Political Principles Click on each principle to learn more…Consent of the governed Limited Government Representative Governme Rule of Law Democracy Don’t click the mouse until you have reviewed all 5 principles
Limited Goverment The government is not ALL powerful – people give the power.The government can’t do everything it wants. Checks & Balances
DemocracyTHE PEOPLE RULE!!!We have choices in our government.
Representative Government People ELECT OFFICEHOLDERS tomake laws and conduct government on their behalf.
Consent of the Governed People are the source of any and all government power“We give Consent to be governed”
Rule of LawThe government and those who govern are bound by the LAW.
Earlier Documents CLICK ON EACH DOCUMENT FOR MORE INFORMATION• The Charters of the VA Company of London• The VA Declaration of Rights• The VA Statute of Religious Freedom• The Declaration of Independence• Articles of Confederation Don’t click the mouse until you have reviewed all 6• Constitution documents
Purpose of the Charters ofthe VA Company of London• They authorized the Virginia Company to start a colony.• They allowed for a representative government.• They gave the colonists the same rights as Englishmen.
The Declaration of Rights• Served as a model for the Bill of Rights •Freedom of Religion •Right to a fair trial •Freedom of the press
What did the VirginiaStatute for ReligiousFreedom do? “Hey I wrote this” T.J. Separated church and state Established religious freedom
The Declaration ofIndependence Also written by: Thomas Jefferson
Declaration ofIndependence Declared the colonies’ independence from Great BritainLLP Affirmed “certain unalienable rights” (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness) Established the idea that all people are equal under the law Stated grievances against the King of Great Britain
Articles ofConfederation Established the FIRST FORM OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENT for the independent states Maintained that major powers resided with individual states Weak central government (no power to tax and enforce laws)
Constitution Establishes the structure Sets up 3 Branches of the United States government •Guarantees equality Due Process under the law with (5th & 14th) majority rule and the rights of the minority protected Affirms individual worth Everyone Counts! and dignity of all people Protects the fundamental 1st Amendment freedoms of religion, Freedoms (RAPPS) assembly, press, petition, speech
Preamble to the Constitution We the People, in order to: (power comes from the people) Ensure Establish domestic ProvideForm a union justice peace defense
Amendments• Written changes to the US Constitution are prepared and approved by the legislative branch. 2 Ratified by the states e 1 at t od 27 Proposed by Congress or National convention
CitizenshipMeans of obtaining citizenship(2 ways to become a citizen)Birth NaturalizationThe 14th Amendment:“All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and the state wherein they reside.”
Requirements for Naturalization• Demonstrate knowledge of American HISTORY• Demonstrate knowledge of American principles (CIVICS)• Demonstrate the ability to speak and write ENGLISH
ImmigrationDuring the 20th century, an increasinglydiverse society has been created inAmerica as a result of other cultures.
Fundamental Freedoms Click on each freedom to learn more… The Constitution of the United States of America establishes and protects the citizen’s fundamental rights and liberties. R A P P SDue process protections are guaranteed by Don’t click the mouse until you havethe national government (5th amendment) reviewed all 6 freedomsand state governments (14th amendment).
RELIGIONGovernment may not establish any official religion nor endorse or unduly interfere with the free exercise of religion. YOU CAN CHOOSE YOUR RELIGION!
ASSEMBLYIndividuals may peacefully gather.Protest/Strike as long as no one gets hurt.
PRESSThe press has the right to gather and publish information, including that which criticizes the government.TV, Radio, Newspaper, Magazines, Internet, Etc. can say what they want as long as it’s true.
PETITIONIndividuals have the right to make their views known to public officials.For example – The petition to get Blair’s bill approved for hearing aids. Dear Senator…
SPEECHIndividuals are free to express their opinions and beliefs.Say what you want as long as you don’t violate others’ rights.
I’ll arrest Civic Duties you if you don’t do these things!For government to be effective, citizens MUST fulfill civic duties: – Obey laws – Pay taxes – Serve in the armed forces if called – Serve on a jury or as a witness in court – Attend school If you choose not do fulfill your civic duties “COPS Arrest” you and you’ll face legal consequences.
Civic ResponsibilitiesA basic responsibility of citizenship is to contribute to the common good of society. These actions are VOLUNTARY!• Register and vote• Influence government by communicating with government official• Keep informed regarding current issues• Respect others’ right to their opinions and beliefs• Hold elective office• Participate in political campaigns
Community ServiceA democratic society requires the activeparticipation of its citizens. Citizensparticipate in community service in manyways. – Volunteering (tutoring, nursing home, etc.) – Expressing concern about community welfare (attend civic meetings, adopt-a-highway) – Make the community a good place to work and live (neighborhood watches, etc.)
