Inverse Search. In Proceeedings of the 7th International Conference on Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management (PAKM2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Hap09a] Hans-Jörg Happel: Woogle – On Why and How to Marry Wikis with Enterprise Search. In Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Integrated Knowledge Management Systems (IKMS2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Hap09b] Hans-Jörg Happel: Towards Need-driven Knowledge Sharing in Distributed Teams. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Knowledge Management (I-KNOW 2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Hap09c] Hans-Jörg Happel: Social search and need-driven knowledge sharing in Wikis with Woogle. In Proceedings of the 5th international Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration (Orlando, Florida, October 25 - 27, 2009). WikiSym '09. ACM, New York, NY, 1-10. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Hap10] Hans-Jörg Happel: Semantic Need: Guiding Metadata Annotations by Questions People #ask . International Semantic Web Conference (1) 2010: 321-336. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[KV+07] Markus Krötzsch, Denny Vrandecic, Max Völkel, Heiko Haller, Rudi Studer. Semantic Wikipedia. In Journal of Web Semantics 5/2007, pp. 251–261. Elsevier 2007. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Mika09] Mika, P., Meij, E., Zaragoza, H.: Investigating the semantic gap through query log analysis. In: International Semantic Web Conference. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5823, pp. 441–455. Springer (2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Rom10] Ben Romberg, Hans-Jörg Happel (Betreuer) und Ulrich Bröckl (Betreuer): Intopedia: Personalisierte Beitragsempfehlungen für die Wikipedia. Bachelorarbeit, Hochschule Karlsruhe und FZI Forschungszentrum Informatik, September 2010. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Smy05] Smyth, Barry ; Balfe, Evelyn ; Freyne, Jill ; Briggs, Peter ; Coyle, Maurice ; Boydell, Oisin: Exploiting Query Repetition and Regularity in an Adaptive Community-Based Web Search Engine. In: User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 14 (2005), Nr. 5, S. 383–423. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Tee06] Teevan, Jaime ; Adar, Eytan ; Jones, Rosie ; Potts, Michael: History repeats itself: repeat queries in Yahoo’s logs. In: SIGIR’06: Proceedings of the 29th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval. New York, NY, USA : ACM, 2006, S. 703–704. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[ZB08] Zacharias, Valentin ; Braun, Simone: Tackling the Curse of Prepayment - Collaborative Knowledge Formalization Beyond Lightweight. In Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Incentives for the Semantic Web (INSEMTIVE '08) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[Zha09] Zhang, Dell ; Lu, Jinsong: What queries are likely to recur in web search? In: SIGIR ’09: Proceedings of the 32nd international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval. New York, NY, USA : ACM, 2009, S. 827–828. </li></ul></ul>Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London

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