HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES OFNURSING AND THE COMPUTER
PRESENTED BY: GROUP 4Jheizah Mee Pescadero Jenissa Arabis Nerry Cabataña Maiza Mae Carcedo Jasiel Bandiala Irish Seguisabal Guergene Dugenia
COMPUTERThe most powerful technological tool to transform nursing profession prior to the new century.In nursing, computers are used: to manage information in patient care Support nursing research and interact with patient on the WWW.
monitor the quality of care Evaluate the outcomes of care Used for sending and receiving data
MAJOR HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES OF NURSING AND COMPUTERS
Six historical perspectives ofnursing and computers follow:
Prior to the 1960’s- Adopt computers to health care- computers were used for business office function.- Punch card to store data and card readers to read computer programs, sort and prepare data for processing
1960’s- Computers technology in health care setting were questioned.- Nurse’s station was viewed as the hub of information exchange.- Introduction of cathode ray tube (CRT)
-Online data communication-Hospital information systemwere developed.
1970’s- Nurses recognized the value of computer for their profession.- Improvement of documentation.- Main frame HIS ( Hospital Information System) were designed and developed.
1980’s• Emersion of informatics in the health care industry• Updates on practices standards• Computer based Patient Records System• Hospital Information System (HIS) - Order entry *online result - Kardex *nurse’s notes - Vital Signs *discharge plan
1990’s• Computer technology become integral part of health care.• Nursing informatics was approved as a new nursing specialty.• Introduction of internet.
• Smaller and faster computer were brought to the bedside and all of the point of care setting.• Local Area Network (LAN) were developed.
Post 2000• Development of wireless point of care.• Clinical Information System become individualized in the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) and life longitudinal record-Electronic Health Record (EHR)• Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
• Used of Voice-over Internet Protocol (VoLT)• Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 was enacted.• Critical care units are monitored remotely by health care providers.
Electronic Health Record Form A Historical Perspective
• Computer Based Patient Record Institute (CPRI)• Non profit organization founded in 1992 on clinical applications of information technology.
• Initiate, facilitate, promote the routine used of computer-based patient record• Develop criteria for implementation of computerized record.
Nursing Practice• Has evolved and changed radically.• It has become an integral part of the HER.• Computer system with nursing and patient care data, nursing care plans are no longer separate subsystems of the computerized HISs, but rather integrated into one interdisciplinary patient health record in the EHR.
Nursing Administration• Most policy and procedure manuals are accessed and retrieve by computer.• Internet is being used by nurses to access digital libraries, online resources, and research protocols at the bedside.
Nursing Education• Nursing schools offer computer enhanced courses, online courses, and/or distance education.• Campus-wide computer systems are available• Web and E-mail are used to enhance teachings.
Nursing Research• Used for analysing nursing data• Software programs are made available for processing both quantitative and qualitative research data.• Databases support nursing research for online searching and retrieving information.
Nursing Practice Standards• Focused on both organizing principles of clinical nursing practice and standards of professional performance.• Stressed the need for adequate records on patients in hospitals and practiced standards for the documentation of care.
Nursing Data Standards• Emerged as a new requirement for the EHR.
Health Care Data Standards organization• American National Standards Institute (ANSI)• American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)• SNOMED• National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics (NCVHS).
Early Computer –Based Nursing Applications• Developed before the mid-1970’s as a part of HISs.• Focused on documentation of nursing practice and management of patient care.• Designs for hospitals, ambulatory care settings, and community health agencies.
Landmark Events in Nursing and Computers• Computers were introduced into the nursing profession over 35 years ago.• Major milestone of nursing are interwoven with the advancement of computer and information technologies.