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Organic fertilizers

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organic fertilizers brief introduction

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Organic fertilizers

  1. 1. Organic Fertilizers Jannat Iftikhar B11-16 7th semester Department of Botany University of the Punjab Lahore 1
  2. 2. Introduction • “An organic fertilizer refers to a soil amendment derived from natural sources that guarantees, at least, the minimum percentages of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash.” • Virtually any organic material can be used as a fertilizer; however, materials vary considerably in the concentration of plant nutrients they contain and the rate which these nutrients are released for the plant use. 2
  3. 3. Why we use organic fertilizers? • Our most important natural resource is the soil that is why it is crucial to save and protect it considering the present and also the future. • It is our task to preserve the humus top soil and to increase its organic matter contents, to improve the nutrient providing ability and carry on an environment-friendly nutrient management. 3
  4. 4. Types of organic fertilizers • Organic fertilizers can be grouped into the following categories; 1. Manures and composts 2. Green manures 3. Plant, stubble and root residues 4. Other fertilizers 4
  5. 5. 1. Manure and compost • Out of all the organic fertilizers, good quality manure is excellent source of organic nutrients, which consists of solid and liquid feces and litter. • Fresh manure may be available from the livestock operations. Commercial, packaged manures generally contain composted material. 5
  6. 6. 1.Manure and compost • Compost can be made from the materials such as yard waste, sawdust, manures and industrial by-products. • Composted materials are generally ready to mix into the soil when you can no longer identify what the material originally consisted of. • It usually has a dark brown appearance, is granular in size and has a musty smell. 6
  7. 7. Animal manure and Compost 7
  8. 8. 1.Manure and compost • Human manure, some people refer to human excreta as human manure, and the word “humanure” has also been used. Just like animal manure, it can be applied as a soil conditioner. • Sewage sludge is a material that contains human excreta, as it is generated after mixing excreta with water and treatment of waste water in a sewage treatment plant 8Sewage sludge
  9. 9. 2. Green manure • Green fertilizing is a method of organic fertilizing when a plant is produced for the purpose of turning its whole mass into the soil as a fertilizer before it begins to bloom. • Green manures are crops grown for the express purpose of plowing them in, thus increasing the fertility through the incorporation of nutrients and organic matter into the soil. • Leguminous plants such as clover are often use for this, as they fix nitrogen using Rhizobia bacteria in specialized nodes in the root structure. 9
  10. 10. Incorporationofagreenmanurecrop 10
  11. 11. 3. Plant, stubble and root residues • The roots of cultivated plants play a significant role in the maintenance of the fertility, digestion of nutrients and improving the structure of the soil. • They have a great advantage on the organic manures that they homogenously net in the soil and in this way the organic material distribution is even. • The amount of the root residues is considerable, in the upper 200 mm layer of the soil expressed in dry matter per hectare the values are the following: peas 600kg, maize 2500kg, sunflower 3900kg. 11
  12. 12. 3. Plant, stubble and root residues • Beside the roots the stem residues also have a remarkable role. The amount is influenced by the sowing density and the stubble height. 12
  13. 13. 4. Other fertilizers • Peat, is also suitable for organic fertilizing, primarily to correct the harmful characteristics of manures and sub serve composting. • Its advantages are the great hygroscopic ability and bactericidal effect, which facilitate the use of malodorous materials and the considerable decrease of the number of pathogens. 13
  14. 14. 4. Other fertilizers • Lime is a naturally occurring material produced by crushing rocks containing high amounts of calcium and magnesium carbonates. • The inhabitants of the coasts have been using the nutrient supply of the algae (Fucaceae and sea-weed) to improve the soil for centuries. 14
