5. A verbal technique for obtaining
data direct from the primary source.
A very systematic method by which
a person enters deeply into the life
Even a stranger and can bring out
needed information and data for the research purpose.
6. C. F. Cannell and R. N. Kahn (1975): There are three essential element of
Personality and temperament
Intelligent and education
8. From of strict structural point of view we can identify
three types of interview:
A. Structured Interview
B. Unstructured Interview
C. Semi-structured Interview
9. The use of a set of pre-determined questions
Highly standardized techniques of recording
The use of fixed, alternative questions
The use of close ended questions
The question order are pre-determined.
11. Non-standardize interviewing
Do not follow a list of pre-determined question
Freedom to talk on whatever events
Provide their own definition of the social situation
It is very complex process.
Use open ended questionnaire
13. A pre-determined set of questions & questions arise
when interviewing an a person
To develop a keen understanding of the topic of interest
A subjective experience of respondent
It preceded by observation, informal and unstructured interviewing
15. It may not be possible to gather groups of
individuals or to visit one-on-one
An asking a small number of general
Closed site access
Use open ended question
A researcher does not have direct contact with the participant
Limited communication to understand the interviewee’s
perceptions of the phenomenon
16. A geographically dispersed group
To provides rapid access to large
numbers of people
To promote follow-up
To raise complex ethical issues
17. May be unstructured, semi structured, or structured
Try to understand individual feeling and motivation
Information of the client is willing to share
Face-to-face interaction between a client and interviewer
An intake interview, an admission interview, a mental status exam or a diagnostic
20. Process enabling researchers to learn about the activities of the people
by becoming a part of the population or the subject. Discipline:
21. Live in the community, make relationships
Take part in way of life, rituals, customs to
know cultural parameters
know cultural members manners, leadership,
politics, social interaction, and taboos
Observer does his recording or note when he is alone.
Example: To know the culture, lifestyle of tribal community (e.g Chakma),
become a part of them.
22. Understand a phenomenon by staying separate from the activities being
Observing participants unobtrusively.
Use of recording devices (video or tape recorder) to know contours of talk
(e.g. intonation), body behavior (e.g. facial expression, eye gaze)
Example: Teacher Provides a
problem to the
Students & divides them
into team, observes how
they make solution.
23. A mode of observation that takes action & observe the consequences of that
Select a group of subjects
Do something to them
Observe the effect of what was done
It involves 3 components Independent & Dependent variable, Pre- testing,
post-testing, Experimental & control groups
24. Independent variable – cause
Dépendent variable – effect
• Depression for result, relationship
• Mixing up with bad company
• Failure in exam
• Interest in drugs becomes habit
• Divorced parents
• Availability of drugs
Drug addiction among
25. Pre- testing –measurement before incident
post-testing- measurement after incident
Rate of sharing videos, picture, trolls, statues on social networking
sites before & after India vs Bangladesh cricket match
Indicator : Result of the match
If Bangladesh wins sharing is high before & after the match
If Bangladesh losses sharing is less
26. Experimental group: to which stimulus is applied
Control group: to which no stimulus is applied
Example : Compare the attitudes & activities of two groups of criminals
People who are outside of jail by
people who are staying in the jail
27. Experimental group
• Teach them good manners
• Give them books, magazines to read
• Train & motivate them to be skilled
• Show them movies
28. Experimental group Control group
Figure : Diagram of Experimental design
Measure attitude &
Re measure attitude &
Re measure attitude &
Measure attitude &
Consist of images or sounds
For example: Pictures, photographs, videotapes,
The central phenomenon
people easily relate to images
share directly their perceptions of reality
They are difficult to analyze
31. Focus group discussion(FGD)
Formally organized, structured groups of individuals
“In-depth” research technique
discuss a specific topic of interest
guide future action
also called group interviewing
Typically 5 to 15 people
For example: political or marketing research
32. Focus group discussion(FGD)
The technique is a socially oriented research
method capturing real-life data in a social environment.
It has flexibility.
It has high face validity.
It has speedy results.
It is low in cost
Focus groups afford the researcher less control than individual interviews.
Data are difficult to analyze.
Moderators require special skills.
33. How are focus groups different from regular "groups"?
has a specific, focused discussion topic.
a trained leader, or facilitator.
carefully planned to create a nonthreatening
Members are actively encouraged
34. Why are focus groups used?
learn more about group or community opinions and needs
what people are really thinking and feeling, their expression
depth and complexity of response
When should you used FGD
a new program or service
asked or answered on a written survey
time, knowledge, and resources
35. Procedure for conducting FGD
Before you begin, Recheck your goals.
Find a good leader
Find a recorder.
Decide who should be invited.
Decide about incentives.
Decide on the meeting particulars.
Prepare your questions.
Recruit your members
When the group meets
Conduct the group
Some common techniques
After the meeting
Look at the data
Share results with the group.