The Toulmin Model:A better way of evaluating arguments By Harut Sargsian Speech 104 Spring 2012
Stephen S. Toulmin • Dr.Toulmin a well respected Philosophy Professor at USC • Developed a model that demonstrates to us on how to evaluate arguments. • The Toulmin model breaks the argument down to six parts.
Why use the Toulmin Model? • We use the Toulmin model to better understand an argument. • The better we understand the better we can know what the strengths and weaknesses are. • The better we know the strenghts and weaknesses the easier we can resolve the issue at hand.
The Steps of the Toulmin Model • Claim • Grounds • Warrant • Backing • Reservation • Qualifier
The Claim • The Statement that is being argued • Example: You should purchase a BMW
Grounds • The roots of your claim, what you are trying to prove. • Example: BMW has been the best selling premium car brand in the world for over 10 years.
Warrant • The data that links the claim and the ground together, to form a stronger basis. • Example: BMW has been voted as best consumer satisfaction out of any other car brand.
Backing • The support of the argument, covers all points of argument to make it clear to the audience. • Example: You can find a BMW dealership and service center in almost all major cities in the U.S.
Qualifier • A statement that shows the strength between the data and the warrant, and how well the claim applies to both of these. • Example: Many people are satisfied with BMW.
Rebuttal • Counter –arguments that go against the original argument, finding the perfect statement to give an initial rebuttal to the argument. • Example: Many BMW enthusiasts are prepared to offer you great service at any BMW center.
Sources• The Toulmin Model of Argument: http://web.cn.edu/kwheeler/documents/Toul min.pdf• BMW News Group USA: https://www.press.bmwgroup.com/pressclub/ p/pcgl/startpage.htm