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Towards Need-driven Knowledge Sharing in Distributed Teams Hans-Jörg Happel, FZI Karlsruhe, 02.09.2009 8th Int. Conference...
Agenda <ul><li>Distributed teams </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge sharing approaches </li></ul><ul><li>„ Need-driven“ knowledge...
Task complexity – car example <ul><li>Modern cars consist of ~20k single parts </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers cover up to 80%...
Distributed Work requires,  but also impedes knowledge sharing Developing Complex Products and Services Increasing Modular...
Knowledge sharing problems <ul><li>Non-participation of providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time & Effort </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Knowledge Sharing as a communication process Explicit Implicit Semi-Explicit Information seeker Information provider Query...
Knowledge sharing <ul><li>„ Advanced mediation properties“ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-Transfer (Demanding, Matching, Offeri...
Properties of different knowledge sharing approaches
Observations <ul><li>Personalization strategies  do not „scale up“  for large organizations  (   better for specific need...
Mediation services and spaces for need-driven knowledge sharing
NKS Prototypes <ul><li>Inverse Search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify private files worth sharing  to better d iffuse them ...
NKS prototypes Collect information needs  (e.g. from query logs) Calculate aggregate unsatisfied information needs Marry W...
Inverse Search <ul><li>Problem in conventional search & recommendation systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information seekers (...
Woogle
Anatomy of Woogle4MediaWiki External data sources  can be accessed Collaborative description of the information need Notif...
Woogle4MediaWiki: Demand guidance <ul><li>„ Red links“ signal „desired pages“ in the Wiki </li></ul><ul><li>However, users...
Initial empirical results <ul><li>Provider‘s perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KOMA Online-Survey of Software Developers (...
Summary <ul><li>Distributed work  requires but also impedes knowledge sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially, codified, ...
Literature <ul><li>[Ha09] Hans-Jörg Happel: Social Search and Need-driven Knowledge Sharing in Wikis with Woogle. In: Proc...
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Towards Need-driven Knowledge Sharing in Distributed Teams

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Knowledge sharing between individuals has traditionally been conducted using faceto-
face conversation. In the networked society – initially formed by telegraphs and the phone
and nowadays powered by the Internet – many acts of knowledge sharing are carried out in a mediated fashion. While this typically introduces a number of problems in the knowledge sharing process, it also offers certain advantages. In this paper, we describe a framework for analyzing different modes of knowledge sharing. Furthermore, we line out the concept of “need-driven” knowledge sharing to address limitations in current mediated knowledge sharing approaches.

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Towards Need-driven Knowledge Sharing in Distributed Teams

