o Introduction to fertilizers
o Process of production
o Types of fertilizers
o Harmful effects on environment
o What's suitable for your soil?
o What would the world be without fertilizers?
Introduction to fertilizers
• In the same way that humans need to eat
properly to stay healthy, so plants need
certain nutrients to grow properly.
• Fertilizer is a substance added to soil to
improve plant’s growth and yield. Basically it is
a chemical or natural substance is added to
soil or land to increase its fertility.
• Fertilizers are food supplements for plants and
need 16 nutrients to be healthy.
Process of Production
• Entirely incorporated factories have been designed to
produce compound fertilizers. Each manufacturer works
differently from the other and so the process may differ,
but the main idea remains unchanged.
Step 1-The Production of Ammonia
• Natural gas and steam are pumped into a large vessel.
• Air is pumped into the system, and oxygen is removed this
leaves primarily nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide.
• The carbon dioxide is removed and ammonia is produced
by introducing an electric current into the system.
• Any impurities are removed from the ammonia, and then
is further processed.
Step 2- Ammonium nitrate is produced
• Nitric acid and ammonia are mixed together in a tank and
a neutralization reaction occurs, producing ammonium
Step 3-Production of Ammonium Phosphate
• Phosphoric acid is reacted with ammonia in a separate tank.
This reaction results in ammonium phosphate
Step 4-Production of Potassium Chloride
• Potassium Hydroxide is reacted with hydrochloric acid to
form Potassium Chloride.
• The Potassium chloride is converted into a more usable form
by granulating it. This makes it easier to mix with other
components of a fertilizer.
Step 5- Granulation
• To produce fertilizer in the most usable form, each of the
different compounds, ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride
and ammonium phosphate are granulated and blended
• The solid materials are filled into a rotating drum which has
an inclined axis. As the drum rotates, pieces of the solid
fertilizer take on small spherical shapes.
• They are passed through a screen that separates out
adequately sized particles.
• A coating of inert dust is then applied to the particles
• And finally, the particles are dried, completing the
Step 6 - Bagging
• The fertilizer is first delivered into a large hopper to fill these
• An appropriate amount is released from the hopper into a bag
that is held open by a clamping device.
• When filling is complete, the bag is transported upright to a
machine that seals it closed.
• The bag is then stacked for shipment to distributors and
eventually to farmers.
Types of fertilizers
Complete vs. Incomplete
• Contain all 3 primary nutrients of nitrogen,
phosphorus, & potassium.
• DO NOT have all 3 primary nutrients.
Soluble vs. insoluble
• Dissolves in water & are applied as a liquid solution.
• Includes granular & slow release fertilizers
applied to the growing media.
Organic vs. Inorganic
• Come from plant or animal matter & contain carbon
• Come from sources other than animals or plants.
Organic vs. inorganic fertilizers
fertilizer is all natural and
includes things such as bat
guano, compost, peat moss,
wood ash and manure. These
are general soil amendments.
They don't burn or harm
plants, and they can have long-
term positive effects on the
soil without damaging
fertilizers are actually artificial
or synthetic fertilizers. When
plants are in dire need of
nutrients because they are
already dying, an inorganic
fertilizer is the most immediate
solution to infuse nutrients
immediately to the plants.
Advantages and disadvantages of
Organic fertilizers are beneficial in that they do
not put additional stress on plants, poison the
groundwater, or add artificial substances to the
soil. However, they typically do not work as
quickly as inorganics, as they need microbes to
be broken down into components the plants can
use. Organics work best when thinking about
long term plant and soil development, keeping
the soil fertile and nutritious for years to come.
Advantages of inorganic fertilizers
Major advantage to inorganic fertilizers is that
they are prepared with all necessary ingredients.
The all-inclusive nature of the inorganic
compounds give the plants a quick, powerful
dose of everything they need to thrive. As soon
as the inorganics hit water, their nutrients are
immediately released, in their broken down,
usable form. In addition, inorganic fertilizers
generally tend to be accessible and affordable.
Advantages and disadvantages of
• Advantages of using organic fertilizers is that
they are all natural, make the soil rich,
transforms unhealthy soil, corrects imbalances
and cost- effective.
• The disadvantages of using organic fertilizers
are; takes longer time, high demand, low
supply, simple but messy and inconvenient.
What’s suitable for your soil?
•The choice of fertilizer that is used typically depends on the nature of the soil,
such as whether it is acidic or alkaline; sandy, clay or rocky; and weak or rich.
Our world without fertilizers
• Due to the increasing population of the world and the lack of necessary
chemical compounds in the soil, the use of fertilizers has become
essential. Most organic growers use fertilizers too. But it comes from
different ingredients, such as livestock manure or sewage.
• However, these natural fertilizers are not available in sufficient quantities
to meet the demands of today’s high-yield farming, nor do they provide
nutrients in the perfect balance made possible with commercial fertilizers
and therefore cannot be used regularly. For example, using enough
manure to provide the soil with an adequate supply of nitrogen would
mean adding four to five times more potassium and phosphorus than a
crop needs. So it’s easy to over or under fertilize in this type of farming.
• As well, organic crop yields are only one-third to one-half as high as those
from farms using conventional fertilizers. So we’d need to turn millions of
additional acres of land over to farming, and still end up with less food.
• Due to lack of food, hunger all around the world has been increasing
lately. There are double the deaths this year compared to the past. To
suffice world hunger, fertilizers are vital and necessary to grow plants and
feed the ever increasing population.