KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx

KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM
Dr.GOPIDI APARANJI
SRI JAYADEVA INSTITUTE OF CARDIOVASCULAR SCIENCES &
RESEARCH, BANGALORE
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
Objective
• Learn the manufacture’s technique to optimize the BEST
POSSIBLE CONTRAST for echo image
CONTENTS
• Echo modes
• Transducer
Types of arrays
• 2D-ECHO
1. Gray scale Maps
2. Frequency
3. Dynamic range
4. Sector size
5. Sector depth
6. Focus
7. Gain
8. Time gain compensation(TGC)
9. Zoom
10. Frame Rate
11. Compression
12. B mode colorisation
13. Harmonic imaging
• DOPPLER
1. Velocity scale
2. Baseline
3. Sweep speed
4. Sample size
5. Doppler angle
6. Wall filters
7. Pulse repetition
frequency(PRF)
8. Doppler Gain
• COLOR DOPPLER
1. Sector size
2. ROI (Region of interest)
3. Color Gain
4. Color Maps
5. Color Aliasing
6. Color Baseline
• M MODE
1. Sweep speed
2. Color M Mode
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
1.Power button
2.Patient data
3.Select the Transducer/Probe
4.Preset
5.Modes/Gain
6.Color compare
7.Time Gain
Compensation(TGC) & LGC
8.Depth/focus/scale
9.Measurements
10.Acquire
11.Freeze
12.Zoom
13.Print keys
14.End Exam
15.Setup
16.Key board
Ge machine keyboard
GE
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
ECHO LANGUAGE
MODES
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
TRANSDUCER
2-12 MHZ
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
PHASED ARRAY TRANSDUCER
• Series of small piezoelectric elements are interconnected
electronically
• Can steer and focus- by manipulating the timing of excitation
of individual eleements
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
Frequency= Penetration= Resolution= Near Field
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
RESOLUTION
•Ability to distinguish two different points clearly
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
2DECHO
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
GRAY SCALE MAPS
• Determines how shades of gray will best be displayed to highlight
specific findings in the image
• Map F
• Map A
Map F Map A
FREQUENCY
• 3-5 MHZ
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
• It is the extent of useful ultrasonic signals that can be processed
• Ratio of the largest to smallest signals measured at the point of input to
display
• Optimal range 70-75dB
Useful when looking for LV thrombus and LV noncompaction
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
THERMAL INDEX
THERMAL INDEX
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
SECTOR SIZE
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
SECTOR DEPTH
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
FOCUS
• Transducer Beam focus
• Resolution is increased at that particular point
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
GAIN
Overall brightness of the image
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
• Optimum is
• Decrease in the near field
• Increase in the far field
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
Tgc video
ZOOM
• Magnification without
change in resolution
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
COMPRESSION
• Compress
• Controls the degree of
image contrast
• Reject
• Controls the echo rejection
level
• When increased low level
echoes are rejected and
appear darker in the 2D
image
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
B MODE COLORISATION
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
DOPPLER
• Color Doppler
• Spectral Doppler-PW &CW
• Power Doppler
• Tissue Doppler
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
• Principle of DOPPLER SHIFT, which
is a change in frequency from sent
to the returning sound wave
• DOPPLER MODE EXAMINES THE
DIRECTION & SPEED OF BLOOD
FLOW & PRESENTS IT IN
AUDIBLE,COLOR OR SPECTRAL
DISPLAYS
• Lower the frequency, higher the
velocity detected
•Primary job of the doppler is to measure doppler shift and from
this velocity can be calculated
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
CW PW
DEPTH RESOLUTION NO YES
SAMPLE VOLUME LARGE SMALL
HIGH VELOCITY DETECTION YES NO
ALIASING NO YES
SENSITIVITY MORE LESS
CONTROL OF SAMPLE
VAOLUME PLACEMENT
POOR GOOD
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
PRF
(PULSE REPETITION FREQUENCY)
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
•Adjust Velocity
.Adjust Baseline
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
VELOCITY SCALE
ADJUSTING VELOCITY SCALE
ADJUSTING BASELINE
SWEEP SPPED
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
SAMPLE VOLUME SIZE
(SAMPLE GATE)
Sample volume gate 20mm sample volume gate 3.5 mm
DOPPLER ANGLE
WALL FILTERS
• HIGH PASS FILTERS
• Allowing only higher frequencies to pass the filter
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
DOPPLER GAIN
COLOR DOPPLER
• A form of pulse waved doppler
SECTOR SIZE
• Should be kept as small as possible
• It will give high frame rates in Color Doppler
COLOR ALIASING
VELOCITY SCALE/PRF
• Change Velocity Scale
• Change Baseline
BASELINE
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
TDI
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx
M MODE
•Sweep speed
•Color M mode-Assists with timing of events
THANK YOU
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KNOBOLOGY FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAM.pptx