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Institutions and Audiences
Hamzah Ehsan
Institutions
• The word institution refers to the companies and
organisations that provide media content,
whether for prof...
Convergence
• Convergence describes two phenomena: First, technologies coming
together, for example, a mobile phone you ca...
Audiences
• This phrase is now commonly used by media professionals to
describe the ways in which people engage with media...
How is a film made??
• Development. From idea to signing of contracts.
• Pre-production. All the technical matters that ca...
Avengers: Age of Ultron- Development
In October 2011, Kevin Feige, president of Marvel Studios said the studio was
beginni...
Avengers: Age of Ultron
Pre-production
• By April 2013, filming was scheduled to begin in early 2014 at Shepperton
Studios...
Avengers: Age of Ultron-Production
• Filming began on Tuesday, February 11, 2014 in Johannesburg, South Africa,
having bee...
Avengers: Age of Ultron
Post-Production
• In June 2014, the IMAX Corporation announced that the IMAX release of the
film w...
Avengers: Age of Ultron- Marketing
• At the 2013 San Diego Comic-Con International, Whedon
introduced a teaser trailer for...
The Danish Girl- Development
• Screenwriter Lucinda Coxon worked on the screenplay for a decade
before it was produced. Sh...
The Danish Girl
Pre-production
• Charlize Theron was originally slated to play the role of Gerda
Wegener but was replaced ...
The Danish Girl- Production
• Filming was projected to commence in spring 2010 in Berlin. Coxon
revealed to Creative Scree...
The Danish Girl
Post-production
• Post-production ended in September 2015. Post-
production according to composer, Alexand...
The Danish Girl- Marketing
• The first image of Redmayne as Lili Elbe was revealed on
26 February 2015. A pair of posters ...
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Institutions and audiences

  1. 1. Institutions and Audiences Hamzah Ehsan
  2. 2. Institutions • The word institution refers to the companies and organisations that provide media content, whether for profit, public service or another motive. We need to talk about media institutions in the plural and to recognise that it is possible, through such distribution networks as MySpace and YouTube, to be a producer and distributor of content some time, and a consumer of media produced by powerful corporations the rest of the time.
  3. 3. Convergence • Convergence describes two phenomena: First, technologies coming together, for example, a mobile phone you can use as a still and moving image camera, download and watch moving images on, use as an MP3 player and recorder and access the internet with. Second, media industries are diversifying so they produce and distribute across several media—for example, a newspaper with an online version and audio podcasts or the coming together of videogames with films. • We no longer live in a media world where television, videogames, films, newspapers, radio, magazines and music exist separately. For this reason it is essential that you study the impact of convergence on the film industry — the focus here is on the contemporary.
  4. 4. Audiences • This phrase is now commonly used by media professionals to describe the ways in which people engage with media, and it shows how contested the idea of audience is in the digital era. The ways in which convergence, user-created content and social networking have transformed the audience are often thought about in terms of audience 'fragmentation'. In this climate media institutions are desperately trying to provide 360-degree branding for their products—to surround us with them across all the various converged media forms that we come into contact with—a good example of this is Avatar.
  5. 5. How is a film made?? • Development. From idea to signing of contracts. • Pre-production. All the technical matters that can be settled before shooting. • Production. The actual shooting of a film. • Postproduction. The technical portion of filmmaking that turns raw film into finished product. • Marketing. The process of getting the finished product to its audience.
  6. 6. Avengers: Age of Ultron- Development In October 2011, Kevin Feige, president of Marvel Studios said the studio was beginning to look at their Phase Two films, which would start with Iron Man 3 and would culminate in a second Avengers film. At the 2012 San Diego Comic-Con International, Whedon said he was undecided about directing However, in August 2012, Iger announced that Whedon would return to write and direct the sequel. Later in the month, Disney set a May 1, 2015 release date. In December 2012, Whedon stated that he had completed an outline for the film.