Personal Traits of GoodCitizens• Trustworthiness and honesty• Courtesy and respect for the rights of others• Responsibility, accountability, and self- reliance• Respect for the law• Patriotism
Separation of Powers Branch of Local Virginia National Government Government Government GovernmentLegislative Makes ordinances for community; Makes laws for Virginia; approves Makes laws for nation; approves approves annual budget; limits biennial (two-year) budget; annual budget; confirms power to that delegated by the exercises power under the 10th presidential appointments; state amendment raise revenue; regulate interstate trade; declare warExecutive Elected or appointed by the Board of Executes laws of Virginia; prepares Executes law of the land; prepares Supervisors or City Council; city biennial budget for General annual budget for or county managers hired by local Assembly; appoints cabinet congressional action; appoints legislatures officers and boards; cabinet officers, ambassadors, administers state bureaucracy; and federal judges; administers grants pardons federal bureaucracy Judicial Local courts—Hear cases under the Supreme Court—Has power of Supreme Court—Has power of authority provided by state judicial review over state laws judicial review legislation Circuit courts—Try civil and Federal courts—Try cases involving criminal cases federal law and U.S. Constitutional questions
Checks and Balances A system of checks and balances gives each of the three branches of government ways to limit the powers of the other branches so that no one branch is too powerful.
Lawmaking Process The Virginia General Assembly and the United States Congress are bicameral legislatures. The lawmaking process in national and state legislatures Working in committees (most work done here) Debating on the floor Voting on a bill by both houses Signing the bill into law by the President or governor
Executive and Lawmaking Ways the executive branch influences policymaking Proposing legislation in an annual speech to the legislature (State of the Commonwealth or State of the Union Address) Appealing directly to the people Approving or vetoing legislation Appointing officials who carry out the laws
Roles of the President Chief of State ~ ceremonial representative Chief of Party ~ leader of party in office Chief Executive ~ holds administrative meetings with his cabinet Chief Citizen ~ regular “Joe” Chief Legislator ~ proposes laws in the State of the Union Address Chief Diplomat ~ carries out foreign policy Commander in Chief ~ director of the military
Federalism The Constitution of the United States of America establishes a federal form of government in which the national government is supreme. The powers of the national government are either enumerated/expressed or implied The powers not given to the national government by the Constitution of the United States of America are reserved for the states by the 10th amendment. The powers of the local governments in Virginia are delegated/derived from the state.
Enumerated/Expressed/Implied Coin money Maintain a military Establish post office Conduct foreign affairs
Reserved Set school standards Conduct elections Set marriage, business, driver’s license standards Establish local governments Public health, safety, welfare
Delegated/Derived Public services Public safety Roads Trash service
Legislative Issues at the State Level Education: To promote an informed and engaged citizenry (i.e., establish minimum standards for local schools) Public health: To promote and protect the health of its citizens (i.e., fund health benefits) Environment: To protect natural resources (i.e., improve water quality in the Chesapeake Bay) State budget: To approve a biennial (two year) budget prepared by the governor Revenue: To levy and collect taxes
LOCAL GOVERNMENT There are 3 units of local government: Town County City The type of gov’t is established in a charter. There are elected officials in local government: Mayor Council School Board Sheriff
Media and Public Policy Ways media play an important role in setting the public agenda (“giant” influence) Focusing public attention on selected issues Offering a forum in which opposing viewpoints are communicated Holding government officials accountable to the public Government officials use the media to communicate with the public.
Individuals and Lawmaking Ways individuals influence public policy Participating in politics (voting, campaigning) Expressing opinions (lobbying, demonstrating, writing letters) Joining interest groups
Interest Groups and Lawmaking Ways interest groups influence public policy Identifying issues Making political contributions Lobbying government officials
Impact of International Issues on Local GovernmentInternational issues and events that wouldrequire policy decisions by local governmentofficials could include the following: Public health concerns in the event of a pandemic Public safety in the event of an act of terrorism Economic development policies in response to the emerging global economy Policies to protect the environment (e.g., wildlife protection)
US Courts The United States has a separate court system whose organization and jurisdiction are derived from the Constitution of the United States of America and federal laws. United States Court System U.S. Supreme Court (Justices/no jury) Jurisdiction: Appellate and Limited Original U.S. Court of Appeals (Justices/no jury) Jurisdiction: Appellate U.S. District Court (Judge with jury) Jurisdiction: Original
Virginia Courts Virginia, like each of the other forty-nine states, has its own court system whose organization and jurisdiction are derived from Virginia’s constitution and state laws. Virginia Court System Virginia Supreme Court (Justices/no jury) Court of final appeal (Appellate jurisdiction) Limited original jurisdiction Court of Appeals of Virginia (Judges/no jury) Appellate jurisdiction from circuit courts Circuit Court (Judge and jury) Original jurisdiction for felony and for civil cases Appellate jurisdiction from district courts General District Court Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court (Judge) (Judge/no jury) Original jurisdiction of misdemeanors Juvenile and family cases Civil cases involving lower dollar amounts
Judicial Review The supreme courts of the United States and Virginia determine the constitutionality of laws and acts of the executive branch of government. This power is called judicial review. Marbury v. Madison established the principle of judicial review. The Constitution of the United States of America is the supreme law of the land.
Criminal Cases In a criminal case, a court determines whether a person accused of breaking the law is guilty or not guilty of a misdemeanor or a felony. •A guilty verdict may be appealed 5 Verdict to the Court of Appeals or directly to the Supreme Court 4 in certain cases. Trial 3 Arraignment 2 Preliminary Hearing 1 Arrest
Criminal Case In a civil case, a court settles a disagreement between two parties. 3 2 1
Due Process of Law The constitutional protection against unfair governmental actions and laws Due process protections 5th Amendment—Prohibits the national government from acting in an unfair manner 14th Amendment—Prohibits state and local governments from acting in an unfair manner