Info...group 3

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Info...group 3

  1. 1. MAJOR HISTORICALPERSPECTIVES of NURSING and COMPUTERS
  2. 2. Computer technology emerged in nursingin response to the changing anddeveloping technologies in the healthcare industry and in nursing practice.
  3. 3. SIX TIME PERIODS
  4. 4. Prior to the 1960sThe use of computers in the health care industry grewComputers were initially used in health care facilities for basic business office functionsUse punch cards to store data and card readers to read computer programs, sort and prepare data for processing
  5. 5. 1960sUses of computer technology in health care setting began to be questionedThe nurses’ station in the hospital was viewed as the hub of information exchangeThe introduction of cathode ray tube (CRT), online data communication, and real-time processing added important dimensions to the computer system
  6. 6. Hospital information system (HIS) were developed primarily to process financial contractions and serve as billing and accounting systems
  7. 7. 1970SNurses began to recognize the value of the computer for their professionSeveral mainframe HISs were designed and developed, a few of which eventually became forerunners of a number of today’s system
  8. 8. Several states and large community health agencies developed and/or contracted for their own computer-based management information system (MISs)MISs provided statistical information required by local, state, and federal agencies for specific program fundsHome health agencies provided billing and other financial information required for reimbursement of patient services by Medicare, Medicaid, and other third-party payers
  9. 9. 1980s NI became an accepted specialty and many nursing experts entered the fieldMany mainframe HISs emersion- Documents patient’s record- Kardex- vital signs - discharge plan- -online source- -nurse’s notes
  10. 10. Microcomputer or personal computer emergedThey were user-friendly and allowed nurses to create their own applications
  11. 11. 1990sComputer technology became an integral part of health care setting, nursing practice and the nursing professionNI was approved by the American Nurses Association (ANA) as a new nursing specialty
  12. 12. Smaller and faster computers laptops, and notebooksWorkstations and local area networks or (LANs) were developed for hospital nursing unitsWide area networks were developed for linking care across health care facilitiesInternet started to be used for linking across the different systems
  13. 13. Post 2000-Development of wireless point-of-care-clinical information system became individualizes in Electronic Patient Record (EPR)-Electronic Health Record (EHR)- life longitudinal record-Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
  14. 14. -Use of Voice-over Internet Protocol (VoIP)-Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 was enacted-Critical Care Units are monitored remotely by health care providers (eICU)
  15. 15. FOUR MAJOR NURSING AREAS
  16. 16. NURSING PRACTICE-It has become an integral part of the EHR-used to assess problems, document care, track the care process, and measure outcomes-electronic version of nursing practice has revolutionized and transformed nursing practice
  17. 17. NURSING ADMINISTRATION-Workload measures, acuity systems, and other nursing department systems are online and integrated with the hospital for patients EHR system or in separate nursing department system
  18. 18. NURSING EDUCATIONCampus-wide computer systems are available for students to communicate via e-mail, transfer data files, access the digital libraries, and retrieve online resources of millions of Internet WWW sites.
  19. 19. NURSING RESEARCHNursing research provides the impetus to use the computer for analyzing data
  20. 20. Standard Initiatives- Influenced the nursing profession and its need for computer systems, information technology, and terminologies to gain acceptance among the healthcare policy makers
  21. 21. Nursing Practice Standards- have been developed and recommended by the ANA- Have also been set by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospital Organizations (JCAHO)- Included the contents of EHR, such as what data should be collected and how the data should be organized in the electronic database
  22. 22. Nursing Data Standards- Emerged as a new requirement for the EHR- ANA is responsible for the recognition of the terminologies and for determining if they have meet the criteria to be included in the National Library of Medicine
  23. 23. Health Care Data Standards Organizations• American National Standards Institute (ANSI)• American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)• SNOMED• National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics (NCVHS)
  24. 24. Early Computer-Based Nursing Applications• Developed before the mid-1970s as part of larger HISs• Focused on documentation of nursing practice and management of patient care• Designed for hospitals, ambulatory care settings, and community health agencies
  25. 25. Landmark Events in Nursing and Computers• Introduced into the nursing profession over 35 years ago• Major milestones of nursing are interwoven with the advancement of computer and information technologies, the increased need for nursing data, development of nursing applications, and changes making the nursing profession an autonomous discipline

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