Computer technology emerged in nursing in response to the changing and developing technologies in the health care industry. It is analyze according to :1. Six time period2. Four major areas3. Standard initiatives4. Significant landmarks
The image of nursing was improving Nursing practices improved Services were expanding in scope and complexity And the number of nurses was increase
Computer technology advanced while the number of health care facilities increased Added important dimension to the computer system, providing more accessible and user- friendly
Several states and large community health agencies developed or contracted for their own computer-based management information syste
Informatics emerged in the health care industry and nursing Nursing informatics became a specialty in the field of nursing HIS emerged with nursing subsystems Order entry Kardex Results reporting Nurse’s notes Discharge planning Microcomputer or personal computer emerged.
Computer technology became an integral part of health care settings NI was approved by American Nurses Association (ANA) as a new nursing specialty Brought smaller and faster computers—laptop and notebook LANs and WANs were developed Internet was started
Wireless point of care was developed Clinical Information Systems became individualized in the electronic patient record (EPR) and patient specific systems considered for the lifelong longitudinal record or electronic health record ( EHR) The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 was enacted
Recommended health care providers to use Provider Identification Number (PIN) Lead to several federal and private initiatives for health care technologies. Health Initiative and Institute Consolidated Health Information (CHI) initiative National Health Information Infrastracture (NHII) initiative
Nursing practice Nursing administration Nursing Education Nursing Research
it has evolved and change radically it became an integral part of Electonic Health Record (HER) Data emerged with the introduction of nursing terminologies by ANA as coded terminologies usable for the EHR
It changed the introduction of computer that link nursing department together in the hospital. It helps policy and procedure manuals to be access and retrieved by computer Internet is being used by the urses to access digital libraries, online resources and research pretocol at bedside
They used computer to enhance courses, online and distance education in some universities and school of nursing. With the use of internet and teleconference courses, the time, distance and cost are no longer barrier to educational program
Itprovides the impetus to use computer for analyzing nursing data. With advancement of computer technology database in supporting nursing research emerged, for online researching and retreiving information.
1. Nursing practice standards2. Nursing Data standards3. Health care data standards organizatons:
Developed and recommended by the ANA ANA: Publish the standards of clinical nursing practice which focus not only on the organizing principles of clinical nursing. Recommended that the nursing process serve as the conceptual framework for the documentation of the nursing practice. Joint commission on accreditation of hospital organizatons (JCAHO) : Stress the need for adequate records on patients in hospital and practice standards for the documentation of care by nurses. Recommended acuity systems to determine resource use as well as required care plans for documenting nursing care. Included on there recent manual the required contents of an HER, such as what data should be collected and how the data should be organized I the electronic data base.
Emerge as a new requirement for the EHR. ANA : Responsible for the recognition of the terminologies and for determining if they have met the criteria to be included in the National Library of Medicine (NLM) Unified Medical Language System (UMLS).
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) A private nonprofit membership organization. American Society for Testing And Materials (ASTM) Health Level Seven (HL7) SNOMED International National Committee on Vital And Health Statistics (NCVSH ) work group on computer- based patient’s record
Different Nursing application focused on:• documentation of nursing practice• Management of patient careApplication were designed for:• Hospitals• Ambulatory care settings• Community health agencies
a.) Early HISs.b.)Early ambulatory care information systems.c.) Early community health nursing information management systems.d.) Early computer-focused nursing projects.e.) Early education applications.
Computers were introduced into the nursing profession over 35 years ago.Major Milestones Of Nursing• Interwoven with the advancement of computer and information technologies• The increased need for nursing data• Development of nursing applications• Changes making the nursing profession an autonomous discipline.
Early conferences Meetings Early Academic Initiatives Initial National League for Nursing Initiatives Early international Initiatives Initial Educational Sources Significant Collaborative Events