Nursing Informatics


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Nursing Informatics

  1. 1. Historical Perspectives of Nursing and the Computer Submitted by: Onda, Jessica Nadine S. BSN III-1
  2. 2.  A computer generally means a programmable machine.  The computer help transform the nursing profession prior to the new century. It includes the transformation of paper-based records to computer-based records. It is use to manage information in patient’s care, monitor the quality of care and evaluate the outcomes of care. It can be used for communication and enhancing the nursing education and support nursing research.
  3. 3. Prior to 1960’s • 1950’s  Computer industry grew- nursing also made major changes  Computers are used by health care facilities for basic business functions: Punch cards Card readers Sort and prepare data for processing teletypewriters
  4. 4. 1960’s  Use of computers is being QUESTIONED.  Nurses station is viewed as the “hub” of information exchange  Introduction of Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)and online data communication and real time processing  Hospital information systems were developed primarily for BILLING and ACCOUNTING systems.  VENDORS of computer systems and applications in hospitals started
  5. 5. 1970’s  Nurses began to see the value of computers in the profession  DOCUMENTATION of nursing practice  QUALITY of patient care,  REPETITIVE aspects of managing patient care.  Computers are perceived as cost-saving technologies  (Hospital Information System) HIS’s further advanced  Computer-based MIS in public health developed  Statistical purposes
  6. 6. 1980’s  NURSING INFORMATICS emerged  Need of DATA STANDARDS,VOCABULARIES and CLASSIFICATION schemes for computer based patient record systems (CPRS) identified  HIS emerged with nursing subsystems  Order entry (like KARDEX)  Results reporting  Vital signs  Narrative nursing notes  Discharge planning systems
  7. 7. 1980’s  Microcomputer / Personal Computer emerged Has brought computing power to workplace, especially the POINT-of-CARE. Served as stand-alone systems(workstations) User-friendly and allowed nurses to create their own applications
  8. 8. 1990’s  Computer technology became an integral part of health care settings, nursing practice, and the profession.  Nursing Informatics was approved in1992 by ANA as a new nursing specialty  Demand for NI expertise increased greatly  Use of innovative technologies for all levels and types of nursing and patient education demanded
  9. 9. 1990’s  Laptops and Notebooks were utilized at bedside and all point-of-care settings.  Local area networks (LANs) were developed in hospitals.  Wide area networks (WANs) were developed for linking care across healthcare facilities  INTERNET is widely used and helped information and knowledge databases to be integrated into bedside systems.
  10. 10. 1990’s  1995 – internet was brought to the social milieu E-mail File transfer protocol(upload/download) Telnet www protocols (The Web)
  11. 11. 1990’s  The internet was used to exchange data between CPRS, while the Web became the means to communicating online services (browsing the internet)and resources to the nursing community.
  12. 12. Post-2000  Development of wireless Point-of-care systems with focus on OPEN SOURCE solutions  Clinical information systems (CIS)became individualized in the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) and patient specific systems considered for the lifelong longitudinal record or the Electronic Health Record (EHR)  Mobile Technology Advances  Wireless tablet computers  Personal digital assistants (PDAs)  Smart cellular telephones (Smartphones)  Voice over internet protocol (VOIP)  Health smartcards
  13. 13. Post-2000  TELENURSING became popular  Remote monitoring of ICU patient, community patients  LEGISLATION (US-based) made an impact on the practice - The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) – 1. enacted to streamline health care transactions – 2. reduce cost – 3. reimbursements – 4. security, privacy, and confidentiality
  14. 14. FOUR MAJOR NURSING AREAS Nursing practice Nursing administration Nursing education Nursing research 1 2 3 4
  15. 15. Nursing Practice  Has evolved and changed radically.  It has become an integral part of the HER.  Computer system with nursing and patient care data, nursing care plans are no longer separate subsystems of the computerized HISs, but rather integrated into one interdisciplinary patient health record in the EHR.  Emerged with the introduction of several nursing terminologies that were recognized by the ANA.
  16. 16. Nursing Administration  Most policy and procedure manuals are accessed and retrieve by computer.  Has also changed with the introduction of the computers that links nursing department together.  Internet is being used by nurses to access digital libraries, online resources, and research protocols at the bedside.
  17. 17. Nursing Education  Most universities and schools of nursing offer computer in enhancing courses, online courses and or distance education.  Live classroom lectures via digital telephone lines arise.  Campus-wide computer systems are available  Web and E-mail are used to enhance teachings.
  18. 18. Nursing Research  Provides the impetus to used the computer for analyzing nursing data.  Computer technology data bases supporting nursing research emerged.  Software programs are made available for processing both quantitative and qualitative research data.  Databases support nursing research for online searching and retrieving information.
  19. 19. Standards initiatives Nursing practice standards Nursing data standards Health care data standards 1 2 3
  20. 20. Nursing Practice Standards  Developed and recommended by the ANA.  They recommended that nursing process serve as a conceptual framework for the documentation of nursing practice.  Joint commission on accreditation of hospital organizations which stressed the need for adequate records on patients in hospitals practice standards for the documentation of care.  Focused on both organizing principles of clinical nursing practice and standards of professional performance.
  21. 21. Nursing Data Standards  Emerged a 13 nursing terminologies that have been recognized by the ANA.  Critical care classification system.  Nursing information classifications a new requirement for the EHR.
  22. 22. Health Care Data Standards Organizations  It is a critical review the standards organizations that have emerged to either develop or recommend health care data standards that should be recommended to the federal government as required health care data standards.  American National Standards Institute (ANSI)  American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)  SNOMED  National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics (NCVHS).
  23. 23. Early Computer –Based Nursing Applications  Developed before the mid-1970’s as a part of HISs.  Different nursing applications focused on documentation of nursing practice and management of patient care.  Designs for hospitals, ambulatory care settings, and community health agencies.
  24. 24. Landmark Events in Nursing and Computers  Computers were introduced into the nursing profession over 35 years ago.  Major milestones of nursing are interwoven with the advancement of computer and information technologies, the increase need for nursing data, development of nursing applications, and changes making the nursing profession an autonomous discipline.
  25. 25. Landmark Events in Nursing and Computers  The landmark events were described by the following categories: (a)early conferences, meetings (b)early academic initiatives (c)initial ANA initiatives (d)Initial National League for Nursing initiatives (e)early international initiatives (f)initial educational resources (g)significant collaborative events
  26. 26. Thank You !!!