  1. 1. Towards Need-driven Knowledge Sharing in Distributed Teams Hans-Jörg Happel, FZI Karlsruhe, 02.09.2009 8th Int. Conference on Knowledge Management. (I-Know 2009) Graz, Austria; 2.-4. September 2009
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Distributed teams </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge sharing approaches </li></ul><ul><li>„ Need-driven“ knowledge sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Prototypes </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Task complexity – car example <ul><li>Modern cars consist of ~20k single parts </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers cover up to 80% of design and production [MF04] </li></ul>
  4. 4. Distributed Work requires, but also impedes knowledge sharing Developing Complex Products and Services Increasing Modularization & Specialization Increasing Distribution of Teams Increasing Agility/ Ad Hoc Teams impedes impedes Knowledge Sharing Coordination requires
  5. 5. Knowledge sharing problems <ul><li>Non-participation of providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time & Effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amplified in distributed settings (>30 meters) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced communication channels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important role of mediation technologies (i.e. communication media) </li></ul>“ Developers are usually interested in resolving their problems rather than document ing their own ones, offering new knowledge or extending the knowledge-base.” [Industrial Partner]
  6. 6. Knowledge Sharing as a communication process Explicit Implicit Semi-Explicit Information seeker Information provider Query Answer <ul><li>Information need </li></ul><ul><li>explicit (e.g. query) </li></ul><ul><li>implicit („push triggered“) </li></ul>Mediation Services Private information space Private information space Shared information space Mediation space <ul><li>Knowledge sharing </li></ul><ul><li>need-driven („pull“, request) </li></ul><ul><li>pro-active („push“) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Knowledge sharing <ul><li>„ Advanced mediation properties“ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-Transfer (Demanding, Matching, Offering) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer (Consumption, Negotiation, Provision) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Typical approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalization (Face-to-Face, IM/Chat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codification (Forums, Document sharing) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Properties of different knowledge sharing approaches
  9. 9. Observations <ul><li>Personalization strategies do not „scale up“ for large organizations (  better for specific needs) </li></ul><ul><li>Codification strategies decouple seekers and providers and are less „need-driven“ (  better for general needs) </li></ul><ul><li> Communication gap between information seekers and information providers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No way for information seekers to communicate demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No way for information providers to find out which information is really sought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually bad support for matching & negotiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it possible to solve the trade-off between scalable and need-driven knowledge sharing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can the communication gap be bridged by better mediation services to achieve „need-driven“ knowledge sharing (NKS)? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Mediation services and spaces for need-driven knowledge sharing
  11. 11. NKS Prototypes <ul><li>Inverse Search </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify private files worth sharing to better d iffuse them into Shared Information Spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Woogle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marrying Wikis with Enterprise Search </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. NKS prototypes Collect information needs (e.g. from query logs) Calculate aggregate unsatisfied information needs Marry Wikis with Enterprise Search („Woogle“) Identify private files worth sharing („Inverse Search“)
  13. 13. Inverse Search <ul><li>Problem in conventional search & recommendation systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information seekers (1) match queries against a given corpus and (2) “import” public documents into their local space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information providers are not part of this standard model although they are potential providers of additional information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inverse search: Information providers (3) matching their corpus against a given set of queries (4) to identify documents worth sharing </li></ul></ul>Queries Public Index Public (1) Query (2) Results Information seeker Information provider (3) iSearch (4) Share [Ha08] „ Need to share“
  14. 14. Woogle
  15. 15. Anatomy of Woogle4MediaWiki External data sources can be accessed Collaborative description of the information need Notifications concerning search activities Discussion page Directly create new knowledge from the search dialog Search has a URI and can be linked from within the Wiki (one page per search term) Chose from different sources and/or content types Additional clues with meta-information about a need http://myHost/wiki/Woogle:SOAP
  16. 16. Woogle4MediaWiki: Demand guidance <ul><li>„ Red links“ signal „desired pages“ in the Wiki </li></ul><ul><li>However, users are not informed how strong the information need is, and in which context it is required </li></ul><ul><li>Woogle uses queries and further metadata to qualify desired content </li></ul>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graz
  17. 17. Initial empirical results <ul><li>Provider‘s perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KOMA Online-Survey of Software Developers (n=1477) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>>90% would share context of a problem (libraries used, version, tools) and actions performed to solve the problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>88% share knowledge personally (F2F, E-Mail) but only 33% with more than one person (Wiki/Groupware systems) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>54% indicated to have no time for sharing; 30% can not identify information worth sharing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing software developers descriptions of work sessions from multiple systems (n~750.000)  10% were „pseudo descriptions“ [MH2009] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seeker‘s perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of intranet query logs of a german IT company: 500 of 2000 queries yielding zero results (one month of log data) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inverse search: out of 50 ranked terms, 40 were ranked „actively interested“ (activvely sought within last 6 years or planning to seek) by at least one person (10 of them by at last 4 people) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Summary <ul><li>Distributed work requires but also impedes knowledge sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially, codified, asynchronous knowledge sharing is more producer-oriented and less „need driven“ due to limitations of current media & tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: novel mediation services and mediation spaces can help to improve knowledge sharing in such settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by intial evaluation studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real world evaluation is ongoing (online field study) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interested MediaWiki users sought! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Further Information, Screencasts, Live Demos and Downloads at http://www.teamweaver.org </li></ul>
  19. 19. Literature <ul><li>[Ha09] Hans-Jörg Happel: Social Search and Need-driven Knowledge Sharing in Wikis with Woogle. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration (WikiSym'09) (to appear) </li></ul><ul><li>[Ha08] Hans-Jörg Happel: Closing Information Gaps with Inverse Search. In Proceeedings of the 7th International Conference on Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management (PAKM2008). </li></ul><ul><li>[MF04] Mercer Management Consulting; Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionstechnik und Automatisierung -IPA-, Stuttgart; Fraunhofer-Institut für Materialfluss und Logistik -IML-, Dortmund: Future Automotive Industry Structure (FAST) 2015 - die neue Arbeitsteilung in der Automobilindustrie. Frankfurt/M.: VDA, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>[MH09] Walid Maalej, Hans-Jörg Happel: From Work to Word: How Do Software Developers Describe Their Work? In: Proceedings of the 6th IEEE Working Conference on Mining Software Repositories (MSR 2009) </li></ul>

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