  15. 15. 4. Other fertilizers • There are two types of algae-products sold in Europe: one is calcareous algae, the other is a liquid product made of dried green and brown algae. The ordinary dose of calcareous algae is 400-600 kg/ha, with the effect of an average 10-15% increase of crop. • Bacterial fertilizers are not novel, however brilliant achievements of science. Their principle is to beneficiate the flora of the free living, nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil, so the use of chemical fertilizers containing nitrogen is unnecessary. One well-known product is the BioNitroPhos. 15
  16. 16. Peat and lime 16
  17. 17. 17 Material % Nitrogen (N) % phosphate (P2O5) % potash (K2O) Availability* Notes** Blood meal 12.0 1.5 0.57 medium-fast Acidic Bone meal 0.7-4.0 18.0-34.0 0 slow-medium Alkaline Compost 1.5-3.5 0.5-1.0 1.0-2.0 slow Alkaline Cotton seed meal 6.0 2.0 1.0 slow Acidic Cow manure 0.25-2.0 0.15-0.9 0.25-1.5 medium Fish meal 8.0 4.0 0.5 Acidic Green sand 0 0 6.0 very slow Horse manure 0.3-2.5 0.15-2.5 0.5-3.0 Poultry manure 1.1-2.8 0.5-2.8 0.5-1.5 medium-fast Rock phosphate 0 28.0 0 very slow seaweed 0 0 4.0-13.0 rapid Zinc, iron Soybean meal 7.0 0 1.0 Swine manure 0.3 0.3 0.3 medium Tankage*** 9.0 10.0 0 Wood ashes 0 1.0-2.0 3.0-7.0 rapid Kelp 1.0-1.5 0.5-1.0 5.0-10.0 moderate Zinc, iron Legumes 2.0-4.0 0.0-0.5 2.0-3.0 moderate Table 1. approximate nutrient content and rates of availability for various organic materials *approximate rate of nutrient released from the material **special properties or characteristics of the material *** Tankage: dried and ground by-products from animal slaughter
  18. 18. Method of preparation 1. From household compost 2. From natural compost in farms 3. CFT fertilizer machine 18
  19. 19. 1. From household compost • Prepare a large container with cover and a drain beneath. • Collect the food waste, cut into small size, filter the water. • Input the food waste into the bucket, and add some sugar everyday (to reduce odor). • After 2-3 weeks, you can discharge the waste out and cover it with leaves and soil in your back yard. • After about one month, you can feel the warming on the top of your compost, repeat the steps of above and continue 19
  20. 20. 1. From household compost • Regularly discharge the brown water (liquid fertilizer). • After several month (2-3 in summer, 4-6 in winter), the compost can be used as conditional soil. • Ventilation can avoid odor, coffee grounds or tea leaves are good deodorant. • It takes about 1 month period to achieve initial stage, so it is recommended to prepare two or more barrels. 20
  21. 21. 2. From natural compost in farms • Pile up the animal excrements, agricultural waste, food waste and other organic matter to about one meter to one and half meter high. • Constantly re-pile the compost to maintain the high temperature and supply of oxygen. • Repeat step 2 for 2-3 month and the ripened compost will be generated. It can be used as organic fertilizer in your farm. 21
  22. 22. 2. From natural compost in farms • Microbes in the compost will begin to reproduce, decompose, and the heat generated by microbial activity will warm up the compost to 60 to 70 degrees Celsius. • Many farmers dispose the food waste as organic fertilizer and resulted in bad smell, it is because without the high-temperature sterilization process, the food waste will generate many pathogens and odor during decomposition. 22
  23. 23. 3. CFT fertilizer machine • Use shatter to cut the waste into smaller size material. • Input shattered material into the CFT fertilizer machine. • Add CFT enzymes (formula) and start operation. • Wait for 1-3 hours for reaction complete. • Discharge the reacted material, use them after cooling. • Animal manure can be inputted without shattering. • Moisture content should be at least 50% for enzyme reaction. 23
  24. 24. 3. CFT fertilizer machine • Various fuels can be used for heating, ex: gas, waste oil. • If end product is not going to use immediately, we recommend you to (sun) dry it before storage. • You can make your own organic fertilizer from organic wastes (ex: straws, vegetables, manure, etc) in very short time by using CFT fertilizer machine. It can help farmer to cut the cost of chemical fertilizer and reduce the cost of cultivation. 24