  7. 7. Avengers: Age of Ultron Pre-production • By April 2013, filming was scheduled to begin in early 2014 at Shepperton Studios in England. At the Hollywood premiere of Iron Man 3, Whedon said that he had completed a draft of the script, started the storyboard process, and met with actors. At the 2013 San Diego Comic-Con International, Whedon announced the film would be subtitled Age of Ultron.Despite the subtitle, the film is not based on the 2013 comic book miniseries Age of Ultron. Feige explained that they simply just liked the title Age of Ultron but the plot was taken from decades of Avengers story arcs.The title of the film came as a surprise to many fans who were expecting Thanos, the mastermind behind the events of the first film, to be the main villain in the sequel, with Whedon saying, "Thanos was never meant to be the next villain. He's always been the overlord of villainy and darkness. Casting continued into August 2013, with the announcement that James Spader would play Ultron.In November, Marvel confirmed that Elizabeth Olsen and Aaron Taylor-Johnson would play the Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver, respectively. By the end of the year, Mark Ruffalo, Chris Evans, Samuel L. Jackson, Chris Hemsworth, Scarlett Johansson Jeremy Renner and Cobie Smulders were confirmed to be returning to their roles from the first film. On January 24, 2014, the Forte di Bard Association announced that filming would take place at Fort Bard in the Aosta Valley region of Italy in March 2014, as well as other locations in Aosta Valley including Aosta, Bard, Donnas, Pont-Saint-Martin and Verrès
  8. 8. Avengers: Age of Ultron-Production • Filming began on Tuesday, February 11, 2014 in Johannesburg, South Africa, having been postponed that Monday. Second unit crews shot action sequences without the main cast, to be used as background plates for scenes featuring the Hulk, in the Central Business District of Johannesburg for a period of two weeks. By mid-March, principal photography had begun at Shepperton Studios near London and was scheduled to film there for at least four months. On March 22, production moved to Fort Bard, Italy and continued in the Aosta Valley region through March 28. The region doubled as the fictional Eastern European nation of Sokovia. On April 8, shooting began in the Hawley Woods in Hampshire, England. In mid-April, Hayley Atwell, who played Peggy Carter in previous MCU films, was on set at the Rivoli Ballroom in London to film a 1940s flashback sequence. In mid-June, scenes were shot at the University of East Anglia in Norwich and at Dover Castle in Kent, with Dover Castle used for interior shots of Strucker's Hydra base in Sokovia.In July, filming took place at a training facility for London's Metropolitan Police Service, which doubled as a city in Sokovia.[ Additional filming took place in Chittagong, Bangladesh, including the Chittagong Ship Breaking Yard and in New York. On August 6, Whedon announced on social media that he had completed principal photography on Avengers: Age of Ultron.
  9. 9. Avengers: Age of Ultron Post-Production • In June 2014, the IMAX Corporation announced that the IMAX release of the film would be converted to IMAX 3D. Following the completion of principal photography several more cast members were revealed including, Stellan Skarsgård, Anthony Mackie, Idris Elba and Tom Hiddleston, who all reprise their roles from previous MCU films. However, Hiddleston's scenes did not make the theatrical cut of the film. In May 2015, Whedon revealed he was in conflict with Marvel executives and the film's editors about certain scenes in the film. The executives were not "thrilled" with the scenes at Hawkeye's farm or the dream sequences the Avengers experience because of Scarlet Witch. Also, Whedon had originally shot a much longer scene with Thor and Selvig in the cave, compromising with including a reduced amount of the total footage shot, as test audiences did not respond to it. The film contains 3,000 visual effects shots, completed by ten different visual effects studios. Method Studios created the interior of the new Avengers training facility by digitally designing the training facility, extracting the characters from the original set and placing them into the new CG environment. Method also contributed to Iron Man's new Mark 45 suit and played a key role in creating Scarlet Witch's CG mind control effect
  10. 10. Avengers: Age of Ultron- Marketing • At the 2013 San Diego Comic-Con International, Whedon introduced a teaser trailer for the film, which included a look at an Ultron helmet and a title treatment. Footage of the teaser, as well as a brief interview with Whedon, was made available as part of Iron Man 3 '​s second screen companion app for its Blu-ray release on September 24, 2013. On March 18, 2014, ABC aired a one-hour television special titled, Marvel Studios: Assembling a Universe, which included a sneak peek of Avengers: Age of Ultron. The special debuted concept art for Quicksilver and Scarlet Witch, as well as art of the Hulk fighting the "Hulkbuster" Iron Man suit. Harley-Davidson partnered with Marvel to provide their first electric motorcycle, Project LiveWire, for use by Black Widow in the film.
  11. 11. The Danish Girl- Development • Screenwriter Lucinda Coxon worked on the screenplay for a decade before it was produced. She told Creative Screenwriting, "I started in 2004 and within a couple of years we had a script we were happy to send out.” In September 2009, Tomas Alfredson revealed that production on the project would precede that of his upcoming Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy adaptation. He added, "We have been in talks for close to a year, and we are soon going into production". In December 2009, Swedish newspapers reported that Alfredson was no longer attached to direct The Danish Girl and would begin work on Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy next. Alfredson said he regretted that reports of him working on The Danish Girl spread before the deal was finalised. He also said that he still wanted to make the film and might return to the project. On 12 January 2010, Swedish director Lasse Hallström told Swedish media that he had been assigned to replace Alfredson as director.
  12. 12. The Danish Girl Pre-production • Charlize Theron was originally slated to play the role of Gerda Wegener but was replaced by Gwyneth Paltrow after leaving the project. Paltrow left the project due to location changes. Uma Thurman was also a rumoured replacement. In September 2010, Marion Cotillard was rumored to be the lead candidate for the role of Gerda Wegener. On 11 June 2010, The Hollywood Reporter revealed that the film had received €1.2 million ($1.5 million) in subsidy financing from Germany's NRW Film Board. The conditions of the deal include the planned 19-day shoot in Germany. In February 2011, Screen Daily reported that the film would begin shooting in July of the same year and that Rachel Weisz would play Wegener. In May it was revealed that both Weisz and Hallström had left the project. On 28 April 2014, it was announced that Tom Hooper would direct the film with Eddie Redmayne as the lead. On 19 June 2014, Alicia Vikander was announced in the cast.On 8 January 2015, Matthias Schoenaerts joined the cast.
  13. 13. The Danish Girl- Production • Filming was projected to commence in spring 2010 in Berlin. Coxon revealed to Creative Screenwriting that when filming finally begun with Tom Hopper he actually filmed an older version of the script. "We had probably gone through twenty drafts before landing Tom Hooper. In fact, the one we shot was actually an early revised draft that Tom had read back in 2008. I did a fairly large rewrite for Tom, but in the end, we used a version with little revision from the original." • Filming began in February 2015, where Redmayne was spotted on set. Filming also took place at Nyhavn, where the iconic waterfront was transformed to look likeCopenhagen in the 1930s. On 31 March 2015, Redmayne was spotted filming a fight scene. Sets for the Danish and Paris flats were built in the Elstree Studios in London and additional shooting took place in Copenhagen and Brussels. Production on the film concluded on 12 April 2015. Filming took place for a total of 44 days for the 186 scenes in four countries.
  14. 14. The Danish Girl Post-production • Post-production ended in September 2015. Post- production according to composer, Alexandre Desplat was very fast, with the film being cut as Desplat was writing the score, which was recorded only a week prior to the film's premiere at the Venice Film Festival. In an interview with MTV International, Alicia Vikander revealed that two scenes featuring Amber Heard dancing were cut from the film, as well as stating the first cut for the film was over 2 hours.
  15. 15. The Danish Girl- Marketing • The first image of Redmayne as Lili Elbe was revealed on 26 February 2015. A pair of posters of Redmayne and Vikander were then released in August, On 1 September 2015, the first trailer was released. on 19 November 2015, The first clip from the film was released. Just the one poster was created and released. It shows Redmayne as Liki, not Einar, in front of Vikander. So it’s an image of two striking women who are obviously close. Choosing to show Redmayne as Lili means they’re going all-in on the major selling point of the movie, which is not only that performance but also the conceit of the gender identity issue. The whole image is kind of washed out, giving it a nice classic touch.

Media Institutions and audiences

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