  25. 25. Management consideration • Nutrient needs vary widely depending on soil conditions, previous fertilizers, organic matter addition, and the type of the plant grown. • The best ways to determine which nutrient are needed and in what amount is to test the soil. • For lawns and gardens, the fertilizer rate suggested on the soil report can be applied more than one time per growing season. • For field crop situations, however, the suggested rate is for entire growing season and should not be exceeded. 25
  26. 26. Fertilizer rate calculation • Fertilizer needed = X lbs of nutrients/1000 sq. feet * 1 lb fertilizer/Y lb nutrient* Z sq. feet area • Where X is the nutrient recommendation from a soil test report in pounds/1000 sq ft, Y is the percent of the nutrient in the fertilizer divided by 100, and Z is the square footage of the area fertilized. 26
  27. 27. Selecting an organic fertilizer • The numbers on an organic fertilizer label refer to the concentration (percent) of three major nutrients in the material: nitrogen (or N), phosphate (or P2O5), and potassium (potash, or K2O). • For example, a 6-12-0 fertilizer (bone meal) contains 6% nitrogen, 12% phosphate (P2O5), and 0% potash (K2O). 27
  28. 28. Selecting an organic fertilizer • If a soil test report indicates levels of some nutrients are high or excessive, select products containing lower concentrations of these nutrients. • If a soil test report indicates a need for nitrogen, select a high nitrogen material like blood meal or fish meal 28
  29. 29. Fertilizer application method • Organic materials can be broadcast on the surface and tilled or watered into soil, or applied in a narrow band on or beneath the surface. • Two main types of broadcast applicators are available: the drop spreader and the rotary spreader 29
  30. 30. Fertilizer application method • Most drop spreaders are capable of applying a wide range of rates; however, the path spread is limited to the width of the unit (normally 18 inches to three feet). • Rotary spreaders may broadcast organic materials in a 5 to 10 foot wide path but with less uniformity and rate control than drop spreaders. 30 Drop spreader Rotary spreader
  31. 31. Fertilizer application method • Banding is a convenient way to make in-season fertilizer applications to high nitrogen requiring vegetables like corn • Make narrow furrows six to eight inches away from the base of the plants, two to three inches deep. Distribute the organic material evenly in the furrow and cover with soil 31Banding
  32. 32. Factors effecting the nutrient availability • Soil pH • Organic matter • Soil texture • Climate • Crop removal • Soil compaction • Nutrient interaction 32
  33. 33. Advantages of using organic fertilizers • Soil structure • Hydraulic conductivity • Field capacity • Reduced erosion • Non-toxic food • On farm production • Low capital investment • Employment • Fertility of the soil • Safe environment 33
  34. 34. Disadvantages of using organic fertilizer • Takes longer time • High demand and low supply • Simple but messy and inconvenient 34
  35. 35. Organic fertilizers supplier in Pakistan • Sunland crops care, Karachi. • Shah enterprise, Karachi. • Al-bahar enterprises, Lahore . • AMB organics, Karachi. • Safi chemicals and fertilizers (PVT) Ltd. • Millat enterprises, Muridkey. • M Akbar and company, Quetta. • Hanan Impex, Sialkot. 35
  36. 36. References • www.ncagr.gov/agronomi/pdffiles/sfn12.pdf • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manure • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organicfertilizer • www.befarmex.com/files/289_Organic-fertilizers-ENG.HUNGARY[1].pdf • extension.usu.edu/files/publications/factsheet/HG-510.pdf • www.organicfacts.net/organic-products/organic-cultivation/benefits-of- organic-fertilizers.html • globalharvestorganics.com/blog/benefits-to-using-organic-fertilizers/ • www.aquaculture.ugent.be/Education/coursematerial/online%20course s/faoman/mcd/art/img120.htm • www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/environment/nutrient- management/pubs/effects-of-manure%20-fertilizer- on%20soil%20fertility-quality.pdf • www.wolftrax.com/en/factors-affecting-nutrient-availability • www.slideshare.net/JohnLee16/make-organic-fertilizer-form-organic- waste • pakistan.metrosources.com 36
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  38. 38. Thankyou 38
  39. 39. Any question??? 39
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